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Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

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Presentation on theme: "Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water"— Presentation transcript:

1 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

2 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

3 The then and now guide to wind power
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water How has the use of wind power changed over time? Teacher notes This illustration compares the use of wind energy hundreds of years ago with modern usage of wind energy and challenges the notion that using renewable energy is a new idea. Left: The “then” scene goes back to the countryside, a few hundred years, where a couple of workers are considering a notice announcing the arrival of a new windmill. The workers appear to have opposing views on this announcement. Right: The “now” scene shows a couple of people driving past a billboard announcing the arrival of a new wind farm. The people appear to have opposing views on this announcement. Students could be asked to discuss other uses of wind power, both past and present.

4 Wind power – word association
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This word-association activity could be used to start a small group or whole class discussion about wind turbines. Students could be asked to write their chosen words on mini-whiteboards and then students could be asked at random to display their choices on the IWB. Clicking “reset” clears the IWB, allowing different students to display their choices. To extend the activity, students could be asked to explain why they associate certain words with wind turbines.

5 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
What is wind power? Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Wind is the result of the Sun heating the Earth and creating convection currents in the Earth’s atmosphere. Using the wind as a source of energy is not a new idea. Sailing boats and ships, powered by the wind, have been around for thousands of years. Photo credit (top right): © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Photo credit (bottom left): © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Burnham Overy towermill. Windmills, which used the wind’s power to grind corn, were once a common landmark across Britain. These were the forerunners to modern wind turbines.

6 How do wind turbines work?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Wind turbines have large blades that capture the kinetic energy of the wind. This kinetic energy is used directly to turn the turbine and generate electricity. Wind turbines are a source of 'clean energy’ as they do not produce any polluting waste. However, some people consider this source of renewable energy to be noisy and an eyesore. There is also some concern that, if wind turbines are poorly located, they could kill migrating birds.

7 Why are wind farms built?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water One problem with wind turbines is that individually they do not generate a lot of electricity. They are usually needed in large numbers to have a significant impact on electricity production. A group of wind turbines is called a wind farm. Wind farms require space in open areas, but the land beneath them can also be used for farming at the same time. Photo credit (top right): John Mileham The image shows one of 19 wind turbines situated at the Mynydd Gorddu Wind Farm, near Aberystwyth, mid Wales. The total power of the farm is 10.2 MW, which is enough to power 6,100 homes. This could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by around 24,700 tonnes. Photo credit (bottom left): Robert Thresher/NREL The image shows 3.6-MW GE Wind turbines at Arklow Bank offshore wind facility located about 10 kilometres off the coast of Arklow, Ireland. This offshore wind farm consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Construction was completed in It is the world's first commercial application of offshore wind turbines over 3 MW in size. Offshore wind farms are located at sea. This wind farm is located 10 kilometres from the south-east coast of Ireland.

8 How are wind turbines used effectively?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water The energy produced by a wind turbine depends on the wind speed. If it is not windy, electricity is not produced, so wind turbines are not a reliable source of electricity. To be effective, wind turbines need to be located in windy areas. Unfortunately, these upland sites are sometimes areas of natural beauty and some people object to building wind farms in such areas. Photo credit: John Mileham The image shows part of the Mynydd Gorddu Wind Farm, near Aberystwyth, mid Wales. The total power of the farm is 10.2 MW, which is enough to power 6,100 homes. This could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by around 24,700 tonnes. Wind power can be used effectively in remote locations to charge batteries, which can then be used to provide a constant supply of electricity.

9 Wind power – true or false?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This true-or-false activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on wind power, or at the start of the lesson to gauge students’ existing knowledge of this subject matter. Coloured traffic light cards (red = false, yellow = don’t know, green = true) could be used to make this a whole class exercise.

10 Opinions on wind turbines
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This citizens’ panel can be used to present a range of views on wind turbines, which could then lead into a small-group or whole class discussion about the subject. Further discussion could explore why people hold the views they do. There are no right or wrong answers for this activity.

11 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

12 The then and now guide to water power
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water How has the use of water power changed over time? Teacher notes This illustration compares the use of water power hundreds of years ago with modern usage of water power and challenges the notion that using renewable energy is a new idea. Left: The “then” scene goes back to the countryside, a few hundred years, where the owner of watermill is proudly considering his waterwheel. Right: The “now” scene shows modern-day worker arriving outside the now-rundown water mill to cross the bridge to a hydroelectric power station that has been built on the opposite-side of the river.

13 What is hydroelectric power?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Hydroelectric power is the electricity that is generated from the kinetic energy of moving water. The power of flowing water has been used for hundreds of years to operate machinery, such as that used to grind corn in mills and factories. However, this was largely replaced by steam power in the Industrial Revolution. Today, hydroelectric power is generated from water flowing in rivers or in man-made installations, were it flows from a high-level reservoir down through a tunnel. Currently, only about 1% of the UK’s electricity is from hydroelectric power.

14 How is hydroelectricity produced?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Major hydroelectric schemes involve building a dam across the end of a river valley to form a reservoir. This can be done high up in mountainous areas. Hydroelectric power stations are a very reliable source of electricity and are able to start up production quickly. Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation This is the Glen Canyon dam in Arizona, USA. It has eight generating units, which have an electrical output of up to 1,042 megawatts.

15 How does a hydroelectric dam work?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This four-stage animation illustrates how hydroelectric power works. While viewing the animation students could be asked to consider the energy transfers that are taking place and the environmental impacts of hydroelectric power.

16 How is hydroelectricity used effectively?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Large-scale hydroelectric power stations must be sited in high, mountainous areas. Damming a river causes the river valley to flood, which can mean that local villages and houses are destroyed. Hydroelectric power schemes also cost a lot of money and take a long time to build. However, they do last a long time and are a reliable source of large amounts of electricity. Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation In the UK, hydroelectricity is generated in Scotland and North Wales. The number of environmentally acceptable sites is limited but several small-scale hydroelectric schemes to use the power of our streams and rivers are also in development.

17 Pros and cons of hydroelectric power
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity.

18 Reporting of hydroelectric power
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This headlines activity can be used to explore media reports about hydroelectric power. Students could get into groups and identify the bias in the headlines. They could then explore the reasons for the bias and perhaps predict what type of newspaper might run headlines like these.

19 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

20 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
What is wave power? Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Wave power involves capturing the kinetic energy of the oceans and converting it into electricity. Wave power is actually a form of solar energy that is transferred to water by the wind. The rise and fall of waves has the potential to be a an unlimited source of renewable energy. Teacher notes More information about the Limpet unit can be found at the Wavegen website (www.wavegen.co.uk). Photo credit: Wavegen Large wave hitting the Limpet unit on Islay. Effective sites for harnessing wave power must have strong waves most of the time, to ensure that enough electricity will be produced. These sites can be on the shore or in deeper, offshore waters.

21 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
How is wave power used? Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water There are several types of wave power machines that are able to capture wave energy and convert it into electricity. The ‘Limpet’ (Land-Installed Marine-Powered Energy Transformer) on Islay, Scotland, is the world’s first commercial wave energy device. The low profile of this shoreline unit is designed so that it does not affect coastal views. Teacher notes More information about the Limpet unit can be found at the Wavegen website (www.wavegen.co.uk). Photo credit: Wavegen Back view of the Limpet unit on Islay. The Limpet device uses an oscillating column of air and water to generate a maximum output of 500 kilowatts of electricity.

22 How does wave power work?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This four-stage animation illustrates how wave power works. While viewing the animation, it should be highlighted that the turbine can generate electricity when air is entering or leaving the chamber.

23 How else can wave power be used?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Wave power could make a significant contribution to our energy needs but is still in the early stages of development. A deep-water device tested in Orkney, Scotland is the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter. The first “wave farm” is planned for the coast of Portugal. Another proposed machine is Salter’s duck, which could use wave power efficiently. However, only long chains of these units would produce useful amounts of electricity and these cannot be sited near boats. direction of waves Teacher notes More information about the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter can be found at the Ocean Power Delivery website (www.oceanpd.com). Photo credit: Ocean Power Delivery Ltd The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter during sea trials. ducks move up and down What are the advantages and disadvantages of wave power?

24 Wave power – true or false?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This true-or-false activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on wave power, or at the start of the lesson to gauge students’ existing knowledge of this subject matter. Coloured traffic light cards (red = false, yellow = don’t know, green = true) could be used to make this a whole class exercise.

25 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

26 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
What is tidal power? Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Tidal power involves harnessing the kinetic energy of tidal waters, which flow twice a day. The tide is the regular rising and falling of the ocean's surface due to the gravitational pull of the Moon, and to a lesser extent the Sun. Tidal power involves building a dam across a river estuary. Water is only able to flow in and out of the estuary through turbines in the dam, which harness the tidal energy and convert it into electricity. Tidal power stations can provide a lot of electricity but building them is expensive and may lead to loss of wildlife habitats.

27 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
How is tidal power used? Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This four-stage animation can be used to demonstrate how tidal power works. When showing the animation, it is important to stress that electricity is only generated when the tide is flowing in or out but not when the tide is at its highest or lowest points.

28 How can tidal power be used effectively?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Tidal power is a predictable and reliable source of electricity. However, the difference between high and low tides needs to be at least 5 metres to generate practical amounts of electricity. Monthly variations in the height of the tide also affect how much electricity is produced. Tidal power only produces electricity when the tide flows, about 10 hours a day, and should be used with other sources. Photo credit: Martin Bond / Science Photo Library Tidal barrage used to generate electricity with traffic travelling along the road on top of it. Built on the Rance river, France, the barrage opens sluice gates when the tide is rising to fill the estuary (at left) which acts as a reservoir. When the tide falls the sluice gates are closed and the water is released only through the 24 turbine generators. This dam is located at a point where the tidal range can reach up to 13.5 metres. It is 750 metres long and creates an artificial lake of 22 square kilometres. The generators can produce a total of 240 million watts of power. Worldwide, only around 20 sites have been identified as suitable for tidal power stations. The UK has eight possible sites but, as yet, we do not get electricity from tidal power.

29 Pros and cons of tidal power
Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity.

30 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

31 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
Glossary Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water hydroelectric power – Electricity that is produced from the kinetic energy of falling water. offshore wind farm – A wind farm that is located at sea. tidal power – Electricity that is produced from the rise and fall of the tides. wave power – Electricity that is produced from the up and down motion of waves. wind farm – A collection of wind turbines. wind turbine – A machine that uses large blades to capture the kinetic energy of the wind and convert it into electricity. wind power – Electricity that is produced from the kinetic energy of moving air.

32 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
Anagrams Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water

33 Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water
Multiple-choice quiz Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics Renewable Energy: Wind and Water Teacher notes This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of renewable energy that uses wind and water. The questions can be skipped through without answering by clicking “next”. Students could be asked to complete the question in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.


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