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T HOMAS J EFFERSON Biographical PowerPoint by Kalifa Sprowl APUSH Period 1 25 January, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "T HOMAS J EFFERSON Biographical PowerPoint by Kalifa Sprowl APUSH Period 1 25 January, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 T HOMAS J EFFERSON Biographical PowerPoint by Kalifa Sprowl APUSH Period 1 25 January, 2010

2 B EGINNINGS – POLITICAL RISE THE EARLY LIFE AND LATTER TO ADULTHOOD Section 1: THOMAS JEFFERSON

3  B EGINNINGS Childhood-Early Adulthood o Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia to father Colonel Peter Jefferson and mother Jane Randolph, he had six sisters and one brother. o As a child, he often roamed the woodlands and studied his books about remote planation in the Virginia wilderness. o His Father, Peter was quite strict when it came to a proper education. o Jefferson was enrolled into a boarding school where he excelled in classical languages and soon enrolled into the William and Mary College in his home state. o In College, he took classes in science, mathematics, rhetoric, literature, and philosophy. He studied law prior to the time he was admitted to the Virginia bar in April 1767.

4  B EGINNINGS ( CONTINUED ) Childhood-Early Adulthood o Jefferson married Martha Skelton who inherited quite a hefty wealth and bore Jefferson six children, however only two survived infancy. o Upon Martha’s death in 1782, due to illness, Jefferson never remarried, instead he had an alleged concubine with his slave, Sally Hemmings. o Jefferson was quite a favorable and successful lawyer in Virginia, passing legislative delegates, however he wasn’t too popular with the federalists

5  P OLITICAL R ISE o Thomas Jefferson attended the College of William & Mary in 1760. He began his law studies in 1762 and passed his bar exam in 1765. He was admitted into the Virginia Bar in 1767. o He was elected to the House of Burgesses or the Virginia legislature, in 1769. There, he established his reputation as a writer on political issues. He would end this term in 1774. o In 1775-1776, Jefferson became the member if the Second Continental Congress, and then the Governor of Virginia in 1779 to 1781. o In the Virginia house of delegates, he abolished primogeniture, a law that made the eldest son the sole inheritor of his father's property. o In 1783-1785, Jefferson had become the member of the third Continental Congress, and after the Revolutionary War, he had become the Minister of France from 1785-1789. o During his stay in France, Jefferson had witnessed, first hand the ravishing events that had led up to the French Revolution o In 1789-1793, Jefferson became the United States’ first secretary of state under Washington's administrative league. o During the Washington administration, Jefferson had become the focal point of the Democratic-Republicans which contended for influence with the Federalists under Alexander Hamilton which led to his resignation in 1793.

6  P OLITICAL R ISE ( CONTINUED ) o In the election of 1796, Jefferson ran as the leader of the new Democratic-Republican Party opposite of John Adams. o In 1796, Jefferson had become the vice-president of the John Adams administration. o In the 1800’s the political views of the nation “turned” against the Federalists Party o Jefferson would run against Aaron Burr in the residential election of 1800, Both candidates had the same number of electoral votes leaving the House of Representatives to break the tie. Jefferson became the third president of the United States o Jefferson was reelected in 1804, in a landside, due to his first term of lowered taxes and a reduction of the national debt.

7 PIRATES ORGANIZATIONAL FACTS ABOUT T HOMAS J EFFERSON Section 2: THOMAS JEFFERSON

8  P OLITICAL “Certainly one of the highest duties of the citizen is a scrupulous obedience to the laws of the nation. But it is not the highest duty.” - Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson won the 1800 election with 73 electoral votes to 65; he was Inaugurated on March 4, 1801. He would be the third president of the U.S Thomas Jefferson was apart of the Democratic-Republican Party and an enemy of the Federalists party. Jefferson actually tied with Aaron Blurr during the election of 1800, due to a technicality. The House of Representatives broke the tie. One of Jefferson’s first duty as president was to reduce military establishment to a police force of 2500 men. In his administrative league, events such as the War with Tripoli, the Louisiana Purchase and the Burr Conspiracy had taken place. President Jefferson was reelected in 1804, this time with 162 electoral votes, only 14 votes for his federalists opponent In the spring of 1804, Jefferson sends Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase, an expedition that would take two and a half years. Thomas Jefferson is best known for his authorship of the Declaration of Independence, a document that was an “assertion of fundamental human rights” that has become one of America's notable philosophical government achievements.

9  I NTELLECTUAL “Happiness is not being pained in body or troubled in mind.” -Thomas Jefferson Jefferson had a fondness for inventions and science. It shown through his critical thinking of ways to enhance something to make it work better. He is thought to have had one of the nation’s best legal minds, if not, influential. Despite his shy demeanor, he shown most of his character through his “mighty” pen. He authored the pamphlet “A summary View of the Rights of British America” in 1774 which articulated the colonial position for independence and shed some light on the ideas of the Declaration of Independence. In his retirement, he devoted majority of his time to the establishment of the University of Virginia. He was an advocate for public school reform and was an avid candidate for religious toleration and freedom, coming from a colorful religious pass of his own. Despite his great advances in religious freedom, education, art and then some, he also contradicted himself, owning slaves while at the same time quarreling the morality of owning them.

10  R ELIGION Jefferson was born into an Anglican family and was raised as an Anglican. In Adulthood, Jefferson would not consider himself a member to any Episcopalian or any church in that matter. Despite his religious upbringing, he was also influenced by English Deists and felt strongly about the beliefs of the Unitarians of his time. However, he was never a church member of the Unitarians despite his interest. Jefferson wanted to make a distinctive separation of church and state. Though dubbed by many historians as an atheist, Jefferson was a candidate for religious freedom and “positive atheism” In support for religious toleration, he eliminated the tax support of the Anglican Church in his home state. It is uncertain whether or not if Jefferson did or did not believe in god. “I have no fear but that the result of our experiment will be that men may be trusted to govern themselves without a master. Could the contrary of this be proved I should conclude either that there is no God, or that He is a malevolent being.” -Thomas Jefferson

11  ARTS Jefferson is portrayed in many mediums of art, from sculpture work, his face is engraved in many mementos and he is even portrayed comically in political cartoons.

12  T ECHNOLOGY “Nature intended me for the tranquil pursuits of science, by regarding them my supreme delight.” -Thomas Jefferson Jefferson is also a notable inventor, he believed that inventions should be “solely for the good of the people and not for the advancement of the inventor.” Some of his inventions include: The wheel cipher, which enabled one to scramble and unscramble letters in order to code messages. A revolving book stand The Great Clock, a magnificent piece of crafts work and science, which stands at the entrance hall of the Monticello A foldable ladder, originally for the purpose to clean the great clock, it has become of prevalent use in libraries in the 1800’s The swivel chair The dumbwaiter He perfected the polygraph which was a copying device invented by John Hawkins.

13  ECONOMIC “It is neither wealth nor splendor, but tranquility and occupation that gives happiness.” -Thomas Jefferson Jefferson is notable for winning the 1804 election at such a landside due to his economic strengths Jefferson reduced the national debt and lowered taxes During the war between England and France, there was an economical boom in the U.S, however Britain's navy was forcing American sailors into British service Jefferson decided to suspend trade with both France and England which took its toll on the economy. Hard hit was the Northeast, the suspension furthered America into war with England.

14  S OCIAL Jefferson was publicized with a number of names that judged everything from his relationship with people, his issues with politics, and his affair with his slave. He was castigated for fleeing to his home, Monticello in the face of a British advance while serving governor in Virginia. He was charged and accused of cowardice in later political campaigns. Jefferson upon his retirement stayed in contact with his former presidential rival, John Adams. Upon his wife, Martha’s death in 1782, he depended solely on the comfort of his two daughters and his secretary of state, Dolly Madison. James Callendar “turns” on Jefferson in response to him failing to reward him with the office of post master in Richmond, Virginia. Jefferson was harshly accused by James Callendar of having a concubine with his slave Sally Hemmings, to which the accusation was true, it cost Jefferson his credibility and added more fuel to his presidential scandal. In his lifetime, he was dubbed the “Man of the People” and the “Sage of Monticello” “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be.” -Thomas Jefferson

15 A NALYTICAL V IEW Section 3: THOMAS JEFFERSON Key analysis of Jefferson’s strengths, weakness, and over all character.

16 J EFFERSON ’ S POLITICAL POLICIES Limitations of Government size and power: Jefferson felt that the government had to be limited in order to secure a promising nation of followers. If government exercised its will too much it could threaten what the constitution and the nation had stood for. Marbury v. Madison: a landmark trial and ruling that led to the establishment of the independent power of the Supreme Court, it is also the first time the United States Supreme Court declared a federal law to be unconstitutional. Key Domestic Policy

17 J EFFERSON ’ S POLITICAL POLICIES Barbary “pirates”: The U.S had been paying bribes to the Barbary States for a course of fifty years. This was due to ensure the safety of the American ships at sea. This ultimately erupted into a war with Tripoli which forced Jefferson to use his navy and rethink his policy of reducing the U.S military. Louisiana Purchase: Jefferson’s ties with France led to the $15 million Louisiana Purchase which doubled the size of the nation. The deal, however troubled Jefferson whom did not want to overstep the central government’s powers as outlined by the constitution. Embargo Acts: A bill that banned the trade between The U.S and other nations, it also prevailed ships leaving American ports which hindered exploration efforts. It was a attempt by Jefferson to prevent American involvement in the Napoleonic Wars Key Foreign Policy

18 S UCCESS / FAILURE Revolutionary He authored the Declaration of Independence Exercised freedom of religion Candidate for education reformation. Willing to separate church and sate Notable philosopher Notable inventor Hypocrite A man who wrote that “all men are created equal.” was a slave owner. He never really asserted this issue, nor did he ever free his own slaves. However, he was a contender for abolishing it in new American states. o “Cowardice & Scandals” o Failed to provide for the adequate defense of Richmond in 1780-1781 o The Sally Hemmings scandal to which he failed to assert distinctively, simply stating he had no relationship with her nor did he father he child. SuccessFailure

19 T HOUGHTS A ND R EFLECTION I must say, Thomas Jefferson has surprised me just by his pure intellect and mind. His philosophical views have made me think differently about his time to which I held a stereotype to. As it turns out, not everyone was a God-loving/fearing politician, there was indeed a sense of relativity and a sense that there was something other than this direct look at life. This life had dimensions, and those dimensions where thoroughly articulated in the words of Mr. Jefferson, I respect his intellectual ideas and think they do serve some fit to the world today, despite the affair and the scandal that seems to carry a bigger bounty on his head then his actual mind, I think his wisdom would be well appreciated in this 21 st century. He though differently than his predecessors. He thought deeply and rooted the possibilities to a problem, the reason behind religion and why we believe in such, and he tampered with some ideas that no politician would dare tantalize in fear of loosing credibility. He even questioned our nations government and vowed to fix it up in order to truly abide to the constitution. In his own way, he was definitely self respecting.

20 Rebellious Jefferson questioned what some politicians would have not questioned in fear of their own credibility. Jefferson was one of the few presidents who openly didn’t really have a faith. Though he claimed to have been a church member of the Anglicans, through his adulthood his philosophical input took its toll and he began to question the existence of a god, which was bold in his time. In the most political way, of course, he is rebellious against the views of the federalists, and feels that there should be a division of church and state He was a philosopher, one who thought of a government better than what was already established. He believed that government could not dictate and control the life of man, but simply control it, the government's people where the supreme executioners of will. In one word, Jefferson is:

21 QUOTE

22 BIBLIOGRAPHY BBC NEWS. “Restoring Jefferson's Reputation” 2003. Web. 3 Jan. 2010 Travel & History. “ Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826” n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2009

23 T EAM M EMBER PowerPoint By Kalifa Sprowl

24 THOMAS JEFFERSON A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL P OWER P OINT “Enlighten the people generally, and tyranny and oppressions of body and mind will vanish like the spirits at the dawn of day.” –Thomas Jefferson END


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