2 CausesRussian people had a long history of being upset with the government, however, WWI made these problems worse:-Soldiers were ill prepared and dying-Famines from the war were killing millions-poor military leadership-distrust the Czar and German born Czarina-serfdom keeps peasants poor
3 The Czar and his family are put under house arrest March Revolution 1917-Protestors shout Bread! Bread! Bread! -Soldier join the demonstrators -Czar Nicholas abdicates (_____________) and the Duma takes over-The Duma continues the war because they want to avoid punishment, but this is causes further anger among Russians. Allows Lenin to come to power.gives up throneThe Czar and his family are put under house arrest
4 Lenin -A socialist who believes in Communism and Marxist thought -Led the Bolsheviks (___________)-believed in a small number of elite leading the “revolution” into communism-Was exiled but sent back to Russia in April 1917 by Germany after the March Revolution of 1917communists
5 Lenin’s Goals Peace, Land, Bread Help the elite proletariat rise up against the bourgeoisie and instill Communism -Give workers control of the factories and farms-Gained support through the slogan “Peace, Land, Bread”Peace, Land, BreadGet out of WWIGuarantee basic daily needsEnd serfdom and give peasants small plots of private land
6 Bolshevik Red Army wins 1921 November Revolution 1917-The Bolsheviks (______________) take power without bloodshedProblems:To get out of WWI Russia must give up large amounts of land. Accomplished with the signing of the Brest-Litovsk treatyCivil War between:Lenin’s Red Army- Bolsheviks/ communistsWhite Army- Czar’s loyalists and Allied forcesReign of Terror- kill opponents and Czar’s familyMillions die from starvation as the civil war drags on for 3 yearscommunistsBolshevik Red Army wins 1921
7 The RomanovsThe Czar and his family were placed into house arrest after his abdication.They are relatively safe until Lenin and the Bolsheviks take control.Fearing for their lives the Romanov family begins to plan an escape. They sew jewels into their clothes and make plans. However, before they can escape the Romanovs are taken to the basement and assassinated, including Anastasia.
8 USSR- United Soviet Socialist Republics Lenin’s War Communism- His attempt to bring strict Marxism to Russia-Government seizes control of banks, mines, factories and railroads-peasants deliver “surplus” food to cities-Red army becomes highly effective (every 10th man is shot if they fail)War communism fails as the economy plummets. Instead, Lenin must resort to his NEP- New Economic Policy- small businesses can open FOR profit and farmers can SELL surplus food for profit.Is the NEP strict communism? Why or why not?
9 Stalin comes to Power Lenin dies suddenly in 1924 Stalin and Trotsky compete for power in the partyStalin had spent years giving away jobs and these people owed allegiance to himTrotsky was an educated and talented leader, but lacked supportIn the end Stalin is chosen to succeed Lenin and Trotsky goes into exile in South America where he is later assassinated.StalinTrotsky
10 Capitalist (Free Market) Stalin’s 5 year plansStalin set up a command economy: the government makes all decisionsCreated 5 year plans to-build industry (industrialize!)-improve transport-increase farm output*The government owns all businesses and allocates resources*CommandCapitalist (Free Market)*Government controls*Government makes decisions on production*entrepreneurs own business*Supply and Demand
11 Totalitarian StateTotalitarian: The Government controls every aspect of daily life-Great purge to get rid of opponents-Government controls industry and agriculture-Farms become collectives*peasants work on large state owned farms called collectives. They had no control and the government seized their animals, tools and machines.-Workers were forced to achieve quotas:-success= reward-failure=punishment-Stalin also abolished the church- Russia became an atheist state which worshipped Stalin, Lenin or Marx
12 1937-1938 Purge of the Army •Members of the Supreme Military Soviet •Vice-Commissars•Brigade Commissars•Marshalls•Army Commanders•Brigade Commanders•Original NumberExecuted•8075•1111•3634•53•1614•397221
13 Used propaganda to spread his message and enforce his policies. Stalin’s propagandaUsed propaganda to spread his message and enforce his policies.
14 Socialist Benefits and Drawbacks *Free Education *Low Cost housing *Basic survival needs met *free transportation*free healthcare*Poor quality, crowded housing *Transportation not reliable*no way to advance in career*Communist party members were the eliteIs this a true communist, classless state?
15 American, French and Russian Revs American Least Radical -Served as a model -DemocracyFrench 1789-executed thousands-inspired revoltsRussian 1917-seized peasant land-government takes absolute control-millions dieThe American and French Revolutions gave more power to the peasants and middle classes
16 Review Which is generally a characteristic of a communist economy? 1. investment is encouraged by the promise of large profits2. the role of government in the economy is restricted by law3. government agencies are involved in production planning4. entrepreneurs sell shares in their companies to the government
17 ReviewStalin’s Five-Year Plans and his decision to form collectives are examples of1. strategies to modernize the economy of the Soviet Union through forced communism2. a more friendly foreign policy toward China3. methods of dealing with the United States during the Cold War4. programs to westernize, educate, and enlighten the population
18 Review A major cause of the Russian Revolution of 1917 was the 1. defeat of Germany in the Russian campaign2. marriage of Czar Nicholas II to a German princess3. existence of sharp economic differences between social classes4. appeal of Marxism to the Russian nobility
19 ReviewWhich is an accurate statement about the Soviet economy under the leadership of Joseph Stalin?1. a large selection of consumer goods became available2. the Soviet Union increased its industrial output by developing heavy industry3. private farmers were encouraged to sell their surplus produce in an open market4. the government reduced its role in planning industrial production
20 ReviewThe Russian peasants supported the Bolsheviks in the 1917 Revolutions mainly because the Bolsheviks promised to1. establish collective farms2. maintain the agricultural price-support system3. bring modern technology to Russian farms4. redistribute the land owned by the nobility
21 ReviewWhich slogan expressed the ideals of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917?1. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity2. Bread, Land, and Peace3. Land and Liberty4. Nationalism, Democracy, and the People’s Livelihood