Presentation on theme: "Unit 4-Connecting Hemispheres. Chapter 16 Section 1 -What region of North America was rich in resources and population? -What used in the American Southwest."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 4-Connecting Hemispheres
Chapter 16 Section 1 -What region of North America was rich in resources and population? -What used in the American Southwest to harvest crops? -What was used by the Anasazi to build from the canyons? -What was built by the Mississipian culture? -What linked groups in North America? -What was the primary religious view? -How was the land viewed? -What was the family organization?
Section 2 -When was the classic period in the Mayan’s history? -What was found in the Mayan cities? -What good were exchanged in the cities? -What was practiced agriculturally? -What were the different classes in Mayan society? -How were calendars important to the Mayans? -Why did human sacrifices take place? -What were the two calendars in the Mayans? -How did math and astronomy become important? -What was the writing used for? -What are some of the reasons the Mayans may have disappeared?
Section 3 -Where did the first major civilization of Central America originate? -Who rose to power in the 900s? -What did the Toltecs base their empire on? -Where did the Aztecs come from? -How did the Aztecs govern? -How was Aztec society based? -What city became the major city of the Aztecs? -What did the Aztecs base their religion on? -What was practiced by the Aztecs? -Who was usually sacrificed? -What did the empire begin to demand from it’s subjects?
Section 4 -Where did the Incas originate? -Who did the Inca’s believe their ruler originated from? -How did the Incas gain their territory? -What did the Incas do to conquered people? -Why were schools formed? -Where did the roads lead to? -How were families divided? -What was the main demand from the Incas? -What were built for travelers? -What was never developed? -What was developed to keep records? -Who did the Incas worship? -How were Inca cities important?
Chapter 17 Section 1 -How is Renaissance defined? -How much of the population died because of the Bubonic Plague? -What developed in each Italian city? -Who dominated politics? -What was suggested by Humanists? -What did some people become as opposed to religious? -How were viewed women? -Who were the important artists and authors? Section 2 -When did block printing reach Europe? -What was printed by Gutenberg? -What were the major changes in society?
Through laziness and cowardice a large part of mankind, even after nature has freed them from alien guidance, gladly remain immature. It is because of laziness and cowardice that it is so easy for others to usurp the role of guardians. It is so comfortable to be a minor! If I have a book which provides meaning for me, a pastor who has conscience for me, a doctor who will judge my diet for me and so on, then I do not need to think; if I can pay, others will take over the tedious job for me. The guardians who have kindly undertaken the supervision will see to it that by far the largest part of mankind, including the entire “beautiful sex,” should consider the step into maturity, not only as difficult but as very dangerous... But it is more nearly possible for a public to enlighten itself: this is even inescapable if only the public is given its freedom... All that is required for this enlightenment is freedom; and particularly the least harmful of all that may be called freedom, namely, the freedom for man to make public use of his reason in all matters... Immanuel Kant, philosopher known for his analysis of the human mind(1781) What is Enlightenment?
Section 3 -What was the criticism of the church? -What were many priests unable to do? -What was written by Martin Luther? -What were the teachings of Martin Luther? -What was Martin Luther declared? -What did the non-Catholics become known as? -Where did the Protestants become powerful? -What were the circumstances to King Henry VIII forming a new church? -What two daughters battled for power? -What formed under the Anglican church?
How does it happen that the popes pretend that they form the Church, when, all the while, they are bitter enemies of the Church, and have no knowledge, certainly no comprehension, of the holy gospel? Pope, cardinals, bishops, not a soul of them has read the Bible; it is a book unknown to them. They are a pack of guzzling, gluttonous wretches, rich, wallowing in wealth and laziness, resting secure in their power, and never, for a moment, thinking of accomplishing God’s will. Kings and princes coin money only out of metals, but the pope coins money out of everything—indulgences, ceremonies, dispensation, pardons; all fish come to his net... In Italy, the monasteries are very wealthy. There are but three or four monks to each; the surplus of their revenues goes to the pope and his cardinals. Martin Luther, the leader of the protestant reformation(1510s) Table Talk
Section 4 -What were Calvin’s beliefs on being saved? -What was the ideal government to Calvin? -What church formed? -What were the two beliefs of the Anabaptists? -What reforms did the Catholic Church make?
Most times, the young do not appreciate the welfare of the family. Perhaps it seems to them that by bowing to matrimony they will lose much of their freedom in life. Perhaps they are overcome at times and caught in the clutches of a woman they love, as the comic poets are pleased to portray them. Perhaps the young find it most annoying having to maintain themselves, and therefore think that providing for a wife and children in addition to themselves is an overwhelming and hateful burden and are afraid they cannot properly take care of the needs which keep pace with the family’s growth. Because of this, they consider the marriage bed too bothersome and avoid their duty honestly to enlarge the family. For these reasons, we must convince the young to marry by using reason, persuasion, rewards, and all other arguments so that the family may not be reduced to few members, which as we said, is a most unfortunate condition, but grow in glory and the number of its young... Leon Battista Alberti, educated scholar son of a wealthy Florence merchant(1443), Book of the Family
Chapter 18 Section 1 -What assisted the Ottomans in becoming powerful? -What did non-Muslims not have to do? -Who burned Baghdad to the ground? -How was Constantinople important? Section 3 -Who gained power in India? -What religions were able to be practiced under Akbar? -Who could rise up in office? -What could children not inherit? -What was built by Shah Jahan -Who was appointed to be police? -What was banned? -Who moved into the region to colonize over time?
Chapter 19 Section 1 -What were the 3 reasons Europeans wanted to explore? -What was hoped by the merchants? -Who controlled the trade routes to the East? -What did Christian nations believe? -What could ships not do? -What was Portugal the first to do? -What took place in 1488? -What was believed by Columbus? -What was drawn up by the Spanish and Portuguese? -What was advantageous about not going through the Arab trade routes? -Who began to dominate the Indian Ocean in the 1600s? -What was formed to make trade easier and more profitable? -What nations became the main powers in S.E. Asia?
Section 2 -What did Hongwu hope to restore? -What took place under Yonglo’s rule? -What was complained about the voyages? -Why didn’t China become industrialized? -What problems took place in the 1600s in China? -Who group gained power though was resisted? -What did foreigners have to do if they wanted to trade? -Who did not like the restrictions? -Who was taken over by the Chinese and made a vassal state? -What grew under the Qing Dynasty? -Who was not valued?
Section 3 -Who bore the brunt of the taxes in Japan? -What population shift took place? -Who was able to find jobs? -Why were the Japanese interested in European trade? -Who was welcomed at first but gradually became a threat? -What was declared illegal? -What took place for the next 200 years?
1. Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to leave for foreign countries. 2. No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. If there is anyone who attempts to do so secretly, he must be executed. The ship so involved must be impounded and it owner arrested, an the matter must be reported to the higher authority. 3. If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death. 4. If there is any place where the teachings of the Catholic priests is practiced, the two of you must order a thorough investigation. 7. If there are any Southern Barbarians who propagate the teachings of the priests, or otherwise commit crimes, they may be incarcerated in the prison... 10. Samurai are not permitted to purchase any goods originating from foreign ships directly from Chinese merchants in Nagasaki. Tokugawa Iemitsu, The shogun of Japan(1635) Closed Country Edict of 1635
Chapter 20 Section 3 -Why were Africans valued as slaves? -Who took the lead in the African slave trade? -Why did African leaders participate in the slave trade? -What was the triangle trade? -How did slaves resist? Section 4 -What was the Columbian exchange? -What diseases were brought to the Americas? -What began to grow across Europe? -What happened to the price of goods? -What companies formed? -What was the goal of mercantilism?