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Pâtés, Terrines, And Mousselines © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Brief History of Charcuterie A derivative from the French words chair and cuit, translated to mean “cooked flesh” Around 400 BC, Sparta’s King Agesilus received fatted geese from Egypt for making what would, more than 1,300 years later, be called pâté de foie gras Pâtés, terrines, and timbales existed as far back as the early history of the Francs, Gaules, and Roman Empire. During the 13 th century, the wealth of buffets and tables of entremets began in earnest
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Brief History of Charcuterie Charcuterie has existed in small kitchens and large, and the traditions that started more than 3,000 years ago continue today Forcemeat products (called farce by the French) were made of finely ground or coarsely chopped meat, poultry, or fish After the plague of 1348 spread across Europe, the average peasant diet included a much higher proportion of meat What was once the food of the masses during medieval times has again become a food choice for many
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. New-Age Revolution of Pâtés and Terrines Nutrition concerns caused a lull in consumption during the 1970s and 1980s This brought about the use of lighter ingredients: fat-free products, light creams, and foods lower in animal fats As a result, the use of fish, shellfish, and vegetable pâtés and terrines also gained in popularity New innovations in types and sizes of molds make smaller portions more acceptable to the consumer
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Equipment for Pâtés and Terrines Grinding, Blending, Whipping –Mortar and pestles, knives, grinding stones, and clubs were employed to shred and pummel the food so that it could be seasoned and bound together in a vessel or wrapping –As centuries passed, the texture of the product was improved by adding moisture, binding agents, and contrasting colors and textures –Today, meat grinders, food processors, sieves, paco jets, and blixers are tools used to grind, blend, smooth, and whip air into meat, seafood, and vegetable pastes
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Equipment for Pâtés and Terrines Molding –The human hand provided the first mold –Knives and straight-edged tools were later used to rub off portions of paste –Spoons provided the means of forming quenelles of forcemeats –Japanese used seaweed, Eastern cultures used banana leaves, the French used caul fat, Britons used fish heads, and Latin Americans used gourds to hold their fish and meat pastes for cooking
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Equipment for Pâtés and Terrines Molding –New-age pâté and terrine molds now exist, featuring various shapes and materials
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Seasonings –Combinations of herbs, spices, and seasonings develop the distinctive flavor characteristics of the farce, whether it is mild and delicate or robust and bold –Ready-made seasoning mixes may be purchased from both retailers and commercial distributors –Salt is the foundation spice It also acts as a natural curing agent, a flavor enhancer, and a binding agent Ratio: 2 oz (48 g) spice mix to 18 oz (500 g) kosher salt 1/3 oz of the above mixture will season approximately 1 pound of forcemeat
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Seasonings –Flavorings agents such as wines and other alcoholic liquids, vinegars, nuts, onions, citrus fruits, mushrooms, seaweed, and aromatic vegetables can be added to the farce for further flavor –Sauce reductions, extracts, and flavor concentrates can also be added
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Pastry and Dough –Used for protecting and containing the forcemeat filling –Consist of simple ingredients and made sufficiently tough to be handled without breaking
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Panadas and Secondary Binders –Panadas are the largest group of binding agents –Starch is used as a thickener and binder in many preparations –May be made from well-cooked grains, including wheat, corn, and rice, or from tubers such as cooked potatoes or tapioca –Another popular method is soaking bread in milk
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Panadas and Secondary Binders –The protein in eggs, gelatin, and milk or cream also serves to bind the farce as it coagulates when heated –Milk and egg white both have the ability to hold an emulsion, thereby allowing air molecules to be trapped in the mixture, and later expanded by heat –Additionally, panadas serve as extenders in the forcemeat –Cooked rice, bread, and potatoes are much less expensive than meats, fish, and liver
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Stocks, Glazes, and Gelatins –Stocks are the foundation to sauces and glazes –Stocks are used as a poaching liquid for galantines, a flavoring agent for the farce, a gelatin for binding a terrine or mousse, and a glaze that serves to color, flavor, and protect the surface of the final product –Glazes prevent discoloration and drying in addition to being attractive
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Forcemeats –Originated with the use of pork, mainly the lesser cuts of flesh mixed with a percentage of fat and seasonings –Today, forcemeats include fish and shellfish, beef, game, poultry, and vegetables –They come in a variety of textures, from very smooth to coarsely ground –The farce can be of one animal and color, or blended to create a variety of textures, flavors, and appearances
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Cooking Times and Methods –Use a pocket thermometer to provide accurate reading of internal temperatures –A water bath, or bain marie, can serve to insulate the terrine from temperature extremes –The temperature should be maintained between 170ºF and 175ºF (77ºC and 79ºC)
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Production Cooling and Storage –Cooked foods must not be allowed to remain in the temperature danger zone, between 41ºF and 135ºF (5ºC and 57ºC), for more than 2 hours –Follow correct cooling, wrapping, and labeling guidelines for product storage
Chapter 11 Pâtés and Terrines. Topics Covered Types of Forcemeats Preparation of Forcemeats.
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