5 ObjectiveTo prepare the specimens surfaces to be examined for their microstructure study by the microscope .To learn and to gain experience in the preparation of metallographic specimens.
6 IntroductionMetallography is basically the study of the structures and constitution of metals and alloys, using metallurgical microscopes and magnifications, so that the physical and mechanical properties of an alloy can be related to its observed microstructure.It provides information about the specimen under investigation, including the size and shape of the grains (crystallites), the presence of micro defects (such as segregation, hair cracks, and nonmetallic inclusions), and the nature and distribution of secondary phases.
8 Groundinggrinding is a subset of cutting, as grinding is a true metal cutting process.Abrasive :The use of Premium SiC abrasive paper is the most efficient and practical technique for grinding metallic metallographic specimens. Although many qualities of silicon carbide are readily available, only the premium grade SiC powder provides the most consistent results and highest grinding rates.Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single- point cutting edge and shears a tiny chip that is analogous to what would conventionally be called a "cut" chip (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, etc.)
9 Grinding Soft non-ferrous metals Soft non-ferrous metals - Initial grinding is recommended with 320 grit SiCabrasive paper followed by , 600 and , 800 grit SiC paper. because These materials are relatively soft they do not easily break down the SiC paper.The initial grinding with 320 grit is generally sufficient for minimizing initial deformation and yet maintaining adequate removal rates.For extremely soft materials such as tin, lead and zinc it is also recommended that the abrasive paper be lightly coated with a paraffin wax. The wax reducesthe tendency of the SiC abrasive to embed into the soft specimen.
10 Grinding Ferrous metals Ferrous metals - are relatively easy to grind with the depth of deformation being a major consideration.120 grit SiC abrasives provide a good initial start with subsequent use of 240 or 320, 400, 600 and 800 grit SiC.Super alloys - are generally of moderate hardness but have extremely stable elevated temperature characteristics and corrosion resistance.the procedures for preparing super alloys is very similar to that for most non-ferrous metals.
11 Sample PreparationThe purpose of this practice is to understand how to prepare and interpret metallographic samples systematically.Gather information about chemical composition, heat treatment, processing, phase diagram.Cut representative sample.Mount sample, grind and polish.Examine un etched sample.Etch lightly and examine again.Etch further if necessary.Compare with microstructure expected from equilibrium phase diagram
14 Abrasive Material Materials used for the abrading particles are: garnet: commonly used in woodworkingemery: commonly used to abrade or polish metalaluminium oxide: perhaps most common in widest variety of grits; can be used on metal (i.e. body shops) or woodsilicon carbide: available in very coarse grits all the way through to micro-grits, common in wet applicationsalumina-zirconia: (an aluminium oxide–zirconium oxide alloy), used for machine grinding applicationschromium oxide: used in extremely fine micron grit (micrometre level) papersceramic aluminum oxide: used in high pressure applications, used in both coated abrasives, as well as in bonded abrasives.
15 PolishingPolishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant reflectionAluminum Oxide(0.5, 0.1, 0.05μ)
16 PROCESSThe specimen must 1. Be free from scratches, stains and others imperfections whichtend to mark the surface.2. Reveal no evidence of chipping due to brittle inter metalliccompounds and phases.3. Be free from all traces of disturbed metal.4. The specimen has to be grounded with the help of abrasive papers.5. Polishing enhances the surface and makes it suitable to observe itsgrain structure under Microscope.
17 GrainThe micro structure of many metallic or ceramic materials consists of many grains.A grainis portion of the materials within which the arrangement of the atoms is nearly identical but the orientation or crystal structure of atomsare different.Microstructure of Aluminum
18 and titanium dioxide (Al2O3 . TiO2) A Grain BoundaryThe surface that separates the individual grains is a narrow zoon in which the atoms are properly spaced.One method of controlling the properties of a material is by controlling the grain size.aluminum oxideand titanium dioxide (Al2O3 . TiO2)
19 Surface DefectsSurface defects are the boundaries, or plans, that separate a material into regions.Each region may have the same crystal structure but different orientation
20 Industrial etchingThe surface is than exposed to chemical attack or ETCHING, with grain boundaries being attacked more aggressively than reminder of the grain to reveal the microstructure.Light from an optical microscope is reflected or scattered from the sample surface depending how the surface is etched
21 Etching: Few seconds (15 Sec) Sample material Etchant Composition RemarksCarbon steel(usually 2%)(nitric acid)HNO3 1-5 mlEthyl alcohol 100mlFew seconds (15 Sec)Picric AcidPicric acid 4gAluminumHydrofluoric acidHF (conc.) 0.5mlH2O 99.5mlSwab for 15 sec.
22 Surface Finish and Surface Roughness (Original Magnification 50x)
23 REFERENCESL= /ISU=9/ART=688/MediaObjects/MEDIUM_11661_2011_68 8_Fig26_HTML.jpgL= /ISU=11/ART=749/MediaObjects/MEDIUM_11661_2011_74 9_Fig1_HTML.jpggr11.jpgTHANK YOU