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1 Plant Layout A Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Approach Mohamed Iqbal Pallipurath.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Plant Layout A Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Approach Mohamed Iqbal Pallipurath."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 Plant Layout A Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Approach Mohamed Iqbal Pallipurath

3 2 THE NEED FOR GOOD FACILITIES PLANNING 1.Plant facilities influence operating costs and profits. 2.Planning allows facilities and its operations (OSHA, ISO 14001, etc.) to comply with laws and/or regulations. 3.Facilities are fixed investments involving high capital-cost expenditures. 4.Facilities are inflexible and long term commitments. 5.The planning, design and construction of facilities require long lead times. 6.Good planning helps to avoid disruptions in production and shipping or delivery.

4 3 THE NEED FOR GOOD FACILITIES PLANNING 7.The quality of facilities influences the attitudes of and the ability to attract suitable employees. 8.Industrial facilities must be planned to meet anticipated future requirements yet compete profitably today. 9.Facilities need to be planned for an appropriate degree of flexibility, expandability, versatility… 10.Good plans help management to take advantage of business opportunities that arise. 11.Good planning is an aid to obtain approval and financing monies. 12.Good planning reduces the high materials handling $ resulting from “ad hoc” expansion of plant facilities.

5 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FACILITIES PLANNING Time Economic Investment/Consequence ($) Plan 20:1 Design 2:1 Build & Install 1:10 Resources invested to provide the facilities Consequence on operations of facilities




9 8 CHARACTERISTICS n High volume production n Special purpose machines and material handling equipment n Throughput rates--high n Work-in-process--low n Setup/Run time ratio--low n System is very inflexible n Control is relatively simple

10 TYPES OF MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS GOAL:GAIN the advantages and efficiency of high volume production in a LOW/MEDIUM VOLUME (FLEXIBLE) ENVIRONMENT. II. Flow Line Workcell TTT MMTM DDMD SGCG D SG     T = turning D = drilling M = milling CG = center grinding SG = surface grinding

11 10 GT-FLOW LINE WORKCELL CHARACTERISTICS Buffer 1 Buffer 2 Buffer m Workstation 1 Workstation m

12 11 GT-FLOW LINE WORKCELL CHARACTERISTICS 1.Processes GT-based families of parts with frequent job change-over and small to medium batch sizes 2.Piece by piece (continuous flow) processing/movement 3.No backtracking in sequence flow, but machine skipping does occur 4.Accommodates flexible-type automation: CNC machines, robots for part handling 5.Finite buffers (resulting in machine blocking and starvation


14 13 CHARACTERISTICS 1.Dissimilar processes/machines 2.Similar parts (families) run in small to medium batch sizes 3.Mini - job shops

15 Process(Functional) Layout SSS SSS TTT TTT TTT GGG GGG M M M BB BB GC HT HTHT SawingTurning Heat Treating Grinding Milling Boring Gear Cut “Shaft”

16 15 Characteristics of Process Layouts n Low Volume, High Variety Production with Random Routing (Spaghetti-Like Flow) n General Purpose Machines-- n Machine setups are frequent and long n Work-In-Process -- High n Throughput Rates tend to be Low n Material Handling -- High n Operator Utilization -- Low? n Throughput Times (Lead Time) -- High n System is Very Flexible, produces many different types of parts: gears, shafts, pinions, housings, clamps, etc.

17 THE P-Q CURVE P Q Product A Product B Product C Etc. (High) (Low) (High) (P) Variety (Q) Volume or Quantity

18 Part Volume/Variety Relationships with Manufacturing Systems Configurations Product Line G.T. Flowline Workcell G.T. Manufacturing Workcell Functional (Job-Shop) Part Variety Part Volume (High) (Low) (High)

19 18 MATERIAL FLOW Importance of Material Flow Properly Planned Material Flow Effective Arrangement of Facilities Efficient Operations Profitability/Viability

20 19 Efficient Operations Involve: 1.Good utilization of floor space 2.Reduced materials handling 3.Appropriate equipment utilization 4.Safety 5.Less congestion 6.Less wasted time/efforts 7.Flexibility

21 20 MATERIAL FLOW KEY QUESTIONS 1.What is the most effective sequence of moving materials? Eliminate? Combine? Improve? Change Order? 2.What is the intensity and direction? Need to visualize the flow

22 21 FLOW OF MATERIAL vs P-Q MIX I II III IV LAYOUT TYPE IProduct Line IIFlow Line Workcell IIIG.T. Workcell IVFunctional

23 TYPE I Operation Process Chart showing intensity of material flow and the out-flow of chips and scrap. (Muther, SLP) CastingSheet Steel Turn Drill Storage 4 Tons10 Tons Turnings 0.7 Tons Turnings 0.3 Tons BoltsScrap 2 Tons Offal 1 Ton 3.3 Tons 3 Tons 9 Tons 7 Tons 10.5 Tons 9 Tons Blank Form Trim Assemble/ Inspect

24 TYPE II 1 OperationPart or Product ABCD Saw Center Turn Heat Treat Grind Mill * Multi-Product Process Chart *Shows problem flow to be resolved by design engineering and manufacturing engineering

25 TYPE III Part-Machine Matrix of Production Flow Analysis Parts Machines Exceptions

26 TYPE IV TOTALS TOTALS FROM-TO CHART TO FROM Turn Hob Slot Broach Heat Treat Drill Inspect Wash Mill Store Turn Hob Slot Broach Heat TreatDrill InspectWash Mill Store x y = = = = = = = = Number of Parts Number of Pieces

27 RANK THE FLOWS KEY A: E: I: O: U: Absolutely Necessary Especially Important Important Ordinary Unimportant FLOW - OF - MATERIAL INTENSITY A E I O U Activity Pair (Route) Seq. No

28 27 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS Flow based on routings is not the sole basis for layout arrangements. Adapted from Muther

29 28 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS Other Factors n Supporting Services n Tool Room (not routed) n Rest Areas n Central Coolant Tanks n Shop Superintendent’s Office Adapted from Muther

30 29 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS Other Factors n Separation of Areas n Welding away from assembly n Outside Doors / Separate / N/C Dirty Dangerous Separate Delicate High Pop Adapted from Muther

31 30 NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS In some cases, flow is simply not important No Significant Flow n Service, Repair, Tool Room n Jewelry (one load per week) Adapted from Muther

32 RELATIONSHIP CHART I 1U U U U U A 2E 2I 2O 3I 4 D 2U U U U I 2O 2U U O 4 I 2I 2U U O 2O 2O 2O 3O 4 U E 2U I 2O 2A 2O 3O 4 U U I 2O 2U I 3U U I 2U U E 5X 6 E 2I 2E 2O 3I 4 U U U U U U UO 3U O 4 Adapted from Muther Punch Press Auxiliary Punch Press Drilling Grinding General Fabrication Wet Tumble Special Production Raw Material Storage In-Process Storage Assembly Shop Toilet Shop Office and Tool Room This block shows relation between “1” and “3” Importance of Relationship (top) Reasons in Code (bottom)

33 32 RELATIONSHIP CHART Codes Adapted from Muther Code AEIOUXAEIOUX CLOSENESS Absolutely Necessary Especially Important Important Ordinary Closeness OK Unimportant Undesirable “Closeness” Rating Value

34 RELATIONSHIP CHART Adapted from Muther Value Equip. used by same persons Movement of material Movement of personnel Supervision and/or support Require same utilities Noise and dirt REASON Reasons behind the “Closeness” Value

35 RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMS Vowel Letter A No. Value 4 No. of LinesCloseness Rating Absolutely Necessary Color Code Red** E I O U X XX , -3, -4, ? Especially Important Important Ordinary Unimportant Not Desirable Extremely Undesirable Orange Yellow** Green** Blue** Uncolored** Brown** Black Conventions for diagramming activity relationships

36 35 PROCEDURE/EXERCISE E U U I E U O U I I U X I X X U A IO U A Parts Storage Ship/Receiving Welding Testing Machining Assembly Paint Figure 1: Relationship Chart 5,000 10,000 2,500 7,500 5,000 2, Dept. Desc.Sq. FeetDept. No.

37 36 PROCEDURE/EXERCISE Figure 2: From-To Chart (in Loads per Weeks) 1 1 TO FROM

38 37 Determine Total Flow 1 1 TO FROM

39 38 Rank the Flows Total Flow

40 39 Combine Flow & Non-Flow Relationships3 Activity Pairs Combined Total Points Non Flow: Flow 1 to 1 Ratio

41 40 Rank the Combined Points Total Points Activity Pairs

42 41 Develop Combined Relationship Chart (Flow and Non-Flow) 5 I O A E I O I XX O X A E I Parts Storage Ship/Receiving Welding Testing Machining Assembly Paint 5,000 10,000 2,500 7,500 5,000 2,

43 42 Develop Relationship Diagram6 Place “A” Relationship Values on Grid Add the “E” Relationship Values and Adjust Diagram to Minimize Distance X Flow Value Place “A” Relationship Values on Grid i ii iii

44 6. Relationship Diagram A E I O U X XX

45 7. Measures of Effectiveness Min Z = LD ijij ji L ij = Load between departments i & j, often measured by the value of the Vowel Letter. A = 4, E = 3, I = 2, O = 1, U = 0, X = -1 D ij = Distance between departments i & j (move only at Right angles) *Many Variations of this Concept 8. Space Relationship Diagrams 9.Layouts

46 45 Department Pair Lij Dij Zij Diagram Score: 21

47 46 Types of Layouts Product CM Job-Shop (process) Number of Part Numbers (P) (Q) Number of pieces/part#

48 47 PRODUCT LAYOUT Product Layout: Continuous Flow Production System Definition: Layout is dictated by the product. (P) Suited to manufacturing processes with single output Equipment arrangement  operation sequence High production (volume) items and stable demand, similar products:

49 48 PRODUCT LAYOUT n Materials move by units in a product line, not by lots. UNIT *? demand Operations performed at various workstations * The Output is determined by the slowest operation TASK is to BALANCE the workstations in terms of the work done (time) and satisfy the required output. * * 

50 49 PRODUCT LAYOUT Two Types of Problems: Required Information: Fabrication Lines Assembly Lines Sequence of operations or job elements Time required for each operation or independent element Output required (R) (T) (Q)

51 50 EXAMPLE Design a fabrication line to manufacturing a product with the following 7 operations. Initially assume: No scrap losses 100% eff. & 480 min/day 1000 units required per day

52 51 EXAMPLE Specifically determine A)The number of machines required at each workstation, and B)The % of idle time for the following operations: Opn # Operation Saw Center Turn (RGH) Heat Treat Fin Turn Grind Mill

53 52 OUTPUT REQ’D: 1000 UNITS/DAY Idle = %

54 53 OUTPUT REQ’D: 1200 UNITS/DAY Idle = %

55 54 OUTPUT REQ’D: 800 UNITS/DAY Idle = %


57 56 INVENTORIES Now how does one handle the idle time which occurs? *i.e., complete balance not possible. Ans.Work in-process inventories are used to “decouple” operations. Slack for machine breakdowns InvenStat 1 InvenStat 2 Stat 3


59 58 How to Handle Scrap n What inputs are required at each station? n How many machines are required at each station? Station 1Station 2Station 3 ? 150 pcs/hr

60 59 TERMS Input n = Output n (1.00-Scrap n ) Efficiency = Std. Time Actual Time X 100%

61 60 Station #3 150Input Std Time = 1.1 min/pc.54.5 pcs/std. hr. Input = 150 (1-.04) = = 157 x 1.00 Eff pc/hr./machine /543 machines

62 61 Station #2 157 Std Time =.5 min/pc.120 pcs/std. hr. Input == x 1.05 Eff. 126 pcs/hr./machine 162/126 =

63 62 Station #1 Std Time =.3 min/pc.200 pcs/std. hr. Input == 171/180 =.951 x.90 Eff. 180 pcs/hr./machine

64 63 Idle = ( )/360 = Utilization = = 0.857

65 64 Final Layout

66 65 Class Problem A circuit line consists of four processes: A: chip production, B: assembly, C: test, and D: package. Three chips go into every assembly. The production and scrap rates are as follows: What is the output rate of this line?

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