Presentation on theme: "Oppositional Defiant Disorder Contributed by Lydia Ellwood I have prepared an introductory PP to use as training for tutors in college, to increase their."— Presentation transcript:
Oppositional Defiant Disorder Contributed by Lydia Ellwood I have prepared an introductory PP to use as training for tutors in college, to increase their knowledge and strategies for use in the classroom. All resources in the "Contributions" section of our resource bank have been submitted by delegates on our Managing Extreme Behaviour Online course. For more information about this practical, self-paced course, please visit
Defined as excessive, often persistent anger, frequent temper tantrums or angry outbursts, as well as disregard for authority. Children and adolescents often purposely annoy others, blame others for their own mistakes, and are easily disrupted.
The student is suffering too! They are behaving this way because it is a learned behaviour, either from home, peers or educational experience
To be diagnosed with ODD these behaviours must cause considerable distress for the family and/or interfere significantly with academic or social functioning. These behaviours must persist for at least six months and be beyond normal behaviour. Common co-morbid conditions are ADHD, depression and substance abuse. These will increase the effects of the ODD.
Indicators are: Angry and resentful of others Prefer revenge to solutions Placing others in harmful situations Actively refuse to comply Deliberately annoys others Blames others for own mistakes Argumentative
Can progress to Conduct Disorder Which can lead to a prison sentence It is important to not reinforce unwanted behaviour Each student is an individual Think about what their issues are?
They have deficits with dealing with frustration Tend to be “hot headed” They want a reaction from you They do not always understand the consequences They do not always understand the question
Strategies Remain calm! Do not to rise to the bait! Remove them from the situation – less audience Listen to their problems properly Explain what is expected of them and ensure that they understand
Strategies continued Focus on prevention – what can you do to make sure this does not happen again Engage them in other activities Notify changes in advance Ensure any consequence is effective for the individual Give them concise targets – no swearing in class
Language Allow passion in your voice but not anger Prefix or suffix with “Thank you” Give two brief clear alternatives Allow them processing time Speak slowly and clearly but do not embarrass them
Tips Praise where appropriate – make it specific to them Pick your battles – choose what is important Get in and out without confrontation Treat them as though they are excellent Start each lesson with a clean slate Don’t get distracted by secondary behaviours
There are many theories behind behaviour and how to deal with them. We are going to look at: Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) Restorative Approach
Applied Behaviour Analysis Positive and negative reinforcement Positive and negative punishment
Positive ReinforcementNegative Reinforcement Adding something to encourage the behaviour to continue. Money Stars Food Removing something to encourage the behaviour to continue Chores Vegetables Bed time Positive PunishmentNegative punishment Adding something to discourage the behaviour Detention Homework Clean your room Removing something to discourage the behaviour Movie Phone Time with friends
When have you used ABA?
The Restorative Approach is a way of repairing a situation where one person has emotionally or physically injured another person. It is for making, maintaining and repairing relationships and for fostering a sense of social responsibility and shared accountability. The outcome is designed to please both parties and enlighten each of them as to the other’s circumstances or plight. Both parties have an adjudicated meeting to listen and learn. It is possible for this to take the place of a punishment or sanction system.
Punitive disciplinary responses: cause resentment rather than reflection are rarely considered fair do not repair relationships between those in conflict and indeed can make them worse leave those labelled as wrongdoers feeling bad about themselves leading to further alienation can often leave those people expected to act punitively feeling uncomfortable and frustrated
It allows – a chance to tell their side of the story and feel heard to understand better how the situation happened to understand how it can be avoided another time to feel understood by the others involved to find a way to move on and feel better about themselves
The Restorative script is - What happened? (What happened before that? What happened before that?) What were you thinking (when it happened)? What do you think now? Who’s been affected by this? What needs to happen to put things right? What are you going to do differently next time? What not why