2THE NEED FOR GOOD FACILITIES PLANNING 1. Plant facilities influence operating costs and profits.2. Planning allows facilities and its operations (OSHA, ISO 14001, etc.) to comply with laws and/or regulations.3. Facilities are fixed investments involving high capital-cost expenditures.4. Facilities are inflexible and long term commitments.5. The planning, design and construction of facilities require long lead times.6. Good planning helps to avoid disruptions in production and shipping or delivery.
3THE NEED FOR GOOD FACILITIES PLANNING 7. The quality of facilities influences the attitudes of and the ability to attract suitable employees.8. Industrial facilities must be planned to meet anticipated future requirements yet compete profitably today.9. Facilities need to be planned for an appropriate degree of flexibility, expandability, versatility…10. Good plans help management to take advantage of business opportunities that arise.11. Good planning is an aid to obtain approval and financing monies.12. Good planning reduces the high materials handling $ resulting from “ad hoc” expansion of plant facilities.
4ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FACILITIES PLANNING Resources invested to provide the facilitiesConsequence on operations of facilitiesEconomic Investment/Consequence ($)Plan 20:1Design 2:1Build & Install 1:10Time
7TYPES OF MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS I. Product Line LayoutProductABC
8CHARACTERISTICS High volume production Special purpose machines and material handling equipmentThroughput rates--highWork-in-process--lowSetup/Run time ratio--lowSystem is very inflexibleControl is relatively simple
9TYPES OF MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS II. Flow Line WorkcellTTTT = turning D = drilling M = milling CG = center grinding SG = surface grindingMMTMDDMDSGCGCGDSGGOAL:GAIN the advantages and efficiency of high volume production in a LOW/MEDIUM VOLUME (FLEXIBLE) ENVIRONMENT.
11GT-FLOW LINE WORKCELL CHARACTERISTICS 1. Processes GT-based families of parts with frequent job change-over and small to medium batch sizes2. Piece by piece (continuous flow) processing/movement3. No backtracking in sequence flow, but machine skipping does occur4. Accommodates flexible-type automation: CNC machines, robots for part handling5. Finite buffers (resulting in machine blocking and starvation
12TYPES OF MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS III. Cellular Manufacturing (GT Workcell)
13CHARACTERISTICS 1. Dissimilar processes/machines 2. Similar parts (families) run in small to medium batch sizes3. Mini - job shops
15Characteristics of Process Layouts Low Volume, High Variety Production with Random Routing (Spaghetti-Like Flow)General Purpose Machines--Machine setups are frequent and longWork-In-Process -- HighThroughput Rates tend to be LowMaterial Handling -- HighOperator Utilization -- Low?Throughput Times (Lead Time) -- HighSystem is Very Flexible, produces many different types of parts: gears, shafts, pinions, housings, clamps, etc.
16THE P-Q CURVE (Q) Volume or Quantity (P) Variety (High) Product A Product BProduct CQEtc.P(Q) Volume or Quantity(Low)(Low)(High)(P) Variety
17Part Volume Part Variety (High)Product LineG.T. Flowline WorkcellPart VolumeG.T. Manufacturing WorkcellFunctional (Job-Shop)(Low)Part Variety(Low)(High)Part Volume/Variety Relationships with Manufacturing Systems Configurations
18MATERIAL FLOW Importance of Material Flow Properly Planned Material FlowEffective Arrangement of FacilitiesEfficient OperationsProfitability/Viability
19Efficient Operations Involve: 1. Good utilization of floor space2. Reduced materials handling3. Appropriate equipment utilization4. Safety5. Less congestion6. Less wasted time/efforts7. Flexibility
20MATERIAL FLOW KEY QUESTIONS 1. What is the most effective sequence of moving materials? Eliminate? Combine? Improve? Change Order?2. What is the intensity and direction? Need to visualize the flow
21FLOW OF MATERIAL vs P-Q MIX LAYOUT TYPEI Product Line II Flow Line Workcell III G.T. Workcell IV FunctionalIIIIIIIV
22TYPE I Casting Sheet Steel 4 Tons10 Tons0-4Turn0-1Blank3.3 Tons9 TonsTurnings 0.7 TonsOffal 1 Ton0-5Drill0-2Form9 Tons3 TonsTurnings 0.3 Tons0-3TrimStorage7 TonsBoltsScrap 2 Tons10.5 Tons0-6Assemble/ InspectOperation Process Chart showing intensity of material flow and the out-flow of chips and scrap. (Muther, SLP)
23Multi-Product Process Chart TYPE IIOperationPart or Product ABCDSaw111Center2221Turn*3342Heat Treat43Grind543Mill554Multi-Product Process Chart*Shows problem flow to be resolved by design engineering and manufacturing engineering
24Part-Machine Matrix of Production Flow Analysis TYPE IIIPartsMachines587121311021114315496416Exceptions8392141257131110Part-Machine Matrix of Production Flow Analysis
25TYPE IV FROM-TO CHART TO FROM Turn Hob Slot Broach Heat Treat Drill InspectWashMillStoreFROM12345678910TOTALSTurn1336151=---261602322631684Hob2751-=-----26257610Slot3--=-------Broach41--------20Heat Treat51751------24142212Drill69----=----752Inspect7153----=--8576910Wash813-------=-1212Mill9--------=-Store10---------=TOTALSFROM-TO CHARTNumber of PartsxyNumber of Pieces
26FLOW - OF - MATERIAL INTENSITY RANK THE FLOWSAKEYA: E: I: O: U:Absolutely Necessary Especially Important Important Ordinary UnimportantEIFLOW - OF - MATERIAL INTENSITYOUActivity Pair (Route)8-131-33-48-153-1211-1510-133-77-151-144-124-94-151-72-311-153-51-41-122-811-9Seq. No.123456789101112131415161718192021
27NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS Flow based on routings is not the sole basis for layout arrangements.Adapted from Muther
28NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS Other FactorsSupporting ServicesTool Room (not routed)Rest AreasCentral Coolant TanksShop Superintendent’s OfficeAdapted from Muther
29NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS Other FactorsSeparation of AreasWelding away from assemblyOutside Doors / Separate / N/CDirty DangerousDelicate High PopSeparateAdapted from Muther
30NON-FLOW (CLOSENESS) RELATIONSHIPS In some cases, flow is simply not importantNo Significant FlowService, Repair, Tool RoomJewelry (one load per week)Adapted from Muther
31RELATIONSHIP CHART 1 1 Punch Press 2 I 3 2 Auxiliary Punch Press 1 U 4 DU53Drilling2UU6IUU74Grinding2IUU8U2UUA95General FabricationEUI2E10U2UO2O2I116Wet TumbleUI2O2U2O12UI2O2OU3I137Special ProductionI2O2A2OO414E2U2U2O3O4158Raw Material Storage2IUI3O4U2EE3U49In-Process StorageU2O5XThis block shows relation between “1” and “3”UU3I610AssemblyUU4OU111Shop Toilet3UO212Shop Office and Tool Room431314Importance of Relationship (top)15Reasons in Code (bottom)Adapted from Muther
33Reasons behind the “Closeness” Value RELATIONSHIP CHARTValueREASON123456789Equip. used by same personsMovement of materialMovement of personnelSupervision and/or supportRequire same utilitiesNoise and dirtReasons behind the “Closeness” ValueAdapted from Muther
447. Measures of Effectiveness Min Z =SSLDijijijL= Load between departments i & j, often measured by the value of the Vowel Letter. A = 4, E = 3, I = 2, O = 1, U = 0, X = -1ijD= Distance between departments i & j (move only at Right angles)ij*Many Variations of this Concept8. Space Relationship Diagrams 9. Layouts
46Number of pieces/part# Types of LayoutsProduct(Q)Number of pieces/part#CMJob-Shop (process)Number of Part Numbers(P)
47PRODUCT LAYOUT Product Layout: Continuous Flow Production System Definition: Layout is dictated by the product. (P)Suited to manufacturing processes with single outputEquipment arrangement operation sequenceHigh production (volume) items and stable demand, similar products:
48PRODUCT LAYOUT Materials move by units in a product line, not by lots. *?UNIT1.2.3.demandOperations performed at various workstations*The Output is determined by the slowest operationTASK is to BALANCE the workstations in terms of the work done (time) and satisfy the required output.* \
49PRODUCT LAYOUT Two Types of Problems: Required Information: Fabrication LinesAssembly Lines(R)Sequence of operations or job elementsTime required for each operation or independent elementOutput required(T)(Q)
50EXAMPLEDesign a fabrication line to manufacturing a product with the following 7 operations. Initially assume:No scrap losses100% eff. & 480 min/day1000 units required per day
51EXAMPLE Specifically determine A) The number of machines required at each workstation, andB) The % of idle time for the following operations:Opn #Operation1Saw2Center3Turn (RGH)4Heat Treat5Fin Turn6Grind7Mill
56INVENTORIES Now how does one handle the idle time which occurs? *i.e., complete balance not possible.Ans. Work in-process inventories are used to “decouple” operations.Slack for machine breakdownsStat 1InvenStat 2InvenStat 3
65Class Problem A circuit line consists of four processes: A: chip production,B: assembly,C: test, andD: package.Three chips go into every assembly.The production and scrap rates are as follows:What is the output rate of this line?