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Facilities Planning - Unit 04 Layout Types: Manufacturing.

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Presentation on theme: "Facilities Planning - Unit 04 Layout Types: Manufacturing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Facilities Planning - Unit 04 Layout Types: Manufacturing

2 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 2 Hierarchy of Facility Planning Layout Design Facility Planning Structural Design Facility Location Facility Design Handling System Design Layout Design Source for Figure: Tompkins and White, Facilities Planning, 2nd edition, Wiley

3 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 3 Layout Design  Facility layout  Facility layout means planning:  for the location of all machines, utilities, employee workstations, customer service areas, material storage areas, aisles, restrooms, lunchrooms, internal walls, offices, and computer rooms  for the flow patterns of materials and people around, into, and within buildings

4 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 4 Layout Design Planning for required Spaces and Areas  Equipment  Work stations  Material storage  Rest/break areas  Utilities  Eating areas  Aisles  Offices

5 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 5  Location of these various areas impacts the flow through the system.  The layout can affect productivity and costs generated by the system.  Layout alternatives are limited by  the amount and type of space required for the various areas  the amount and type of space available  the operations strategy Layout Design – Introduction Characteristics of the Facility Layout Decision

6 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 6 Basic Layout Types  Product Layouts  Process Layouts  Fixed-position layouts  Cellular/Group technology layouts

7 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 7 Basic Layout Types Product Volume vs. Product Variety Low Medium High High Medium Low Product Planning Department Fixed Materials Location Planning Department Process Planning Department Product Family Planning Department Product Layout Fixed Location Layout Group Technology Layout Process Layout Volume Variety

8 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 8 Types of Layout Fixed Position Layout LathePressGrind WeldAssembly Paint StorageStorage WarehouseWarehouse

9 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 9 Types of Layout Fixed Position Layout Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed.Examples:  Large construction projects (buildings, power plants, dams)  Shipbuilding, production of large aircraft  Rockets used to launch space missions

10 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 10 Types of Layout Fixed Position Layout: Advantages  Material movement is reduced.  Promotes job enlargement by allowing individuals or teams to perform the “whole job”.  Continuity of operations and responsibility results from team.  Highly flexible; can accommodate changes in product design, product mix, and product volume.  Independence of production centers allowing scheduling to achieve minimum total production time.

11 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 11  Increased movement of personnel and equipment.  Equipment duplication may occur.  Higher skill requirements for personnel.  General supervision required.  Cumbersome and costly positioning of material and machinery.  Low equipment utilization. Types of Layout Fixed Position Layout: Limitations

12 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 12 DrillGrind Drill Lathe Drill StorageStorage WarehouseWarehouse AssemblyAssembly Lathe Bend Lathe Mill Press Drill Types of Layout Product Type Layout

13 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 13 Types of Layout Product Type Layout - Requirements  Standardized product  High production volume  Stable production quantities  Uniform quality of raw materials & components

14 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 14 Types of Layout Product Type Layout - Assumptions  Volume is adequate for high equipment utilization  Product demand is stable enough to justify high investment in specialized equipment  Product is standardized or approaching a phase of its life cycle that justifies investment in specialized equipment  Supplies of raw materials and components are adequate and of uniform quality ensure they will work with specialized equipment

15 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 15  Since the layout corresponds to the sequence of operations, smooth and logical flow lines result.  Since the work from one process is fed directly into the next, small in-process inventories result.  Total production time per unit is short.  Since the machines are located so as to minimize distances between consecutive operations, material handling is reduced.  Little skill is usually required by operators at the production line; hence, training is simple, short, and inexpensive.  Simple production planning control systems are possible.  Less space is occupied by work in transit and for temporary storage. Types of Layout Product Type Layout - Advantages

16 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 16  A breakdown of one machine may lead to a complete stoppage of the line that follows that machine.  Since the layout is determined by the product, a change in product design may require major alternations in the layout.  The “pace” of production is determined by the slowest machine.  Supervision is general, rather than specialized.  Comparatively high investment is required, as identical machines (a few not fully utilized) are sometimes distributed along the line. Types of Layout Product Type Layout - Limitations

17 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 17 LatheDrillWeld Mill Drill Grind StorageStorage WarehouseWarehouse Lathe Mill Lathe Mill Paint Grind Assembly Paint Weld Types of Layout Process Type Layout

18 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 18  Process type layouts can handle varied processing requirements  The layouts feature departments or other functional groupings in which similar kinds of activities are performed  Examples:  Examples: Machine shops usually have separate departments for milling, grinding, drilling, and so on  Different products may present quite different processing requirements and sequences of operations Types of Layout Process Type Layout

19 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 19 Process Layout - work travels to dedicated process centers Milling Assembly Test Grinding Drilling Plating Types of Layout Process Type Layout

20 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 20  A high degree of flexibility exists relative to equipment or manpower allocation for specific tasks.  Comparatively low investment in machines is required.  The diversity of tasks offers a more interesting and satisfying occupation for the operator. Types of Layout Process Type Layout - Advantages

21 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 21  Since longer flow lines usually exist, material handling is more expensive.  Production planning and control systems are more involved.  Total production time is usually longer.  Comparatively large amounts of in-process inventory result.  Space and capital are tied up by work in process.  Because of the diversity of the jobs in specialized departments, higher grades of skill are required. Types of Layout Process Type Layout - Limitations

22 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 22 Types of Layout Process Layout vs. Product Layout

23 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 23 DrillGrindAssembly Drill Weld Assembly StorageStorage WarehouseWarehouse Lathe Assembly Grind Press Mill Lathe Paint Drill Press Grind Assembly Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular/Product Family Layout

24 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 24  Group Technology (GT) is a management philosophy that attempts to group products with similar design or manufacturing characteristics, or both.  Cellular Manufacturing (CM) is an application of GT that involves grouping machines based on the parts manufactured by them.  The main objective of CM is to identify machine cells and part families simultaneously, and to allocate part families to machine cells in a way that minimizes the intercellular movement of parts. Types of Layout Group Technology vs. Cellular Manufacturing

25 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 25 Original Process Layout CABRaw materials Assembly Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example A (page 1)

26 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 26 Original Part Routing Matrix Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example A (page 2) Machines Parts Axxxxx Bxxxx Cxxx Dxxxxx Exxx Fxxx Gxxxx Hxxx

27 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 27 Reordered Part Routing Matrix Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example A (page 3) Machines Parts Axxxxx Dxxxxx Fxxx Cxxx Gxxxx Bxxxx Hxxx Exxx

28 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 28 Revised Cellular Layout Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example A (page 4) Assembly A B C Raw materials Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3

29 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 29 Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example B (page 1) Unorganized Parts

30 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 30 Process Flows before the Use of GT Cells Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example B (page 2)

31 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 31 Transition from Process Layout Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example B (page 3) 1.Grouping parts into families that follow a common sequence of steps. 2.Identifying dominant flow patterns of parts families as a basis for location or relocation of processes. 3.Physically grouping machines and processes into cells.

32 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 32 Grouping parts into families Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example B (page 4)

33 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 33 Process flows after the Use of GT Cells Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout – Example B (page 5)

34 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 34 AAAA BBBBBBBBB BBBB Assembly CCCCCCCCCC CCCC DDDDDDDDDDDDDD DDDD Lathe Mill Drill Heat treat Heat treat Heat treat Gear cut Gear cut Grind Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout Related topic: Mixed model Assembly/manufacturing

35 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 35 Types of Layout Group Technology/Cellular Layout A family of similar parts A family of related grocery items Grouping parts into families

36 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 36 Types of Layout Group Technology vs. Cellular Manufacturing Potential benefits of CM  Setup time reduction  Work-in-process (WIP) reduction  Material handling cost reduction  Direct/indirect labor cost reduction  Improvement in quality  Improvement in material flow  Improvement in machine utilization  Improvement in space utilization  Improvement in employee moral

37 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 37 Basic Layout Types Product Volume vs. Product Variety Low Medium High High Medium Low Product Planning Department Fixed Materials Location Planning Department Process Planning Department Product Family Planning Department Product Layout Fixed Location Layout Group Technology Layout Process Layout Volume Variety

38 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 38 DimensionFunctionalCellular Number of moves between departmentsManyFew Travel distancesLongerShorter Travel pathsVariableFixed Job waiting timesGreaterShorter Throughput timeHigherLower Amount of work in processHigherLower Supervision difficultyHigherLower Scheduling complexityHigherLower Equipment utilizationLowerHigher Types of Layout Process (Functional) Layout vs. Cellular Layout

39 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 39 Key: S= Saw L= Lathe HM= Horizontal milling machine VM= Vertical milling machine G= Grinder Paths of three workers moving within cell Material movement In Out Worker 1 Worker 2 Worker 3 Direction of part movement within cell S L HM VM G L Final inspection Finished part A Manufacturing Cell with Worker Paths Types of Layout - Example

40 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 40 Types of Layout - Example Manufacturing Cell Animated Picture

41 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 41 Types of Layout - Example Manufacturing Cell An example of a hybrid layout

42 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 42 Types of Layout - Example Automated Manufacturing Cell An example of a hybrid layout

43 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 43 Types of Layout - Example Flexible Manufacturing Cell An example of a hybrid layout

44 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 44 Work Cell Assembly or Production line-oriented arrangement of machines and personnel in what is ordinarily a process- oriented facility. Cells can be formed on a temporary basis. Example: job shop with rearranged machinery and personnel to produce 30 unique control panels Focused Work Center A permanent assembly-line-oriented arrangement of machines and personnel in what is ordinarily a process- oriented facility Example: manufacturing of pipe brackets at a shipyard Focused Factory A permanent facility to produce a product or component in a product-oriented facility Example: a plant to produce window mechanisms for automobiles Types of Layout Work Cell, Focused Work Center, and Focused Factory

45 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 45  Straight-line Flow Pattern when possible  Backtracking kept to a Minimum  Predictable Production Time  Little In-process materials storage  Open Floor plans so everyone can see what is going on  Bottlenecks under control  Workstations close together  Minimum of material handling  Easy adjustment to changing conditions Principles of a Good Layout Manufacturing

46 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 46 New Trends in Manufacturing Layouts  Designed for quality and flexibility  Ability to quickly shift to different product models or to different production rates  Cellular layout within larger process layouts  Automated material handling  U-shaped production lines use to better accomplish flow control  More open work areas with fewer walls, partitions, or other obstacles  Smaller and more compact factory layouts  Less space provided for storage of inventories throughout the layout

47 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 47 Wrap-Up World-Class Practices  Strive for flexibility in layouts  Multi-job training of workers  Sophisticated preventive-maintenance programs  Flexible machines  Empowered workers trained in problem solving  Layouts small and compact  Services follow the above practices plus incorporate customer needs in design

48 Layout Types: Manufacturing - 48 Wrap-up Attaining Lean Production  Focus on inventory reduction  Build systems that help employees  Reduce space requirements  Develop close relationships with suppliers  Educate suppliers  Eliminate all but value-added activities  Develop the workforce  Make jobs more challenging  Set sights on perfection!


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