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Raw Materials and Their Impact on the Extrusion of Aqua Feeds Presented by: Brian Plattner, PE Wenger Manufacturing, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Raw Materials and Their Impact on the Extrusion of Aqua Feeds Presented by: Brian Plattner, PE Wenger Manufacturing, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Raw Materials and Their Impact on the Extrusion of Aqua Feeds Presented by: Brian Plattner, PE Wenger Manufacturing, Inc.

2  Recipe  Hardware  Software  Product Specifications Fundamentals of Extrusion Processing

3 Raw Materials Raw materials and their characteristics are always the most important extrusion variable.

4 Particle Size Analysis of Typical Aquatic Feeds Pan U.S. Standard Sieve Openings in Microns Percent on Sieve Geometric Mean Diameter: 327 Microns Geometric Standard Deviation: 1.58

5 Benefits of Proper Particle Size Improved product appearance Reduced incidence of die orifices plugging Ease of cooking Reduced product breakage and fines Increased water stability Improved retention of liquid coatings due to small cell structure

6 Guidelines for Grind of Recipe Maximum particle size = 1/3 of die opening Not to exceed 1.5mm grind 800 micron 1.5 mm

7 US SieveOpening (microns) 1.5 mm grind (%)* 425 micron grind (%)** Pan Particle Size Analysis of Two Grinding Processes of Extruded Feed *Mean Diameter = 316µm, 66,768 particles/g **Mean Diameter = 224µm, 519,365 particles/g

8 GrindBulk Density (g/l) at Given Rate SME (kWh/t) at Given Rate and Bulk Density Rate (kg/h) at Given Bulk Density 1.5 mm microns Effect of Grind Size on Extruded Feed Processing on X85 System

9 Effect of Grind on Floating Aquatic Feed Time (Seconds) Viscosity (cP) Temperature (C) 3.5 g solids 25 ml water Temperature 3/64" Grind 2/64" Grind 40 Mesh Grind

10 Recipe Preparation 1)Grind ingredients to proper particle size 2)Weigh individual ingredients 3)Particle size and density of each ingredient should be similar 4)Premix by hand the micro-ingredients (anything less than 1% of total recipe) and add a carrier (part of a major ingredient) if necessary to bring premix size up to 3% of total recipe 5)Add major ingredients, then premix (from #4) to mixer and mix 3-5 minutes. Add any liquids slowly and then mix another 3-5 minutes 6)Final grind, if required 7)Use sifter and/or magnet to detect and remove foreign material

11 PROTEIN Plant Sources :Soy, Legumes, Wheat/corn glutens, cereal grains Good functional properties Lower cost Amino acid profile may require supplementation Animal or Marine Sources :Meat, Fish, Poultry, Blood, Gelatin Poor functional properties unless fresh or spray dried Higher costs Good amino acid profile

12 Vegetable Proteins in Salmon, Trout, and Shrimp Diets Vegetable Protein Maximum Substitution for Fish Meal (%) Disadvantages Maize Gluten Meal40 Yellow pigmentation of flesh Wheat Gluten25High Cost Soybean Meal50 Palatability and Growth Inhibitors Soy Concentrate75High Cost Canola Meal67 Low Protein Content Hardy (January 1999) Feed Management Magazine

13 Benefits of Vegetable Proteins in Aquatic Diets More expansion potential for floating diets More binding potential for improved durability Reduced ingredient costs Lower incidence of white mineral deposits in screw and die area Higher oil absorption levels possible in coating operations Reduce dependence on fish meal

14 Effect of Vegetable Protein Levels On Extrusion Moisture Vegetable Proteins in Recipe (%) Extrusion Moisture (%)

15 Soybean Meal Nutrient Level Comparison Crude Protein (%) Crude Fiber (%) Oil (%) Dehulled Solvent Extracted Non-dehulled Solvent Extracted Full Fat Soy

16 Addition of Slurries to Extrusion System Maximum particle size not to exceed 1.5 mm Fish ensilage slurries pumped into DDC Fat/oil slurries heated to 60°C Moisture is limiting factor for most slurry additions Enzyme treatments reduce viscosity

17 Wet slurries pumped into DDC preconditioner and extruder barrel (head #2)

18 Positive Displacement Wet Slurry Pump System slaved to Dry Recipe Rate

19 Maximum Wet Slurry Addition to Single Screw Extrusion Systems* % moisture in wet slurry Maximum slurry addition (% of total) Maximum slurry addition (% of dry) % slurry in final dried product * Maximum moisture addition to Single Screw Systems is 16.7%

20 Maximum Meat Addition to Twin Screw Extrusion Systems* % moisture in wet slurry Maximum slurry addition (% of total) Maximum slurry addition (% of dry) % slurry in final dried product * Maximum moisture addition to Twin Screw Systems is 20.0%

21 Protein denatures at C As protein denatures, it becomes insoluble (non-functional) Starch gelatinizes at C As starch gelatinizes it becomes soluble

22 STARCH Carbohydrate - energy source Assists expansion Improves binding and pellet durability Found in two forms  Amylose  Amylopectin % levels in aquatic food Raw potato starch magnified 450 X

23 Effect of Extrusion on Starch Gelatinizes starch Improves digestibility in most species Forms starch-lipid complexes Increases binding characteristics Increases susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis

24 Recommended Starch Levels in Aquatic Feeds Type Floating Sinking Minimum Starch (%) 20 10

25 Starch Content of C ommon Cereal Grains Cereal Grain Corn Winter Wheat Sorghum Barley Oats Unpolished Rice % Starch (Dry Basis)

26 Heat of Gelatinization for Various Starches Starch Source Heat of Gelatinization (cal / gram) Amylose Content (%) Size (microns) High Amylose Corn Potato Tapioca Wheat Waxy Corn

27 Minimum Moisture Levels Necessary to Initiate Starch Gelatinization Wheat Corn Waxy Corn High Amylose Corn Starch Source% Moisture Lower moistures during extrusion require higher extrusion temperatures to achieve same level of cook.

28 Rice as a Starch Source 1)Small, tightly packed starch granules that hydrate slowly 2)Becomes sticky when it gelatinizes 3)Choose long grain varieties over medium and short grain varieties as they are much less sticky when cooked 4)Rice is very digestible even when cook values are low 5)Rice bran may contain up to 40% starch

29 Corn as a Starch Source 1)Good expansion 2)Excellent binding 3)Sticky at high levels (>40%)

30 Wheat as a Starch Source 1)Good binding 2)Good expansion 3)Can be sticky if overcooked 4)Contains gluten (good binder) 5)Most widely available starch source 6)Often utilized as wheat flour which has most of the bran removed

31 Tubers as a Starch Source (Potato & Cassava) 1)Excellent binding (at 5% levels) 2)Requires less total starch in diet 3)Good expansion 4)Often precooked 5)Smooth pellet surface 6)Increased cost

32 Effect of Extrusion on Starch Process Raw Recipe Preconditioner Extruder Dryer % Cook

33 Purposes of Fat in Feeds Energy Source Increases Palatability Provides Essential fatty acids Carrier for Fat Soluble Vitamins

34 Fat Sources Animal Fat Poultry Fat Marine Oils Blended Animal and Vegetable Fats Feed Grade Vegetable Fats Must use FAH (fat acid hydrolysis) method for determining fat levels in extruded products.

35 Effect of Fat Levels on Product Quality (Single Screw Systems) <7% 7-12% 12-17% Above 17% Little or no effect For each 1% of Fat Above 7%, the final bulk density will increase 16 g/l Product will have little or no expansion, but will retain some durability Final product durability may be poor Level of Fat in Extruded Mix Effect on Product Quality Add 5% to above figures for twin screw systems

36 Effect of Internal Levels of Fat on Expansion of Extruded Feeds % Added Fat Bulk Density (g / l)

37 Internal Fat vs. Pellet Durability Internal Fat (%) Maximum Compressive Stress (g / mm 2 )

38 To Maximize Fat Inclusion Levels Formulate with ingredients high in indigenous fats (example: flax meal) Heat fats to C prior to inclusion Add late in the process Maintain starch / function protein levels Increase thermal and/or mechanical energy inputs Increase moisture levels during extrusion

39 IngredientMoisture (%) Protein (%) Fat (%) Starch (%) Fish meal, Menhaden Corn gluten meal Soy Bean Meal Broken rice Wheat flour Potato Starch Fish Silage

40 Vitamin & Pigment Retention Vitamin/Pigment Retention Depends On: :Raw material formulation :Temperature :Moistures :Retention times An average of 10 to 15 percent of vitamins and pigments are lost during extrusion. Compensation is made by overages. Heat stable forms are preferred.

41 Preservation System Required for Soft Moist Aquatic Feeds (Final product moisture of 16-28%) Lower Aw (water activity) below 0.70 with humectants at 10-12% levels Reduce pH to with acids at 1-2% levels or with fish silage/solubles Add mold inhibitors at % levels

42 Effect of Extrusion on Microbial Populations Microbe 240,00 22,600 54,540 16,000 positive negative 9,300 <10 negative TPC (CFU/g) Coli form Mold count Clostridium Listeria Salmonella Raw Recipe After Extrusion

43 Time (Seconds) Thermal Plastic Spores E. Coli Salmonella Listeria Temperature (C) 3050 Thermal Destruction Studies for Pathogenic Organisms

44 Effect of Extrusion Temperature on Fumonisin Toxin Levels (Katta, Jackson, Sumner, Hanna, Bullerman, Cereal Chem. 76(1):16-20, 1999) Extrusion Temperature (C) Fumonisin B 1 Recovered (%)

45 Effects of Heat Processing on Insect Survival > Death in less than 1 minute Death in less than 1 hour Death in less than 1 day Max temperature for reproduction Optimum for development Feed Management, January 2001, Vol. 52, No. 1, pg 27 Temperature (°C)Effect

46 After Ripening Factor Biochemical changes occurring after harvest are influenced by storage time.

47 By-Products Starch / Filler Sources :Wheat Bran :Wheat Midds (Pollards) :Rice Bran Protein Sources :Co-Products such as DDGS

48 By-ProductMoisture (%) Protein (%) Fat (%) Fiber (%) Sorghum DDG Dried Brewers Grains (Barley) Wheat DDG Corn DDG By-Products

49 Effects of Adding Rework to Recipe (5 to 10 percent levels) Darker color Less expansion, higher bulk density Higher levels of cook More defined shape

50 +Starch +Oil (Internal) +Fiber +Functional Protein +Non-Functional Protein +Rework -+?-++-+?-++ Bulk Density RECIPE Product Hardness Smooth Skin More Uniform Better Shape Definition (1) (2) + ?+???+?+???+ ?++?++?++?++ (1) Function of grind and particle size (2) Large cell structure


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