Catholic Reformation: Changes in Thinking Validity of papal authority Admission of guilt Persecution/suppression of heresy
Pope Paul III Council of Trent Jesuits & Ignatius Loyola Inquisition
Catholic response Able to keep Catholicism solidly in the south and parts of Eastern Europe A church council met and refuted protestant tenets A new religious order, the Jesuits, became active in politics, education, and missionary work especially in Asia and the Americas
Catholic and Protestant leaders worried that these findings would lead people to question the Church’s authority Galileo 1616 the Catholic Church warned Galileo not to defend Copernicus’s ideas 1632 Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which clearly supported Copernican theory 1633 called to stand trial, confessed that the ideas of Copernicus were wrong Lived under house arrest and died in 1642
Denis Diderot —Encyclopedia compiled scientific and social scientific knowledge Human beings are good and improvable Blind faith and refusal to tolerate diversity is wrong Mary Wollstonecraft —feminism Reading clubs and coffee houses
Scientific revolution Enlighten Applying scientific method to the study of human society Rational laws Against cruel punishment; decent society could rehabilitate criminals Constitutions to curb privilege Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations)—economic behavior
This idea of buying stuff to have not just to survive Rich more elaborate lifestyle created a new rural and urban proletariat that suffered from increased food prices. 1600s led to popular protest and worried peasants Also anxiety about witches (60,000 to 100,000 were killed) Poverty Women Tensions in family life
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