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Assessment of capacity development progress in IWRM Readiness & Willingness of the public to participate in IWM: Some insights from the Levant Dr. Philippe.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment of capacity development progress in IWRM Readiness & Willingness of the public to participate in IWM: Some insights from the Levant Dr. Philippe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of capacity development progress in IWRM Readiness & Willingness of the public to participate in IWM: Some insights from the Levant Dr. Philippe Ker Rault & Dr. Heleen Vreugdenhil May 2013

2 Content 1.Background on public participation in IWM 2.Research Objectives & Questions 3.Theoretical Framework & Methodology 4.Individual knowledge of WM challenges 5.Attitude towards participation 6.Conclusions 7.Recommendations

3 Background IWM is based on a participative approach, but… WM is a complex societal problem: Solution identification is influenced by problem understanding (interconnection, interaction, uncertainty). Public Participation is also subject to different interpretations, as a problem solving tool, it is a wicked concept.... But little is known on the readiness and willingness of the wider public to participate

4 Background Barriers to implementation A barrier for implementation is the top-down (negative) perception of the wider public. The perception that the wider public 1.is not well organised 2.has limited knowledge of water management challenges Limited awareness of environmental problems No holistic view of water management Reasons: Uneducated Lack interest in environmental issues

5 Research Objectives & Questions To present a grounded investigation of public knowledge of water management challenges and the publics’ attitude to participation in the Levant at river basin level 1.What is the individual knowledge of water management challenges at river basin level in the Levant? 2. What is the public’s attitude to participation in water management: their experiences, willingness to participate and expectations towards public participation? 3. Are there statistical correlations between sociological descriptors such as gender, age, level of education and knowledge and attitude?

6 Case Study Areas Gökova Bay, Turkey Tartous, Syria Chekka Bay, Lebanon AZB, Jordan

7 Theoretical Framework & Methodology Grounded Theory Methodology Inductive & Theoretical Qualitative & Quantitative approach 8 Expert scoping interviews 60 initial stakeholders questionnaires 1800 questionnaires (social survey) 121 decision-influencer open questionnaires-interviews

8 Results: Individual knowledge How urgent is the need to make an effort to manage efficiently in your region? Perceived need to improve WM

9 Suggestions to improve WM Results: Individual knowledge

10 Suggestions to improve WM - examples of ‘Very Rich Answers’ Harvesting rainwater in every house/farms; Use modern irrigation techniques (eg drip irrigation); Water saving measures; Financial schemes (eg fines for people not complying with rules); Holding debates to enlighten people about the importance of water management processes Results: Individual knowledge 24% in Jordan & in Lebanon, 13% in Syria, 0% in Turkey

11 Results Attitude to Participate Willingness to be involved in water debate

12 Preferred type of involvement RankJordanLebanonSyriaTurkey 1 st choice Participating in public debates 2 nd choice Give my opinion about options Voting on options Give my opinion about options Electing spokesperson 3 rd choice Electing spokesperson Give my opinion about options Electing spokesperson Give my opinion about options 4 th choice Voting on options Electing spokesperson Voting on options Results Attitude to Participate

13 Preferred type of involvement RankJordanLebanonSyriaTurkey 1 st choice Participating in public debates 2 nd choice Give my opinion about options Voting on options Give my opinion about options Electing spokesperson 3 rd choice Electing spokesperson Give my opinion about options Electing spokesperson Give my opinion about options 4 th choice Voting on options Electing spokesperson Voting on options

14 Results Attitude to Participate Reasons for participating ChoiceJordanLebanonSyriaTurkey 1 st Give my opinion Receive Information Exchange ViewsGive my opinion 2 nd Exchange ViewsGive my opinion Receive Information 3 rd Receive Information Exchange Views Receive Information Exchange Views 4 th Resolve Conflict 5 th Common Solution 6 th Have Power

15 Results: sociological descriptors Role of gender, age and level of education on attitude towards Public Participation No distinction between gender in all four study area -women and men have similar knowledge in WM and attitude towards participation. Little distinction in age group -mid-age group (26-45 yrs old) has slightly higher knowledge in WM and willingness to participate than youngest and oldest respondents. Level of education impacts the quality of answers, interest in WM and willingness to participate However, in Jordan and Lebanon respondents with lower education level were sometimes very knowledgeable and willing to participate

16 Correlation between perceived need to improve water management and quantity and quality of answers to improve water management change water consumption habits the willingness to be involved in water debates. Results: sociological descriptors

17 Key topicsSub-themeJordanLebanonSyriaTurkey Individual knowledge of water management challenges Perception of need to improve water management Balanced: 50 % at least urgent 80% at least urgent93% at least urgent Balanced: 47% at least urgent Suggestion to improve water management Suggesti on 93%96%91%49% Type Increase supply, improve quality, WTW, WTW, increase supply & improve quality, Politics Sustainable use, education, technical & planning Management & politics VRA24% 13%0% Suggestion to reduce household consumption Suggesti on 76%58%32%17% Nature of measure s Coercive, Technical, Behavioural Behavioural Behavioural, Coercive, Technical Behavioural, Technical, Coercive Attitudes towards participation Experience & familiarityAnecdotic Willingness to be involved64%37%65%27% Preferred type of involvement Participating in public debates, give my opinion Participating in public debates, voting on options Participating in public debates, give my opinion Participating in public debates, electing spokesperson Reasons and objectives for participating in water issues Give my opinion, exchange views Receive information, give my opinion Exchange view, give my opinion Give my opinion, receive information Synthesis Causes for water scarcity Physical scarcity and technical issues, scarcity of accountability & governance, Behavioural Scarcity of organisation capacity, accountability & governance issue Sustainable use, education, technical & planning Scarcity of organisation capacity, accountability & governance issue Public understandings of WMCs Moderate concern, good knowledge, integrated understanding Strong concern & knowledge, technical suggestions before all Strong concern, moderate knowledge, behavioural & usage focused Moderate concern, moderate knowledge, Societal descriptors of influence Age, Level of Education, Perception of Urgency none Level of Education, Perception of Urgency Conclusions

18 Content Key topicsSub-themeJordanLebanonSyriaTurkey Individual knowledge of water management challenges Perception of need to improve water management Balanced: 50 % at least urgent 80% at least urgent93% at least urgent Balanced: 47% at least urgent Suggestion to improve water management 93%96%91%49% Suggestion to reduce household consumption 76%58%32%17% Attitudes towards participation Experience & familiarityAnecdotic Willingness to be involved64%37%65%27% Preferred type of involvement Participating in public debates, give my opinion Participating in public debates, voting on options Participating in public debates, give my opinion Participating in public debates, electing spokesperson Reasons and objectives for participating in water issues Give my opinion, exchange views Receive information, give my opinion Exchange view, give my opinion Give my opinion, receive information Synthesis Public understandings of WMCs Moderate concern, good knowledge, integrated understandin Strong concern & knowledge, technical suggestions before all Strong concern, moderate knowledge, behavioural & usage focused Moderate concern, moderate knowledge, Conclusions

19 Conclusions: readiness The public is rather interested, knowledgeable and aware that water scarcity must be addressed at both institutional and individual levels. In the country with the lowest TARWR (Total Actual Renewable Water Resources ), Jordan, the population has the most comprehensive understanding of causes for poor water management.

20 Conclusions: willingness Public in all four areas is willing to participate, but more in low TAWRW countries than in high TAWRW countries Preferred mode of participation is direct involvement Prime objective for PP is to have power to communicate, express opinions and exchange personal understanding of the situation in which one lives, NOT to have power over decisions! 3 mains reasons to participate: SOCIAL LEARNING Give my opinions to the public authority about future plans Exchange views with other citizens and stakeholders Receive some information about future plans the public authority will implement

21 Conclusions Conditions to foster public participation seem to require both 1- Political stability: an open society where opinions can be formed and exchanged, 2- Enough pressure on resources and services for the public to be interested and willing to take part in water management...But... The apparent disorder of the wider public remains a strong hurdle to initiate the process

22 Recommendations 3-step approach to create structure between social actors and WM 1.Structuration of the problem 2.Structuration of the social actors and participative SK maps 3.Structuration of the process: who participate for what: what who when approach KEY Messages Public participation is a dynamic process & different types of participation for difference challenges The performative power of participation is initially to construct a rich inclusive reality of the situation people experience.

23 Purpose of 5th Symposium Thank you for your attention. Philippe Ange KER RAULT Alterra, Wageningen University, NL Heleen VREUGDENHIL ICIS, Maastricht University, NL Paul JEFFREY Centre for water science, Cranfield University, UK Jill Hillary SLINGER TU Delft, Policy Analysis, NL


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