Presentation on theme: "Western Europe was the dominant power 1450-1750. European exceptionalism? Beneficiaries of years of hemispheric developments Competition drove them Weber’s."— Presentation transcript:
European exceptionalism? Beneficiaries of years of hemispheric developments Competition drove them Weber’s Capitalism and the Protestant work ethic Limited monarchies in England and Netherlands (French?) Remember Grouping (at least3 ways), meaning, and point of view
Argues as a geographic determinist that geography played a determining role in the conquest of the Americas. Europe ( Eurasia) had large animals (which Eurasians developed immunities to their diseases) facilitated conquest of Australia and the Americas. How might you group this? Title, theme, perspective
China always seemed to be ahead of the maritime game advancing perhaps through state-sponsorship (ex Ming Dynasties diplomatic voyages of Zhen He: see doc #3) or perhaps their civil service administration and government efficiency or even the emphasis on Neo-Confucianism and the Mandate of Heaven’s desire to maintain power
One could argue that China should have dominated based both by the map as well as the large “treasure ships” of Zheng He. We will see in the next document how this would be abandoned by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty. The small Caravel (pictured as the smaller vessel next to the Junk) would benefit, perhaps, by China’s new (yet traditional) form of isolation
They argue that it wasn't just the Ming Dynasty’s policy shift, but, the junk ships sailed by Zheng He were not feasible and efficient enough for trade (like the Caravel). The weather proved to detrimental to the junk as did missionary, competitive monopolizing and establishment of port cities in Oceanic trade ( China left that up to the Europeans ( remember Europeans were navigating in the Pacific and Indian Oceans as well at the Atlantic)
He initially makes mention of Landes ( a Eurocentric historian who argues of the European exceptionalism) and debates that China’s decision to cease maritime trade was a rational decision and that they maintained their dominance (hegemony) through the 18 th century. This document may be grouped as an argument with other documents (perhaps 2 and 3) that Europe was not dominant
Argues that Europe was thrust into a competitive realm where they had to fight to remain relevant. This may have begun with feudal competitions and translated into Monarchal competitions facilitating advancement in many fields (technology, enlighten, scientific inquiry, limited governments, mercantilism, etc.) This can be grouped politically, under the competitive argument, or pro- Europe (but moderate as opposed to Eurocentric)
Dr. Kennedy from Yale argues that not only competition but the driving desire, centralization of monarchs (absolutism under the word nexus of power) and the economic theme of banking and trade.
This illustration of the “Great Dying” in both the Aztec and Inca societies argue ( along with Prof. Diamond in Doc# 1) that is was disease which facilitated the conquest of the Americas by Europeans ( this could be environmental or biological, or even lucky)
Atahualpa was the last Inca Emperor who was taken by Pizarro as captive. Here Pizarro ethnocentrically looks down upon this Emperor and states that he had conquered greater kingdoms and is doing so in the name of his King, and faith. He looks down upon the faith and intention to subjugate the Incas ( a policy which would continue in the encomienda and repartamiento system)
Native American who might provide a view as to the motives and dynamism of the first Europeans (Pocahontas for Thanksgiving) Zheng He’s diary which would provide motives, items traded for tribute and extensive knowledge of whether his junk ships did make it to the shores of the Americas in 1421 Arab navigators along the Indian Ocean trade to determine why they did not feel obliged to leave the lucrative Indian Ocean trade.
Many scholars debate the notion of why Europe explored and would eventually conquer much of the known world starting in the 15 th century. Some argue that Europe were the beneficiaries of years of interconnectivity which they tapped into, others debate that the Ming Dynasty’s decision to isolate was Europe’s fortunate gain while still others argue that European exceptionalism came from their competitive drive forming limited monarchies and the basis for capitalism