Presentation on theme: "ONLINE SELF-STUDY Lead in Construction Standard OSHA 29 CFR 1926.62."— Presentation transcript:
ONLINE SELF-STUDY Lead in Construction Standard OSHA 29 CFR
This training will cover the following topics: Health hazards of lead How employees are exposed to lead How to control lead exposure Respiratory protection Medical monitoring Medical removal OSHA Lead standards Lead in Construction Standard
This standard applies to all construction work where an employee may be occupationally exposed to any amount of lead. Construction work is defined as work for construction, alteration and/or repair. Construction work also includes painting and decorating.
Lead in Construction Standard Construction work that disturbs lead-containing materials includes but is not limited to: Demolition and salvage Removal or encapsulation New construction or renovation Transportation, disposal, storage Maintenance activities
Lead in Construction Standard The goal of the OSHA Lead in Construction Standard is to prevent employee inhalation and ingestion of harmful amounts of lead.
Health Hazards of Lead Lead is hazardous to your health if too much of it gets into your body. Here’s what it can cause: Headaches, tiredness and insomnia Loss of appetite and stomach pain Pain, weakness or twitching in your muscles Reproductive and birth defects Kidney damage Permanent brain and nerve damage
Health Hazards of Lead Effects on Reproduction Lead is also harmful to men and women trying to have children. Lead is especially harmful to the fetus in a pregnant woman.
Health Hazards of Lead Effects of Lead on Children Children are very susceptible to the effects of lead. The amount that can harm them is much less than adults. It is important not to take any lead dust home on your clothing.
How Can Lead Get in Your Body? You can get lead into your body by: Inhaling lead dust or lead spray paint, Inhaling lead fumes from welding or burning lead paint, Swallowing lead dust on your hands while eating, drinking or smoking.
Some Jobs at UNC-CH Where You Could be Exposed to Lead Removing lead-containing paint on old academic buildings or houses, Grinding or sandblasting lead paint on metal structures, Cutting or removing lead pipe in old buildings, Using solder that contains lead.
Lead Paint on Bridges Bridge work frequently results in lead over exposure since most bridges are covered with lead paint.
Health Hazards of Lead Is There a Safe Amount of Lead? There is a level that cannot be legally exceeded. This is called the “permissible exposure limit” or PEL. In the air: no more than 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter (µg/m 3 ). In your blood: no more than 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter (µg/dL). Both of these limits are in the OSHA regulations on lead.
Health Hazards of Lead Lead “Action Level” When the amount of lead in the air is above the “action level” of 30 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m 3 ), employers are required to: - Conduct air monitoring - Provide medical surveillance - Provide training The Action Level is 60% of the permissible exposure limit (PEL)
A microgram (µg) is one millionth of a gram. Imagine dividing a penny into two million pieces. The weight of one piece equals a µg. Grind up 30 pieces and release the dust inside a box approximately 3’ by 3’ by 3’ box. This amount of dust equals the Action Level of 30 µg/m 3. 3 ft Health Hazards of Lead Understanding Units of Measurement
Health Hazards of Lead Understanding Units of Measurement A gram is about one packet of sugar. A microgram (µg) is one millionth of a gram. A cup of coffee is approximately one deciliter (dL). So 40 micrograms in one deciliter of blood is also a very, very small amount – one granule of sugar in the cup of coffee, as an approximate comparison.
Employers must assume over exposure for employees until air monitoring results prove otherwise. Employee exposure is determined by performing personal air monitoring. Employee exposure is determined as if the employee were not using a respirator. Employers must provide basic protective measures for employees during initial air monitoring. Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring
Enivronment Health and Safety (EHS) conducts monitoring of lead in the air by attaching an air sampling device to employees working around lead. Employees have the right to observe this monitoring. Contact EHS ( ) to determine if air monitoring is required prior to performing activities that disturb lead. Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring
EHS conducts inspections prior to air monitoring to determine the lead concentration of the material that will be disturbed. The lead concentration is typically measured in milligrams per square centimeter (mg/cm 2 ) by an instrument that uses XRF (x- ray fluorescence). Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring
Employers may rely on previous air monitoring results performed in the past 12 months if such sampling was conducted during work activities essentially similar to present exposure conditions such as: Type of material (i.e., concrete, drywall, plaster) Lead concentration in material Task (i.e., wet scraping of paint or demolition) Environmental conditions (i.e., indoor or outdoor) Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring
Assume EHS conducted air monitoring on 12/21/2008 during the repainting of Room 100 in Beard Hall. The paint in the room contained 0.8 mg/cm 2 of lead. The Paint Shop removed loose paint on the drywall by wet scraping. The air monitoring results indicated that there was no lead present in the air during the paint removal. Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring Example Beard Hall
Now assume on 07/23/2009 repainting was conducted in Davie Hall, Room 200. The repainting involved wet scraping of painted drywall. The paint in the room contained 0.5 mg/cm 2 of lead. The air monitoring results from Beard Hall can be applied to Davie Hall because the results were collected within the last 12 months and the exposure conditions are similar (i.e., indoor, wet scraping of painted drywall, and lead concentration less than 0.8 mg/cm 2 ). Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring Example 1 Davie Hall
Now assume on 07/23/2009 repainting was conducted in Caldwell Hall, Room 110. The repainting involved wet scraping of painted drywall. The paint in the room contained 1.0 mg/cm 2 of lead. Air monitoring is required for this scenario. The air monitoring results from Beard Hall were collected within the last 12 months and the exposure conditions are similar (i.e., indoor and wet scraping of painted drywall). However, the lead concentration for this project exceeded the 0.8 mg/cm 2 detected in Room 200 of Beard Hall. Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring Example 2
Now assume on 09/23/2009 repainting was conducted on the exterior of the Naval Armory. The repainting involved wet scraping of painted wood. The exterior paint contained 0.5 mg/cm 2 of lead. Air monitoring is required for this scenario. The air monitoring results from Beard Hall were collected within the last 12 months and the lead concentration does not exceed 0.8 mg/cm 2. However, the work activities for this project are different (i.e., outdoor and wet scraping of painted wood). Exposure Assessment Air Monitoring Example 3
If the monitored exposure is less than the Action Level, no further assessment is needed for similar exposure conditions within the next 12 months. If the monitored exposure is between the Action Level and PEL, then monitoring shall be done at least every six months for similar exposure conditions. If the monitored exposure exceeds the PEL, then monitoring shall be done quarterly for similar exposure conditions. Frequency of Exposure Assessments
Within 5 days after EHS receives the monitoring results from laboratory analysis, EHS shall notify each monitored employee in writing of the results which represent that employee’s airborne lead exposure. Exposure Assessment Employee Notification
Employers must provide the following protective measures for employees during air monitoring: Appropriate personal protective equipment Appropriate respiratory protection Change areas with separate storage facilities for work and street clothes. Hand washing facilities Training Exposure Assessment Protection of Employees
What Personal Protective Equipment is Needed? respirator gloves Coveralls work shoes
Types of Respirators for Lead In some jobs involving lead exposure, you may need a respirator. The type of respirator worn depends on the amount of lead in the air. UNC-CH will provide you with the proper respirator and provide medical evaluations, fit-testing, and additional training.
Respirator Requirements The type of respirator that must be used depends on the level of lead in the air: A half-face cartridge respirators provide protection to levels 10 times above the permissible limit for lead. A powered air purifying respirator (PAPR)can provide protection from 25 to 1000 times above the permissible limit depending on the manufacturer and how it is designed.
Respirator Requirements Below are examples of respirators required for various activities: A half-face air purifying respirator: Manual demolition Manual scraping Manual sanding General clean up A full-face air purifying respirator: Lead burning (torch melting of lead) Rivet busting Power tool use without dust collection
Respirator Requirements A supplied air respirator: Abrasive blasting Welding, cutting, or torch burning on metal structures where paint or lead coatings are present
Using Respirators Respirators must be worn at all times during initial monitoring and when the amount of lead in the air is above the PEL. Respirators must fit properly to prevent leaks. Employees must have a respirator medical evaluation and training before wearing a respirator. Of all PPE worn, employees should remove respirators last before leaving the work area.
Respirators Must Fit Properly Employees must have a respirator fit-test before using them. Employees can’t have a beard when wearing a tight- fitting respirator. Employees who are required to wear a respirator must receive training on how to use the respirator.
Work Practices to Reduce Lead Exposure There are several ways you can reduce your lead exposure: Always wear your respirator in the areas where it is required; Don’t eat, drink or smoke in the area where there is lead; and When you take a break, wash your hands before eating, drinking or smoking.
More Work Practices to Reduce Lead Exposure Don’t remove dust by blowing down or shaking out your clothing. Take a shower or wash your hands and face at the end of the shift when required.
What Are Some Other Work Practices? Don’t dry sweep or blow down dust containing lead. Use water when grinding, sanding or cutting objects containing lead. Use a high-efficiency (HEPA) vacuum to clean up lead dust.
Natural or exhaust ventilation with HEPA filtration can reduce lead levels in buildings or confined areas. Other Methods of Controlling Lead Dust or Negative air machine Some grinders and sanders have exhaust ports where ventilation can be attached.
Work Practices for Exterior Paint Removal Cover the ground under the work area with polyethylene sheeting. Attach the edge of polyethylene sheeting to the building. Extend the polyethylene sheeting ten feet beyond the perimeter of the working surfaces or as far as space permits.
Mist the work surfaces and use a putty knife or scraper to remove all loose paint. Maintain good housekeeping duties throughout the work by removing debris and paint chips at frequent intervals, and placing in waste drums. Limit access through the work area by using a caution tape “barricade” to help control traffic. Work Practices for Exterior Paint Removal
All windows and doors within 20 feet of the work area must be closed. If they cannot be closed, seal with protective sheeting during work. If an entrance must be used that is closer than 20 feet, place a shroud above and on the sides of the entrance. Work Practices for Exterior Paint Removal
Move furnishings and equipment away from area of work. Place polyethylene sheeting over fixed-in-place equipment or furnishings. Place polyethylene sheeting on the floor under area of work extending five feet. Mist the work surfaces and use a putty knife or scraper to remove all loose paint. Work Practices for Interior Paint Removal
Maintain good housekeeping duties throughout the work by removing debris and paint chips at frequent intervals, and placing in waste drums. Limit access through the work area by using a caution tape “barricade” to help control traffic. Work Practices for Interior Paint Removal
Perform one of the following actions to avoid tracking dust off of the protective sheeting: Wear non-skid shoe covers and remove them; Wipe both top and bottom of shoes with a damp paper towel; or Remove shoes. Work Practices for Interior Paint Removal
Cleanup After Paint Removal After completing the interior or exterior work, remove polyethylene sheeting contaminated with lead paint chips and place it in a 55-gallon drum provided by EHS. Plastic sheeting should be rolled inward and placed in waste drum. Waste generated during deteriorated lead paint work may be regulated as hazardous waste. Contact EHS Environmental Affairs ( ) for waste determination.
What Medical Monitoring is Needed? Anyone who is exposed to airborne lead dust above the “action level” must be provided blood tests. If the amount of lead in your blood is more than 40 µg/dL, EHS will send you for a medical exam at the University Employee Occupational Health Clinic. Blood tests will be routinely done if you are exposed to lead above the action level for 30 or more days per year.
More About Routine Blood Sampling After the first blood sample is taken, we must take 3 more blood samples for the next 6 months – every two months. After that, we must take blood samples once every 6 months. If the level in your blood exceeds 40 µg/dL, we must continue to take blood samples every two months until it drops below 40 µg/dL. Blood samples are taken at no cost to you and you will be notified of the results.
More About Medical Exams If the amount of lead in your blood exceeds 40 µg/dL, you will be provided with a complete medical exam by a doctor, annually. You can request an exam or review of the findings by a second doctor. Employers do not see the entire medical exam report, only the blood lead level results and whether or not you have a medical condition that precludes you from working around lead or wearing a respirator.
Medical Removal for Lead Exposure If the amount of lead in your blood is above 50 µg/dL, you will be temporarily removed from the lead job. You can’t return to that job until your blood level drops below 40 µg/dL. Your blood must be tested monthly until the lead level drops below 40 µg/dL.
Blood Lead Levels Summary
Medical Removal Why is Medical Removal Required? If high blood lead levels are found, medical removal is required because of the serious health effects of lead. Your body will gradually rid itself of lead over time. You do not lose any earnings or benefits and you can return to former job status when blood lead levels drop.
What is Lead Chelation? “Chelation” is the taking of certain drugs that help rid the body of lead. It is a form of treatment for high lead levels in the body. It is not allowed on a routine basis due to health effects associated with chelation. Only a doctor can authorize and supervise lead chelation.
Medical and Air Monitoring Records Employees are welcome to see any of their medical records related to lead. Employees are encouraged to review the results of air sampling for lead.
For work activities where exposures are determined through air monitoring to exceed the PEL (50 µg/m 3 ), employers shall provide the following protective measures: Appropriate engineering controls (ventilation) Appropriate personal protective equipment Appropriate respiratory protection Change areas with separate storage facilities for work and street clothes Hand washing facilities Methods of Compliance
If provided non-disposable work clothing, use separate work and street clothing. Keep street clothing in a clean place. Use provided uniform service for laundering non-disposable work clothing containing lead dust. Employees must not wear work clothing or boots containing lead dust home. Methods of Compliance
Warning Signs Warning signs are posted at the entrance to any area where the levels of lead exceed the PEL. No one can enter these areas without a respirator and protective clothing. Warning Lead Work Area Poison No Smoking or Eating
Other Concerns not Addressed by OSHA For work conducted within or near occupied buildings, employees shall protect occupants by the following methods: Construct barriers separating the work area from occupied areas; Seal shared air intakes and exhaust vents; and Implement dust control methods.
Other Concerns not Addressed by OSHA Employees must comply with Hazardous and Universal Waste Issues during projects that produce lead-containing waste. Collect all paint chips as hazardous waste. Contact EHS Environmental Affairs ( ) for storage containers. Contact EHS Environmental Affairs ( ) for hazardous waste determination for whole component debris prior to work activities. Allow two weeks for laboratory analysis.
Summary Supervisors and employees involved in activities that disturb lead-containing materials must comply with OSHA ! Notify EHS prior to beginning activity in order for EHS to conduct a lead inspection and to determine if air monitoring is required. Use the appropriate PPE and dust control methods during activities. Protect building occupants when working within or near occupied buildings.
EHS would like to acknowledge the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries for providing portions of the training content.