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Chapter 17 Study Guide. Matter Matter is classified as substances and mixtures. Matter has mass and takes up space Mixture – composition variable, can.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Study Guide. Matter Matter is classified as substances and mixtures. Matter has mass and takes up space Mixture – composition variable, can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Study Guide

2 Matter Matter is classified as substances and mixtures. Matter has mass and takes up space Mixture – composition variable, can be separated by a physical means Element – composition definite Compound – two or more elements combined

3 Pure Substances Element  matter composed of identical atoms  All atoms are the same  EX: copper

4 Classifying Matter Colloid vs. Solution-pass a beam of light through the mixture  If the beam is invisible- it is a solution  If the beam is visible- it is a colloid The visible beam through the colloid is called the Tyndall effect Suspension- heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles settle out over time – like dirty water and Italian salad dressing

5 Mixtures Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. Homogeneous Mixture (AKA -Solution)  even distribution of components  very small particles  particles never settle  EX: saline solution, fresh pickle juice

6 Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixture  uneven distribution of components  colloids and suspensions  EX: granite

7 Pure Substances Compound  matter composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio  properties differ from those of individual elements  NOT a mixture  EX: salt (NaCl)

8 Mixtures Colloid  medium-sized particles  Tyndall effect - particles scatter light (looks cloudy)  particles never settle  EX: milk, fog

9 Tyndall Effect Because of the Tyndall effect, A light beam is Scattered by the Colloid suspension On the right, but Passes invisibly Through the solution On the left.

10 Physical Properties Physical Property- any characteristic of a material that you can observe or attempt to observe without changing the identity of the substance  For example: color, shape, size, melting point, and boiling point, how it flows.  Metallic aluminum: Silvery color, easily formed, reflects heat. Behavior of substances- magnetism, ductility- ability of metal to be drawn into wires; malleability- ability of metal to be shaped- pounded into sheets; ability to flow

11 Physical Change A change in the form of a substance without changing its identity.  properties remain the same  reversible  can be used to separate mixtures  EX: dissolving, grinding, distillation, mixing sugar and salt

12 Physical Changes Distillation- separating a solution of two liquids through evaporating a liquid and re-condensing its vapor.  Vapors from the liquid with the lowest boiling point form first and are condensed and collected

13 Chemical Property A characteristic that indicates whether a substance can undergo a specific chemical change.  EX: flammability, reactivity, resistance of a diamond to corrosion  Chemical changes can be used to separate substances- done in labs- metals can be removed from ore this way

14 Chemical and Physical Weathering Weathering-  Physical weathering when rocks split as water freezes or as erosion occurs  Chemical weathering when acidic water reacts with limestone and results in a new substance that dissolves in water and washes away.

15 Law of Conservation of Mass Mass cannot be created or destroyed  Burning a log seems to make mass disappear  “missing” mass is actually present in the gases that are produced as the log burns  When the log burns new substances are formed.  EX: Iron and oxygen combining to form rust, the masses will still be equal.


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