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Anita Subramaniam Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking Anita Subramaniam, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Anita Subramaniam Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking Anita Subramaniam, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anita Subramaniam Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking Anita Subramaniam, Ph.D.

2 Anita Subramaniam Tradition, Tradition, Tradition! "India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition." -Mark Twain "India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition." -Mark Twain

3 Anita Subramaniam

4 Differences within ethnicity Rice eaters Rice eaters Spices- red chilies, green chilies, cumin, coriander seeds, asafetida, turmeric, pepper, fenugreek seeds. Spices- red chilies, green chilies, cumin, coriander seeds, asafetida, turmeric, pepper, fenugreek seeds. Jaggery instead of sugar Jaggery instead of sugar Coconut and tamarind used for gravy Coconut and tamarind used for gravy Steaming, pressure cooking, fermenting, boiling, roasting Steaming, pressure cooking, fermenting, boiling, roasting North Indians eat whole wheat (chapattis and rotis), Maida (refined wheat) (naans, parathas) North Indians eat whole wheat (chapattis and rotis), Maida (refined wheat) (naans, parathas) Cardamoms, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, pomegranate seeds (ajmer) Cardamoms, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, pomegranate seeds (ajmer) Sugar more than jaggery Sugar more than jaggery Tomatoes and onions for making the gravy Tomatoes and onions for making the gravy Frying, roasting, baking, marinating Frying, roasting, baking, marinating

5 Anita Subramaniam Differences in South Indian Cooking Kannadigas – jaggery, has sweet and sour taste Kannadigas – jaggery, has sweet and sour taste Telugus – extra hot foods Telugus – extra hot foods Keralites – a lot of coconut, coconut milk, use coconut oil for frying Keralites – a lot of coconut, coconut milk, use coconut oil for frying Tamils – tamarind, coconut Tamils – tamarind, coconut Madurai/Kancheepuram (idlis) Madurai/Kancheepuram (idlis) Chettinad (mainly non-vegetarian, extra spicy) Chettinad (mainly non-vegetarian, extra spicy) Thanjavore/Trichi (Rice Bowl of India) Thanjavore/Trichi (Rice Bowl of India) Tirunelvelli (Halwa) Tirunelvelli (Halwa) Palghat (coconut milk, elliseri, jackfruit payasam) Palghat (coconut milk, elliseri, jackfruit payasam) Indo French cooking (Pondicherry, Cheeses) Indo French cooking (Pondicherry, Cheeses) Anglo Indian cooking (soups (mulagitawny soup), breads, chips) Anglo Indian cooking (soups (mulagitawny soup), breads, chips)

6 Anita Subramaniam Tamil Society – Clothing & Food Tamils live all over the world. There are Tamils in Singapore, Thailand, Madagascar, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Canada, Australia, UK, and US.

7 Anita Subramaniam Introduction to Tamil Cooking Today’s menu consists of home recipes Today’s menu consists of home recipes A few of the innumerous items using traditional Indian vegetables and recipes A few of the innumerous items using traditional Indian vegetables and recipes Variety of items prepared for one wholesome meal Variety of items prepared for one wholesome meal Vary from laborious and very simple Vary from laborious and very simple Vary from spicy hot to very sweet Vary from spicy hot to very sweet Healthy and unhealthy foods Healthy and unhealthy foods Combination of several ingredients to prepare one dish Combination of several ingredients to prepare one dish Many of these items are prepared in more than one way.. there is no single way of preparation Many of these items are prepared in more than one way.. there is no single way of preparation

8 Anita Subramaniam Tamil Nadu Food Crops Food Crops Rice Rice Ragi Ragi Bajra Bajra Masoor Dal Masoor Dal Moong Dal Moong Dal Cash Crops Cash Crops Cotton Sugar cane Jute Tea Coffee Rubber Plaintain Mango Tamarind Spices

9 Anita Subramaniam History of Agriculture Early Humans were good gatherers not producers Early Humans were good gatherers not producers In India, food production is evident from Indus Valley period. In India, food production is evident from Indus Valley period. Intensive excavations at Kalibangan, one of the important pre-Harappan sites in Bikaner division of Rajasthan have laid bare a furrowed field showing in the third Millennium B.C., farming was well developed. Intensive excavations at Kalibangan, one of the important pre-Harappan sites in Bikaner division of Rajasthan have laid bare a furrowed field showing in the third Millennium B.C., farming was well developed. Ploughing using oxen and bulls Ploughing using oxen and bulls Six, eight & repeated ploughing was done to acquire desired quality of the soil. Six, eight & repeated ploughing was done to acquire desired quality of the soil. Cow dung was used as manure. Earthworms grown to till the soil Cow dung was used as manure. Earthworms grown to till the soil The Vedic farmers knew the method of improving the fertility of the soil by crop rotation method. The Vedic farmers knew the method of improving the fertility of the soil by crop rotation method. Agricultural Traditions are Maintained! Agricultural Traditions are Maintained!

10 Anita Subramaniam Rice - the main food crop India one of the largest exporters of rice, ranking second in the world next to Thailand (Money Matters, 2004) India one of the largest exporters of rice, ranking second in the world next to Thailand (Money Matters, 2004) India produces about 78 million tonnes of rice (rice consumption of the world is around 408 million tonnes) (Business Standard, 2003) India produces about 78 million tonnes of rice (rice consumption of the world is around 408 million tonnes) (Business Standard, 2003) Profile of a Rice Producing Factory : en.html Profile of a Rice Producing Factory : en.html en.html en.html Rice production for this year is going to be affected both in India and China due to poor monsoon season Rice production for this year is going to be affected both in India and China due to poor monsoon season Rice grown in India is of different varieties Rice grown in India is of different varieties Kuttharisi (parboiled) Kuttharisi (parboiled) Ponni Ponni Samba Samba Idly Idly Jasmine flavored rice Jasmine flavored rice Rose flavored rice Rose flavored rice Red rice Red rice Parboiled rice  Rice steamed with the outer husk before dehusking  This enables the rice grain to retain B- Vitamins that are usually lost during the dehusking process. converted rice = parboiled rice converted rice = parboiled rice Fast-cooking white rice Fast-cooking white rice When cooked, the grains are more nutritious, firmer, and less clingy than white rice grains. Uncle Ben's is a well-known brand. When cooked, the grains are more nutritious, firmer, and less clingy than white rice grains. Uncle Ben's is a well-known brand. Parboiled rice is now available in other cities in India and in the US and UK

11 Anita Subramaniam Pulses – Main Protein Source Peas, beans and lentils are known as pulses. Peas, beans and lentils are known as pulses. They are the seeds of plants belonging to the family Leguminosae They are the seeds of plants belonging to the family Leguminosae Rich in Protein, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Vitamins (C) Rich in Protein, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Vitamins (C) Low in Fat; contains unsaturated fats Low in Fat; contains unsaturated fats Some are high in iron and calcium Some are high in iron and calcium

12 Anita Subramaniam Indian Vegetables and Fruits The common South Indian vegetables are: Snake gourd Snake gourd Bitter gourd Bitter gourd Avaraikai (broad beans) Avaraikai (broad beans) Thondakai Thondakai Drumstick Drumstick Raw plantains Raw plantains Banana flower (Vazha poo) Banana flower (Vazha poo) Banana stem (Vazha thandu) Banana stem (Vazha thandu) Taro root (Shepangazhangu) Taro root (Shepangazhangu) Karamani (long beans) Karamani (long beans) Small brinjals Small brinjals White pumpkin White pumpkin Different varieties of greens Different varieties of greens Yams (Karnakazhangu) Yams (Karnakazhangu) Kothavanrangai (cluster beans). Kothavanrangai (cluster beans). Fruits that we use are: Papaya Papaya Jack fruit Jack fruit Different varieties of mangoes Different varieties of mangoes Sapota Sapota Guavas Guavas Different varieties of bananas Different varieties of bananas Perichampazham Perichampazham Pomegranate Pomegranate Nagapazham. Nagapazham.

13 Anita Subramaniam Spices and Condiments Coriander seeds Coriander seeds Curry leaves Curry leaves Mustard Mustard Cilantro Cilantro Red chilies Red chilies Green chilies Green chilies Cumin seeds Cumin seeds Fenugreek seeds (Vit. E) Fenugreek seeds (Vit. E) Asafotida Asafotida Tamarind Tamarind Til (Gingili seeds) Til (Gingili seeds) Ginger Ginger Turmeric Turmeric Cardamom Cardamom Black pepper Black pepper Vanilla Vanilla Rose essence Rose essence Saffron Saffron India is known as the 'The home of spices'. There is no other country in the world that produces as many kinds of spices as India. The climate of the country is suitable for almost all spices. According to the International Organization For Standardization (ISO); The term 'spices and condiments' applies to such natural plant or vegetable products or mixtures thereof, in whole or ground form, as are used for imparting flavor, aroma and piquancy to and for seasoning of foods". There are over 80 spices grown in different parts of the world and around 50 spices are grown in India. ROLE OF SPICES They add tang and flavor to otherwise insipid foods. Some of them also possess antioxidant properties, while others are used as preservatives in some foods like pickles and chutneys, etc. For good breath..Chewing certain spices like cardamom, cumin, clove; improves digestion and acts as a mouth freshener. Some spices also possess strong anti-microbial and antibiotic activities. Many of them possess medicinal properties and have a profound effect on human health, since they effect many functional processes. Spices act as a stimulates to the digestive system and help digestion in many ways. Spices possibly activate the adreno- cortical function and fortify resistance and physical capacity. Stroke frequency, and blood pressure can be diminished or augmented by means of spices. (WebIndia123.com)

14 Anita Subramaniam Cooking Methods

15 Anita Subramaniam Traditional Tools Aruvamanai Aruvamanai Ammi, Attukkal Ammi, Attukkal

16 Anita Subramaniam Traditions in Meal Preparation Always cooked the same day Always cooked the same day Cooks get to work very early in the morning – 5 a.m. Cooks get to work very early in the morning – 5 a.m. Cooking only after shower Cooking only after shower Must wear proper clothing Must wear proper clothing No footwear No footwear Usually cooking done by women Usually cooking done by women Although some households have male cooks Although some households have male cooks Male cooks (only) for wedding and festive occasions Male cooks (only) for wedding and festive occasions Male and females do not usually cook together Male and females do not usually cook together Feet always washed before entering the house (guests) (WHY?) Feet always washed before entering the house (guests) (WHY?) Vegetables are washed before cutting Vegetables are washed before cutting Hands washed after each activity Hands washed after each activity Must not touch old food (if any) while cooking; if done, wash hands Must not touch old food (if any) while cooking; if done, wash hands Utensils washed before use (even if washed before) Utensils washed before use (even if washed before) Cooking area cleansed after every meal preparation Cooking area cleansed after every meal preparation Cooking area is decorated with kolams in the night Cooking area is decorated with kolams in the night

17 Anita Subramaniam Pressure Cooking Healthy, no fat Several items cooked at the same time Conserves time and fuel Cooks food well No loss of nutrients as water is not drained Can be dangerous if not properly installed Pressure can cause food burst and to be thrown out Makes noise May undercook/overcook food

18 Anita Subramaniam Wet Grinding Indian wet grinders use the same concept as used in hand grinding Wet grinders are quicker than hand grinding Wet grinders grind food for idlis and dosas better than food processors Not useful for small quantities

19 Anita Subramaniam Steaming Idlis and many items used are cooked by steaming Healthy No fat used Quick

20 Anita Subramaniam Frying Less frequent than pressure cooking, steaming or roasting Less frequent than pressure cooking, steaming or roasting Frying limited to side items such as chips like varuvals, appalams, and pappadams Frying limited to side items such as chips like varuvals, appalams, and pappadams These are usually made once a week and saved These are usually made once a week and saved Frying also for Tiffin – afternoon snacks Frying also for Tiffin – afternoon snacks Shallow frying more common than deep fat frying (dosa, adai, appams) Shallow frying more common than deep fat frying (dosa, adai, appams) Limited to festive occasions and social get together Limited to festive occasions and social get together Only vegetable oil used- sunflower oil most common in India; gingili oil and coconut oil used a few decades ago Only vegetable oil used- sunflower oil most common in India; gingili oil and coconut oil used a few decades ago Ghee used for seasoning and desserts Ghee used for seasoning and desserts

21 Anita Subramaniam Food Eating Patterns

22 Anita Subramaniam Food Eating Patterns One of the main influences on Indian cuisine is the Hindu religion One of the main influences on Indian cuisine is the Hindu religion Many Hindus are vegetarians Many Hindus are vegetarians In addition, most of the Hindu people, as far as I know, don’t eat beef. Cows are considered sacred in India and are worshiped by Hindus Pork is also not common (http://www.bhc.edu/International/esl2/news/FALL%202003/Articles/indian eating.htm) In addition, most of the Hindu people, as far as I know, don’t eat beef. Cows are considered sacred in India and are worshiped by Hindus Pork is also not common (http://www.bhc.edu/International/esl2/news/FALL%202003/Articles/indian eating.htm)http://www.bhc.edu/International/esl2/news/FALL%202003/Articles/indian eating.htmhttp://www.bhc.edu/International/esl2/news/FALL%202003/Articles/indian eating.htm Mutton and Chicken are the most common types of meat consumed Mutton and Chicken are the most common types of meat consumed Region and religion affect Indian eating patterns Region and religion affect Indian eating patterns Muslims are forbidden to eat pork and pork products. All Jains and some Hindus are strict vegetarians, though they do consume dairy products Muslims are forbidden to eat pork and pork products. All Jains and some Hindus are strict vegetarians, though they do consume dairy products In addition, Indians follow restricted diets for pregnancy and mourning. There is also a selected system of fasting related to religious practices In addition, Indians follow restricted diets for pregnancy and mourning. There is also a selected system of fasting related to religious practices At home, Indians often eat meals sitting cross-legged on a floor mat. At home, Indians often eat meals sitting cross-legged on a floor mat. Instead of cutlery, the right hand is used for eating and a piece of fresh banana leaf or stainless steel plate (thali) serves as a plate. Instead of cutlery, the right hand is used for eating and a piece of fresh banana leaf or stainless steel plate (thali) serves as a plate. While the rest of the household eats, women serve the meals and wait until everyone has finished dining before sitting down themselves. (http://www.settlement.org/cp/english/india/eating.html) While the rest of the household eats, women serve the meals and wait until everyone has finished dining before sitting down themselves. (http://www.settlement.org/cp/english/india/eating.html)

23 Anita Subramaniam Traditions in Serving Food Food generally served on banana leaves Food generally served on banana leaves Leaf is placed before the guest Leaf is placed before the guest The corner of the leaf faces right of the person The corner of the leaf faces right of the person Water is served first, no other beverage is served Water is served first, no other beverage is served Leaf is cleaned by sprinkling water and brushing the water with fingers (left to right) Leaf is cleaned by sprinkling water and brushing the water with fingers (left to right) Food eaten with hands –using only fingers not the palm Food eaten with hands –using only fingers not the palm Only right hand is used for eating Only right hand is used for eating Food eaten sitting on the floor on the full lotus position with erect back Food eaten sitting on the floor on the full lotus position with erect back Seating is from left to right – no gaps Seating is from left to right – no gaps The most important person served first The most important person served first Sometimes the first leaf is for “puthras” (ancestors) Sometimes the first leaf is for “puthras” (ancestors) Usually in most Hindu homes, the crow is served rice, dal and ghee first outside the house Usually in most Hindu homes, the crow is served rice, dal and ghee first outside the house Food served clockwise Food served clockwise Food served from top right corner of the leaf to left Food served from top right corner of the leaf to left

24 Anita Subramaniam Order of Serving/Eating Food Foods served first: Serving starts with a spoon of “payasam” Serving starts with a spoon of “payasam” Dhal Dhal Followed by salads – vegetable and fruit Followed by salads – vegetable and fruit Vegetable dishes Vegetable dishes Chutneys and pickle Chutneys and pickle Vadas, laddoos and other items Vadas, laddoos and other items First Serving of Rice: Rice Rice Ghee Ghee Sambhar Sambhar Appalam Appalam Second Serving of Rice: Morekozhambu Morekozhambu Second serving of all dishes that has been consumed Second serving of all dishes that has been consumed Third Serving of Rice: Rasam Rasam Appalam Appalam Main Dessert: Full cup of payasam Full cup of payasam Fourth Serving of Rice: Yogurt Yogurt Wash Hands and chew betel leaves Digestive: Betel leaves with betel nut and Calcium Carbonate (lime) Betel leaves with betel nut and Calcium Carbonate (lime) Some men and women combine chewing tobacco with betel leaves Some men and women combine chewing tobacco with betel leaves

25 Anita Subramaniam Traditions After the Meal All food served must be consumed All food served must be consumed Unconsumed food generally set in one side of the leaf Unconsumed food generally set in one side of the leaf Leaf must not be folded Leaf must not be folded Guest gets up and washes hands Guest gets up and washes hands Hostess always takes away the leaf after ALL the guests get up Hostess always takes away the leaf after ALL the guests get up Concept of Dharma- serving food to guests is considered dharma (a generous act) Concept of Dharma- serving food to guests is considered dharma (a generous act) Hostess cleans the place with her hands Hostess cleans the place with her hands Burping is sign of contentment of food Burping is sign of contentment of food Guest must sit for sometime before leaving Guest must sit for sometime before leaving Betel leaf with lime and betel nuts served when the guest is seated with washed hands Betel leaf with lime and betel nuts served when the guest is seated with washed hands

26 Anita Subramaniam Festive Occasions Are many and celebrated with a lot of sincerity and regularity Are many and celebrated with a lot of sincerity and regularity All members participate All members participate Certain festivals all extended family members attend Certain festivals all extended family members attend Several gods and each god is revered Several gods and each god is revered Flowers, betel Leaves, betel nut, fruits, and, coconut are sacred offerings for all the festivals Flowers, betel Leaves, betel nut, fruits, and, coconut are sacred offerings for all the festivals Special items of food are prepared specific to each festival Special items of food are prepared specific to each festival

27 Anita Subramaniam 4 Meals a Day!! Common Breakfast items Common Breakfast items Coffee Coffee Idlis Idlis Dosas Dosas Uppuma Uppuma Poori Poori Pongal Pongal Accompanied by sambhar, chutney, podis Common Tiffin items: Common Tiffin items: Vadas Vadas Bondas Bondas Pakodas Pakodas Savai Savai Adais Adais Lunch/Dinner items Lunch/Dinner items Rice Rasam Sambhar Kootu Curry Appalam Yogurt Pickle Thokayal Podis In some households, tiffin items are served for dinner. In some households, tiffin items are served for dinner.

28 Anita Subramaniam A Typical Meal RiceRasamSambharKootuPoriyal/CurryYogurtGhee Plain cooked Dhal One or two of the below: ChutneyPicklePachadiAppalamSalad Sweets on occasions only

29 Anita Subramaniam Snacks & Sweets Ribbon pakoda Ribbon pakoda Muthsarai Muthsarai Mixture Mixture Chips – banana, nenthranga Chips – banana, nenthranga Omapodi Omapodi Murukku Murukku Thattai Thattai Mysore pakku Mysore pakku Cashew nut/Almond cake Cashew nut/Almond cake Athirasam Athirasam Kesari Kesari Halwa Halwa Jamun Jamun Payasam Payasam Usually prepared on festive occasions

30 Anita Subramaniam Some Traditional Recipes

31 Anita Subramaniam Traditional Juice Panagam (PAAnagam) Jaggery Jaggery Lime Lime Ginger Ginger Cardamom Cardamom Served before food Only beverage served with food is water.

32 Anita Subramaniam Traditional Beverage Coffee Coffee Made from fresh decoction Made from fresh decoction Decoction made through filtration Decoction made through filtration Freshly ground coffee powder (powdering usually done in coffee mills – shops specifically that powder coffee) Freshly ground coffee powder (powdering usually done in coffee mills – shops specifically that powder coffee) Add coffee powder to the top compartment of the filter Add coffee powder to the top compartment of the filter Add boiling hot water over a spoon Add boiling hot water over a spoon Consumed with milk and sugar Consumed with milk and sugar

33 Anita Subramaniam Yogurt One of the most important sources of Calcium One of the most important sources of Calcium Yogurt is consumed more than milk in some households Yogurt is consumed more than milk in some households Yogurt used in cooking preparations Yogurt used in cooking preparations Always the last item to be consumed in a meal Always the last item to be consumed in a meal If one does not wish to eat rice and yogurt, s/he usually consumes buttermilk If one does not wish to eat rice and yogurt, s/he usually consumes buttermilk Yogurt consumed at least two times a day Yogurt consumed at least two times a day 2 cups 2 cups Thick form Thick form Made from whole fat milk Made from whole fat milk Sometimes from cow’s milk (yellowish in color) Sometimes from cow’s milk (yellowish in color) Buffalo milk – whitish in color Buffalo milk – whitish in color The cream of the yogurt is collected to make butter The cream of the yogurt is collected to make butter Butter prepared by churning with hand Butter prepared by churning with hand Churner tied to a rope Churner tied to a rope

34 Anita Subramaniam Ghee Prepared from butter Prepared from butter Ghee is prepared by boiling butter until it turns transparent and dark brown sediments begin to form Ghee is prepared by boiling butter until it turns transparent and dark brown sediments begin to form Ghee is served with rice except when rice is served with yogurt Ghee is served with rice except when rice is served with yogurt Ghee reduces the spiciness of food Ghee reduces the spiciness of food

35 Anita Subramaniam Ghee and Yogurt Ghee Melt unsalted butter and let it boil until a light brown sediment is formed Melt unsalted butter and let it boil until a light brown sediment is formed Store ghee in a cool place Store ghee in a cool place No refrigeration required No refrigeration requiredYogurt Boil milk Boil milk Let it cool Let it cool Add some old yogurt (about 2 tsps.) Add some old yogurt (about 2 tsps.) Let it set in room temperature Let it set in room temperature Once set, refrigerate. Once set, refrigerate.

36 Anita Subramaniam pakodas Ingredients Channa flour (besan) 2 cups Channa flour (besan) 2 cups Rice flour 1 cup Rice flour 1 cup Onions 2 chopped length wise Onions 2 chopped length wise Ginger a small piece grated Ginger a small piece grated Green chilies 4 chopped Green chilies 4 chopped Red chili powder Red chili powder Cashews 1/4 cup Cashews 1/4 cup Curry leaves a few Curry leaves a few Ghee (melted butter) 2-3 tsp Ghee (melted butter) 2-3 tsp Cooking Oil 4 tsp Cooking Oil 4 tsp Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Salt 1 tsp Salt 1 tsp Cooking Oil for frying Cooking Oil for fryingMethod Mix channa flour, rice flour, chili powder, cilantro and salt Mix channa flour, rice flour, chili powder, cilantro and salt Heat 4 tsp of oil, and 3 tsp of ghee in a pan and add it to the above Heat 4 tsp of oil, and 3 tsp of ghee in a pan and add it to the above Now add chopped onions, green chilies and mix everything well Now add chopped onions, green chilies and mix everything well Make small irregular balls and deep fry in oil. Make small irregular balls and deep fry in oil.

37 Anita Subramaniam idlis Ingredients Par boiled rice 3 cups Par boiled rice 3 cups Urad dhal (Black gram- deskinned) 1 cup Urad dhal (Black gram- deskinned) 1 cup Salt 2 tsp Salt 2 tspMethod Rinse and soak rice and urad dhal separately in water for 2 hours Rinse and soak rice and urad dhal separately in water for 2 hours Grind the two separately, and mix them together with salt Grind the two separately, and mix them together with salt Let it ferment overnight Let it ferment overnight Make idlis using idli trays Make idlis using idli trays Steam (no pressure). Steam (no pressure).

38 Anita Subramaniam rice Jasmine or Raw Rice Jasmine or Raw Rice 1 cup 1 cup 3 cups of water 3 cups of water Pressure cook using pressure cooker Pressure cook using pressure cooker Or use rice cooker Or use rice cooker Or cook in an utensil using excess water and drain the water Or cook in an utensil using excess water and drain the water

39 Anita Subramaniam onion sambhar Ingredients Tur dhal 1 cup Tur dhal 1 cup Coriander seeds (Dhania) 3 tsp Coriander seeds (Dhania) 3 tsp Channa dhal 2 tsp Channa dhal 2 tsp Red chilies 6 Red chilies 6 Fenugreek seeds (Methi) 1/4 spoon Fenugreek seeds (Methi) 1/4 spoon Pearl Onion (1 frozen pack) Pearl Onion (1 frozen pack) Tomato 1 (optional) Tomato 1 (optional) Tamarind paste 2 tsp Tamarind paste 2 tsp Grated coconut 3 tsp Grated coconut 3 tsp Green chilies 4 Green chilies 4 Turmeric 1/4 tsp Turmeric 1/4 tsp Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Curry leaves a few Curry leaves a few Mustard 1/2 tsp Mustard 1/2 tsp Cooking Oil 2 tsp Cooking Oil 2 tsp Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Method Cook Tur dhal and turmeric with extra water. Drain water and save in a separate container Cook Tur dhal and turmeric with extra water. Drain water and save in a separate container Scrap coconut Scrap coconut Fry channa dhal, red chilies, dhania, methi, and little onion. Grind this mixture with tomato and coconut Fry channa dhal, red chilies, dhania, methi, and little onion. Grind this mixture with tomato and coconut Peel onions (if fresh raw onions are used) Peel onions (if fresh raw onions are used) Fry onions and green chilies in a pan for a few minutes, and cook this in the tur dhal water with salt Fry onions and green chilies in a pan for a few minutes, and cook this in the tur dhal water with salt After it is cooked, add tamarind paste and cook for a few minutes, and finally add the ground paste After it is cooked, add tamarind paste and cook for a few minutes, and finally add the ground paste After this is cooked add the cooked tur dhal After this is cooked add the cooked tur dhal Heat little oil in a pan, splutter mustard, and add this to the sambhar Heat little oil in a pan, splutter mustard, and add this to the sambhar Garnish with cilantro and curry leaves. Garnish with cilantro and curry leaves.

40 Anita Subramaniam cumin and pepper rasam Ingredients Tur dhal 2 tsp Tur dhal 2 tsp Cumin seeds 1/2 + 1/4 tsp Cumin seeds 1/2 + 1/4 tsp Pepper 1/2 tsp Pepper 1/2 tsp Red chili 3 Red chili 3 Tamarind paste 1/2 tsp Tamarind paste 1/2 tsp Turmeric 1/4 tsp Turmeric 1/4 tsp Curry leaves a few Curry leaves a few Water 3 cups Water 3 cups Ghee 1/2 tsp Ghee 1/2 tsp Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Salt 1 tsp (or to taste)Method Dry roast tur dhal and pepper without oil for 1 minute Dry roast tur dhal and pepper without oil for 1 minute Soak this in water along with red chili & cumin seeds for 10 minutes Soak this in water along with red chili & cumin seeds for 10 minutes Wet grind to a smooth paste Wet grind to a smooth paste Boil tamarind in water, add salt, turmeric, and add the above mixture until the flavor comes out Boil tamarind in water, add salt, turmeric, and add the above mixture until the flavor comes out Fry 1/4 tsp cumin seeds, curry leaves and 1 red chili in ghee and add this to the rasam. Fry 1/4 tsp cumin seeds, curry leaves and 1 red chili in ghee and add this to the rasam.

41 Anita Subramaniam moor kozhambu Ingredients Cumin seeds 1 tsp Cumin seeds 1 tsp Red chilies 4 Red chilies 4 Green chilies 2 Green chilies 2 Rice flour 1/2 tsp Rice flour 1/2 tsp Asafetida (hing) a small pinch Asafetida (hing) a small pinch Coconut 4 tsp Coconut 4 tsp Coconut oil 1 tsp (optional) Coconut oil 1 tsp (optional) Sour cream or butter milk 4 cups Sour cream or butter milk 4 cups Turmeric 1/4 tsp Turmeric 1/4 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Curry leaves a few Curry leaves a few Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Vegetables - White pumpkin or okra, or zucchini or squash Vegetables - White pumpkin or okra, or zucchini or squashMethod Cut vegetable into big pieces and cook in water. If using okra, need not cook but have to fry a little Cut vegetable into big pieces and cook in water. If using okra, need not cook but have to fry a little Grind cumin, rice flour, red chilies, with coconut and little salt and butter milk Grind cumin, rice flour, red chilies, with coconut and little salt and butter milk Heat some coconut/vegetable oil, splutter mustard seeds Heat some coconut/vegetable oil, splutter mustard seeds Add curry leaves, little hing, salt, turmeric and the vegetables, and fry this for a few minutes Add curry leaves, little hing, salt, turmeric and the vegetables, and fry this for a few minutes Now add the ground paste and the remaining butter milk to the above and bring this to a boil on a low flame Now add the ground paste and the remaining butter milk to the above and bring this to a boil on a low flame Simmer for a few minutes Simmer for a few minutes Garnish with cilantro. Garnish with cilantro.

42 Anita Subramaniam potato roast Ingredients Potatoes 1 pound Potatoes 1 pound Turmeric 1/4 tsp Turmeric 1/4 tsp Asafetida (Hing) a small pinch Asafetida (Hing) a small pinch Chili powder 1 tsp Chili powder 1 tsp Urad dhal 1/2 tsp Urad dhal 1/2 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Curry leaves a few Curry leaves a few Cooking Oil 5 tsp Cooking Oil 5 tsp Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Salt 1 tsp (or to taste)Method Boil or microwave peeled potatoes with turmeric and salt. Boil or microwave peeled potatoes with turmeric and salt. Peel skin and dice them and keep aside Peel skin and dice them and keep aside Heat 5 tsp of oil in a kadai/wok, splutter mustard and urad dal Heat 5 tsp of oil in a kadai/wok, splutter mustard and urad dal Add curry leaves Add curry leaves Add hing, chili powder, turmeric, salt and diced potatoes Add hing, chili powder, turmeric, salt and diced potatoes Simmer the stove and let it cook until the potatoes turn light brown. Simmer the stove and let it cook until the potatoes turn light brown.

43 Anita Subramaniam Taro root roast Taro root Taro root Chili powder Chili powder Curry leaves Curry leaves Salt Salt Turmeric powder Turmeric powder Asafetida Asafetida Besan Besan Rice flour Rice flour Boil taro root in a pressure cooker Boil taro root in a pressure cooker Peel skin Peel skin Dice cross sectionally Dice cross sectionally Mix chili powder,besan, rice four, salt, turmeric powder, asafetida powder and curry leaves (finely chopped). Mix chili powder,besan, rice four, salt, turmeric powder, asafetida powder and curry leaves (finely chopped). Dip or sprinkle on the diced taro root Dip or sprinkle on the diced taro root Deep fry in oil. Deep fry in oil.

44 Anita Subramaniam kootu Ingredients Coconut 1-2 tsp Coconut 1-2 tsp Cumin seeds 1 tsp Cumin seeds 1 tsp Red chilies 5 Red chilies 5 Turmeric 1/2 tsp Turmeric 1/2 tsp Urad dhal 1 tsp Urad dhal 1 tsp Coconut oil 1 tsp Coconut oil 1 tsp Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Curry leaves a few Curry leaves a few Vegetables: Vegetables: Carrot, cabbage, peas, potatoes, etc., OR Carrot, cabbage, peas, potatoes, etc., OR Chow chow OR Chow chow OR Spinach OR Spinach OR Snake gourd, OR Snake gourd, OR Squash OR Squash OR Nool Kohl OR Nool Kohl OR Zucchini ZucchiniMethod Wash and dice vegetables into uniform pieces Wash and dice vegetables into uniform pieces Cook them with a little salt and turmeric Cook them with a little salt and turmeric Wet grind coconut, cumin seeds, and red chilies and add this paste to the boiling vegetables Wet grind coconut, cumin seeds, and red chilies and add this paste to the boiling vegetables Cook until the flavor comes out Cook until the flavor comes out Heat some coconut oil in a pan, splutter mustard and urad dhal, 1 red chili, curry leaves, and add this to the kootu. Heat some coconut oil in a pan, splutter mustard and urad dhal, 1 red chili, curry leaves, and add this to the kootu.

45 Anita Subramaniam Chutney Coconut chutney Ingredients Coconut 1/2 cup grated Coconut 1/2 cup grated Roasted channa dal (Pottu Kadalai) 3 tsp Roasted channa dal (Pottu Kadalai) 3 tsp Green chilies 2 Green chilies 2 Salt 1/2 tsp Salt 1/2 tspMethod Grind all the above ingredients. Cilantro chutney Ingredients Urad dhal 4 tsp Urad dhal 4 tsp Channa dhal 2 tsp Channa dhal 2 tsp Red chilies 2 Red chilies 2 Green chilies 2 Green chilies 2 Cilantro 1 bunch Cilantro 1 bunch Hing 1/4 tsp Hing 1/4 tsp Tamarind paste 1/4 tsp Tamarind paste 1/4 tsp Salt 1/2 tsp Salt 1/2 tsp Oil 2 tsp Oil 2 tspMethod Fry urad dhal, channa dhal, red chilies, green chilies, and hing in oil. Fry urad dhal, channa dhal, red chilies, green chilies, and hing in oil. Wet grind the above with chopped cilantro, salt, and tamarind paste. Wet grind the above with chopped cilantro, salt, and tamarind paste.

46 Anita Subramaniam mango pickle Ingredients Mango 1 large or 2-4 small Mango 1 large or 2-4 small Red chili powder 1/2 cup Red chili powder 1/2 cup Turmeric powder 1/4 tsp Turmeric powder 1/4 tsp Fenugreek seeds (Methi seeds) 1/2 tsp Fenugreek seeds (Methi seeds) 1/2 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Hing 1/4 tsp Hing 1/4 tsp Salt 1/4 cup Salt 1/4 cup Cooking oil 1/4 cup Cooking oil 1/4 cupMethod Cut mango into small dices, removing the pitt, add salt, turmeric, and keep it aside for 4-5 days. Add red chili powder to this mango and mix it well. Roast methi seeds and dry grind it and keep it aside. Heat oil in a pan, and add mustard, and hing and let it cool. When the above oil becomes room temperature, mix it with the mango, and add the roasted methi powder.

47 Anita Subramaniam tomato pachadi Ingredients Tomato 1 big and a few small ones washed and chopped Tomato 1 big and a few small ones washed and chopped Yogurt 2 cups Yogurt 2 cups Curry leaves a few Curry leaves a few Mustard 1/4 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Asafetida (hing) a small pinch Asafetida (hing) a small pinch Green chilies chopped 2-3 Green chilies chopped 2-3 Cooking Oil 1.5 tsp Cooking Oil 1.5 tsp Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely chopped Salt 1/2 tsp (or to taste) Salt 1/2 tsp (or to taste)Method Splutter mustard, and add hing, curry leaves, green chilies Splutter mustard, and add hing, curry leaves, green chilies Add tomato in oil and fry for minutes Add tomato in oil and fry for minutes Add salt, and mix this with yogurt Add salt, and mix this with yogurt Garnish with chopped cilantro. Garnish with chopped cilantro.

48 Anita Subramaniam mysore pakku Ingredients Besan flour - 1 cup Besan flour - 1 cup Sugar - 2 1/2 cups Sugar - 2 1/2 cups Water - 1 cup Water - 1 cup Ghee - 2 1/2 cups Ghee - 2 1/2 cups Cardamom (optional) Cardamom (optional) Method 1 Dry roast the gram flour to a golden color. Keep aside. Dry roast the gram flour to a golden color. Keep aside. Make a syrup with sugar and water to one string consistency. Make a syrup with sugar and water to one string consistency. While stirring, slowly add the gram flour. Continue stirring While stirring, slowly add the gram flour. Continue stirring Add melted ghee simultaneously. Add melted ghee simultaneously. Add all the ghee in this manner. Add all the ghee in this manner. Cook till the mixture leaves the sides of the pan. Cook till the mixture leaves the sides of the pan. Add cardamom powder. Add cardamom powder. Smear a plate with the ghee. Pour in the mixture,spread and level. Smear a plate with the ghee. Pour in the mixture,spread and level. Leave it to cool. Leave it to cool. While still warm cut into diamond shapes. While still warm cut into diamond shapes. Mysore pak should be porous, light and crisp. Mysore pak should be porous, light and crisp. Method 2 Mix gram flour, sugar and water smoothly. Mix gram flour, sugar and water smoothly. Pour this into a pan and cook in low heat. Pour this into a pan and cook in low heat. Keep ghee in another vessel in low heat and add this ghee to the gram flour mixture in steps and with constant stirring. Keep ghee in another vessel in low heat and add this ghee to the gram flour mixture in steps and with constant stirring. Do this until the mixture turns into a non-sticky paste. Do this until the mixture turns into a non-sticky paste. Grease the inside of a large bowl with ghee and pour the cooked mixture on this large bowl. Grease the inside of a large bowl with ghee and pour the cooked mixture on this large bowl. When it is still hot, cut into cubical pieces by drawing parallel lines on its surface. When it is still hot, cut into cubical pieces by drawing parallel lines on its surface.

49 Anita Subramaniam Web sites with interesting recipes Thamizhar Pakkam Thamizhar Pakkam URL: URL: htm htm htm htm India tastes.com India tastes.com URL: URL: Saroj’s cookbook Saroj’s cookbook URL: URL:

50 Anita Subramaniam Websites… Dhinakarn Recipes Dhinakarn Recipes URL: URL:


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