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Russian Revolution.

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1 Russian Revolution

2 Causes Russian people had a long history of being upset with the government, however, WWI made these problems worse: -Soldiers were ill prepared and dying -Famines from the war were killing millions -poor military leadership -distrust the Czar and German born Czarina -serfdom keeps peasants poor

3 The Czar and his family are put under house arrest
March Revolution 1917 -Protestors shout Bread! Bread! Bread! -Soldier join the demonstrators -Czar Nicholas abdicates (_____________) and the Duma takes over -The Duma continues the war because they want to avoid punishment, but this is causes further anger among Russians. Allows Lenin to come to power. gives up throne The Czar and his family are put under house arrest

4 Lenin -A socialist who believes in Communism and Marxist thought
-Led the Bolsheviks (___________) -believed in a small number of elite leading the “revolution” into communism -Was exiled but sent back to Russia in April 1917 by Germany after the March Revolution of 1917 communists

5 Lenin’s Goals Peace, Land, Bread
Help the elite proletariat rise up against the bourgeoisie and instill Communism -Give workers control of the factories and farms -Gained support through the slogan “Peace, Land, Bread” Peace, Land, Bread Get out of WWI Guarantee basic daily needs End serfdom and give peasants small plots of private land

6 Bolshevik Red Army wins 1921
November Revolution 1917 -The Bolsheviks (______________) take power without bloodshed Problems: To get out of WWI Russia must give up large amounts of land. Accomplished with the signing of the Brest-Litovsk treaty Civil War between: Lenin’s Red Army- Bolsheviks/ communists White Army- Czar’s loyalists and Allied forces Reign of Terror- kill opponents and Czar’s family Millions die from starvation as the civil war drags on for 3 years communists Bolshevik Red Army wins 1921

7 The Romanovs The Czar and his family were placed into house arrest after his abdication. They are relatively safe until Lenin and the Bolsheviks take control. Fearing for their lives the Romanov family begins to plan an escape. They sew jewels into their clothes and make plans. However, before they can escape the Romanovs are taken to the basement and assassinated, including Anastasia.

8 USSR- United Soviet Socialist Republics
Lenin’s War Communism- His attempt to bring strict Marxism to Russia -Government seizes control of banks, mines, factories and railroads -peasants deliver “surplus” food to cities -Red army becomes highly effective (every 10th man is shot if they fail) War communism fails as the economy plummets. Instead, Lenin must resort to his NEP- New Economic Policy- small businesses can open FOR profit and farmers can SELL surplus food for profit. Is the NEP strict communism? Why or why not?

9 Stalin comes to Power Lenin dies suddenly in 1924
Stalin and Trotsky compete for power in the party Stalin had spent years giving away jobs and these people owed allegiance to him Trotsky was an educated and talented leader, but lacked support In the end Stalin is chosen to succeed Lenin and Trotsky goes into exile in South America where he is later assassinated. Stalin Trotsky

10 Capitalist (Free Market)
Stalin’s 5 year plans Stalin set up a command economy: the government makes all decisions Created 5 year plans to -build industry (industrialize!) -improve transport -increase farm output *The government owns all businesses and allocates resources* Command Capitalist (Free Market) *Government controls *Government makes decisions on production *entrepreneurs own business *Supply and Demand

11 Totalitarian State Totalitarian: The Government controls every aspect of daily life -Great purge to get rid of opponents -Government controls industry and agriculture -Farms become collectives *peasants work on large state owned farms called collectives. They had no control and the government seized their animals, tools and machines. -Workers were forced to achieve quotas: -success= reward -failure=punishment -Stalin also abolished the church- Russia became an atheist state which worshipped Stalin, Lenin or Marx

12 1937-1938 Purge of the Army •Members of the Supreme Military Soviet
•Vice-Commissars •Brigade Commissars •Marshalls •Army Commanders •Brigade Commanders •Original NumberExecuted •8075 •1111 •3634 •53 •1614 •397221

13 Used propaganda to spread his message and enforce his policies.
Stalin’s propaganda Used propaganda to spread his message and enforce his policies.

14 Socialist Benefits and Drawbacks
*Free Education *Low Cost housing *Basic survival needs met *free transportation *free healthcare *Poor quality, crowded housing *Transportation not reliable *no way to advance in career *Communist party members were the elite Is this a true communist, classless state?

15 American, French and Russian Revs
American Least Radical -Served as a model -Democracy French 1789 -executed thousands -inspired revolts Russian 1917 -seized peasant land -government takes absolute control -millions die The American and French Revolutions gave more power to the peasants and middle classes

16 Review Which is generally a characteristic of a communist economy?
1. investment is encouraged by the promise of large profits 2. the role of government in the economy is restricted by law 3. government agencies are involved in production planning 4. entrepreneurs sell shares in their companies to the government

17 Review Stalin’s Five-Year Plans and his decision to form collectives are examples of 1. strategies to modernize the economy of the Soviet Union through forced communism 2. a more friendly foreign policy toward China 3. methods of dealing with the United States during the Cold War 4. programs to westernize, educate, and enlighten the population

18 Review A major cause of the Russian Revolution of 1917 was the
1. defeat of Germany in the Russian campaign 2. marriage of Czar Nicholas II to a German princess 3. existence of sharp economic differences between social classes 4. appeal of Marxism to the Russian nobility

19 Review Which is an accurate statement about the Soviet economy under the leadership of Joseph Stalin? 1. a large selection of consumer goods became available 2. the Soviet Union increased its industrial output by developing heavy industry 3. private farmers were encouraged to sell their surplus produce in an open market 4. the government reduced its role in planning industrial production

20 Review The Russian peasants supported the Bolsheviks in the 1917 Revolutions mainly because the Bolsheviks promised to 1. establish collective farms 2. maintain the agricultural price-support system 3. bring modern technology to Russian farms 4. redistribute the land owned by the nobility

21 Review Which slogan expressed the ideals of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? 1. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity 2. Bread, Land, and Peace 3. Land and Liberty 4. Nationalism, Democracy, and the People’s Livelihood

22 Review

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