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A Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Approach Mohamed Iqbal Pallipurath

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1 A Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Approach Mohamed Iqbal Pallipurath
Plant Layout A Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Approach Mohamed Iqbal Pallipurath

2 THE NEED FOR GOOD FACILITIES PLANNING
1. Plant facilities influence operating costs and profits. 2. Planning allows facilities and its operations (OSHA, ISO 14001, etc.) to comply with laws and/or regulations. 3. Facilities are fixed investments involving high capital-cost expenditures. 4. Facilities are inflexible and long term commitments. 5. The planning, design and construction of facilities require long lead times. 6. Good planning helps to avoid disruptions in production and shipping or delivery.

3 THE NEED FOR GOOD FACILITIES PLANNING
7. The quality of facilities influences the attitudes of and the ability to attract suitable employees. 8. Industrial facilities must be planned to meet anticipated future requirements yet compete profitably today. 9. Facilities need to be planned for an appropriate degree of flexibility, expandability, versatility… 10. Good plans help management to take advantage of business opportunities that arise. 11. Good planning is an aid to obtain approval and financing monies. 12. Good planning reduces the high materials handling $ resulting from “ad hoc” expansion of plant facilities.

4 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FACILITIES PLANNING
Resources invested to provide the facilities Consequence on operations of facilities Economic Investment/Consequence ($) Plan 20:1 Design 2:1 Build & Install 1:10 Time

5 DEFINING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
1. 2. 3.

6 DEFINING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
4. 5. 6.

7 TYPES OF MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS
I. Product Line Layout Product A B C

8 CHARACTERISTICS High volume production
Special purpose machines and material handling equipment Throughput rates--high Work-in-process--low Setup/Run time ratio--low System is very inflexible Control is relatively simple

9 TYPES OF MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS
II. Flow Line Workcell T T T T = turning D = drilling M = milling CG = center grinding SG = surface grinding M M T M D D M D SG CG CG D SG GOAL: GAIN the advantages and efficiency of high volume production in a LOW/MEDIUM VOLUME (FLEXIBLE) ENVIRONMENT.

10 GT-FLOW LINE WORKCELL CHARACTERISTICS
Workstation m Workstation 1 Workstation 1 Buffer m Buffer 1 Buffer 2

11 GT-FLOW LINE WORKCELL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Processes GT-based families of parts with frequent job change-over and small to medium batch sizes 2. Piece by piece (continuous flow) processing/movement 3. No backtracking in sequence flow, but machine skipping does occur 4. Accommodates flexible-type automation: CNC machines, robots for part handling 5. Finite buffers (resulting in machine blocking and starvation

12 TYPES OF MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS
III. Cellular Manufacturing (GT Workcell)

13 CHARACTERISTICS 1. Dissimilar processes/machines
2. Similar parts (families) run in small to medium batch sizes 3. Mini - job shops

14 Process(Functional) Layout
Sawing Turning S S S T T T “Shaft” Milling S S S T T T M T T T Grinding M G G G M Heat Treating G G G HT HT Boring Gear Cut HT B B GC GC B B GC GC

15 Characteristics of Process Layouts
Low Volume, High Variety Production with Random Routing (Spaghetti-Like Flow) General Purpose Machines-- Machine setups are frequent and long Work-In-Process -- High Throughput Rates tend to be Low Material Handling -- High Operator Utilization -- Low? Throughput Times (Lead Time) -- High System is Very Flexible, produces many different types of parts: gears, shafts, pinions, housings, clamps, etc.

16 THE P-Q CURVE (Q) Volume or Quantity (P) Variety (High) Product A
Product B Product C Q Etc. P (Q) Volume or Quantity (Low) (Low) (High) (P) Variety

17 Part Volume Part Variety
(High) Product Line G.T. Flowline Workcell Part Volume G.T. Manufacturing Workcell Functional (Job-Shop) (Low) Part Variety (Low) (High) Part Volume/Variety Relationships with Manufacturing Systems Configurations

18 MATERIAL FLOW Importance of Material Flow
Properly Planned Material Flow Effective Arrangement of Facilities Efficient Operations Profitability/Viability

19 Efficient Operations Involve:
1. Good utilization of floor space 2. Reduced materials handling 3. Appropriate equipment utilization 4. Safety 5. Less congestion 6. Less wasted time/efforts 7. Flexibility

20 MATERIAL FLOW KEY QUESTIONS
1. What is the most effective sequence of moving materials? Eliminate? Combine? Improve? Change Order? 2. What is the intensity and direction? Need to visualize the flow

21 FLOW OF MATERIAL vs P-Q MIX
LAYOUT TYPE I Product Line II Flow Line Workcell III G.T. Workcell IV Functional I II III IV

22 TYPE I Casting Sheet Steel
4 Tons 10 Tons 0-4 Turn 0-1 Blank 3.3 Tons 9 Tons Turnings 0.7 Tons Offal 1 Ton 0-5 Drill 0-2 Form 9 Tons 3 Tons Turnings 0.3 Tons 0-3 Trim Storage 7 Tons Bolts Scrap 2 Tons 10.5 Tons 0-6 Assemble/ Inspect Operation Process Chart showing intensity of material flow and the out-flow of chips and scrap. (Muther, SLP)

23 Multi-Product Process Chart
TYPE II Operation Part or Product A B C D Saw 1 1 1 Center 2 2 2 1 Turn * 3 3 4 2 Heat Treat 4 3 Grind 5 4 3 Mill 5 5 4 Multi-Product Process Chart *Shows problem flow to be resolved by design engineering and manufacturing engineering

24 Part-Machine Matrix of Production Flow Analysis
TYPE III Parts Machines 5 8 7 12 13 1 10 2 11 14 3 15 4 9 6 4 1 6 Exceptions 8 3 9 2 14 12 5 7 13 11 10 Part-Machine Matrix of Production Flow Analysis

25 TYPE IV FROM-TO CHART TO FROM Turn Hob Slot Broach Heat Treat Drill
Inspect Wash Mill Store FROM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TOTALS Turn 1 3 3 6 1 5 1 = - - - 26 160 232 2 631 684 Hob 2 7 5 1 - = - - - - - 262 576 10 Slot 3 - - = - - - - - - - Broach 4 1 - - - - - - - - 20 Heat Treat 5 1 7 5 1 - - - - - - 2 414 22 12 Drill 6 9 - - - - = - - - - 752 Inspect 7 1 5 3 - - - - = - - 8 576 910 Wash 8 1 3 - - - - - - - = - 12 12 Mill 9 - - - - - - - - = - Store 10 - - - - - - - - - = TOTALS FROM-TO CHART Number of Parts x y Number of Pieces

26 FLOW - OF - MATERIAL INTENSITY
RANK THE FLOWS A KEY A: E: I: O: U: Absolutely Necessary Especially Important Important Ordinary Unimportant E I FLOW - OF - MATERIAL INTENSITY O U Activity Pair (Route) 8-13 1-3 3-4 8-15 3-12 11-15 10-13 3-7 7-15 1-14 4-12 4-9 4-15 1-7 2-3 11-15 3-5 1-4 1-12 2-8 11-9 Seq. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

27 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS
Flow based on routings is not the sole basis for layout arrangements. Adapted from Muther

28 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS
Other Factors Supporting Services Tool Room (not routed) Rest Areas Central Coolant Tanks Shop Superintendent’s Office Adapted from Muther

29 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS
Other Factors Separation of Areas Welding away from assembly Outside Doors / Separate / N/C Dirty Dangerous Delicate High Pop Separate Adapted from Muther

30 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS
In some cases, flow is simply not important No Significant Flow Service, Repair, Tool Room Jewelry (one load per week) Adapted from Muther

31 RELATIONSHIP CHART 1 1 Punch Press 2 I 3 2 Auxiliary Punch Press 1 U 4
D U 5 3 Drilling 2 U U 6 I U U 7 4 Grinding 2 I U U 8 U 2 U U A 9 5 General Fabrication E U I 2 E 10 U 2 U O 2 O 2 I 11 6 Wet Tumble U I 2 O 2 U 2 O 12 U I 2 O 2 O U 3 I 13 7 Special Production I 2 O 2 A 2 O O 4 14 E 2 U 2 U 2 O 3 O 4 15 8 Raw Material Storage 2 I U I 3 O 4 U 2 E E 3 U 4 9 In-Process Storage U 2 O 5 X This block shows relation between “1” and “3” U U 3 I 6 10 Assembly U U 4 O U 1 11 Shop Toilet 3 U O 2 12 Shop Office and Tool Room 4 3 13 14 Importance of Relationship (top) 15 Reasons in Code (bottom) Adapted from Muther

32 RELATIONSHIP CHART Codes
CLOSENESS Value A E I O U X Absolutely Necessary Especially Important Important Ordinary Closeness OK Unimportant Undesirable 4 3 2 1 -1 “Closeness” Rating Adapted from Muther

33 Reasons behind the “Closeness” Value
RELATIONSHIP CHART Value REASON 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Equip. used by same persons Movement of material Movement of personnel Supervision and/or support Require same utilities Noise and dirt Reasons behind the “Closeness” Value Adapted from Muther

34 RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMS
Conventions for diagramming activity relationships Vowel Letter No. Value No. of Lines Closeness Rating Color Code A 4 Absolutely Necessary Red** E 3 Especially Important Orange Yellow** I 2 Important Green** O 1 Ordinary Blue** U Unimportant Uncolored** X -1 Not Desirable Brown** XX -2, -3, -4, ? Extremely Undesirable Black

35 Figure 1: Relationship Chart
PROCEDURE/EXERCISE Dept. No. Sq. Feet Dept. Desc. 1 5,000 Parts Storage E 2 10,000 Ship/Receiving U O U 3 2,500 Welding U I X I E 4 2,500 Testing I I U U X U 5 7,500 Machining A X O I 6 5,000 Assembly U A 7 2,500 Paint Figure 1: Relationship Chart

36 Figure 2: From-To Chart (in Loads per Weeks)
PROCEDURE/EXERCISE TO FROM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 170 2 50 170 40 3 80 50 20 4 20 120 5 50 20 6 120 7 120 Figure 2: From-To Chart (in Loads per Weeks)

37 1 Determine Total Flow TO FROM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 50 170 2 170 90 120 3
80 50 20 4 140 120 5 20 6 7

38 2 Rank the Flows Total Flow 1-6 2-3 4-6 2-7 4-7 2-5 3-5 1-2 3-6 3-7
200 180 160 140 Total Flow 120 100 80 60 40 20 1-6 2-3 4-6 2-7 4-7 2-5 3-5 1-2 3-6 3-7 5-7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

39 Combine Flow & Non-Flow Relationships
3 Combine Flow & Non-Flow Relationships Activity Pairs Non Flow: Flow 1 to 1 Ratio Combined Total Points

40 Rank the Combined Points
4 Rank the Combined Points 10 9 8 7 Total Points 6 5 4 3 2 1 1-6 4-6 2-3 4-7 1-2 2-5 6-7 2-7 1-5 2-6 3-5 5-6 3-6 3-4 3-7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Activity Pairs

41 Develop Combined Relationship Chart (Flow and Non-Flow)
5 Develop Combined Relationship Chart (Flow and Non-Flow) 1 5,000 Parts Storage I 2 10,000 Ship/Receiving E 3 2,500 Welding O XX I A 4 2,500 Testing O O X I 5 7,500 Machining A XX E 6 5,000 Assembly I 7 2,500 Paint

42 6 Develop Relationship Diagram i Place “A” Relationship Values on Grid ii Add the “E” Relationship Values and Adjust Diagram to Minimize Distance X Flow Value iii Place “A” Relationship Values on Grid

43 6. Relationship Diagram + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
4 + 6 + 1 + + + 7 + 2 + 3 + + + + 5 + + A E I O U X XX

44 7. Measures of Effectiveness
Min Z = S S L D ij ij i j L = Load between departments i & j, often measured by the value of the Vowel Letter. A = 4, E = 3, I = 2, O = 1, U = 0, X = -1 ij D = Distance between departments i & j (move only at Right angles) ij *Many Variations of this Concept 8. Space Relationship Diagrams 9. Layouts

45 7. Diagram Score: Department Pair
Lij Dij Zij 21

46 Number of pieces/part#
Types of Layouts Product (Q) Number of pieces/part# CM Job-Shop (process) Number of Part Numbers (P)

47 PRODUCT LAYOUT Product Layout: Continuous Flow Production System
Definition: Layout is dictated by the product. (P) Suited to manufacturing processes with single output Equipment arrangement  operation sequence High production (volume) items and stable demand, similar products:

48 PRODUCT LAYOUT Materials move by units in a product line, not by lots.
*? UNIT 1. 2. 3. demand Operations performed at various workstations *The Output is determined by the slowest operation TASK is to BALANCE the workstations in terms of the work done (time) and satisfy the required output. * \

49 PRODUCT LAYOUT Two Types of Problems: Required Information:
Fabrication Lines Assembly Lines (R) Sequence of operations or job elements Time required for each operation or independent element Output required (T) (Q)

50 EXAMPLE Design a fabrication line to manufacturing a product with the following 7 operations. Initially assume: No scrap losses 100% eff. & 480 min/day 1000 units required per day

51 EXAMPLE Specifically determine
A) The number of machines required at each workstation, and B) The % of idle time for the following operations: Opn # Operation 1 Saw 2 Center 3 Turn (RGH) 4 Heat Treat 5 Fin Turn 6 Grind 7 Mill

52 OUTPUT REQ’D: 1000 UNITS/DAY
13.2% Idle = 11520

53 OUTPUT REQ’D: 1200 UNITS/DAY
Idle = 3.8% 12480

54 OUTPUT REQ’D: 800 UNITS/DAY
640 Idle = 7.4% 8640

55 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS:

56 INVENTORIES Now how does one handle the idle time which occurs?
*i.e., complete balance not possible. Ans. Work in-process inventories are used to “decouple” operations. Slack for machine breakdowns Stat 1 Inven Stat 2 Inven Stat 3

57 SYSTEM UTILIZATION LEVELS

58 How to Handle Scrap Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 ? 150 pcs/hr
What inputs are required at each station? How many machines are required at each station?

59 TERMS Outputn Inputn = (1.00-Scrapn) Std. Time Efficiency = X 100%
Actual Time

60 Station #3 Input 150 150 Input = = 156.25 = 157 (1-.04)
Std Time = 1.1 min/pc. 54.5 pcs/std. hr. x 1.00 Eff. pc/hr./machine 2.91 157/54 3 machines

61 Station #2 2 157 Input = = Std Time = .5 min/pc. 120 pcs/std. hr.
x 1.05 Eff. 126 pcs/hr./machine 162/126 = 1.28 2

62 Station #1 Input = = Std Time = .3 min/pc. 200 pcs/std. hr. x .90 Eff.
180 pcs/hr./machine 171/180 = .95 1

63 Idle = ( )/360 = 0.143 Utilization = = 0.857

64 Final Layout 3 2 1 162 157 171 150

65 Class Problem A circuit line consists of four processes:
A: chip production, B: assembly, C: test, and D: package. Three chips go into every assembly. The production and scrap rates are as follows: What is the output rate of this line?


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