Presentation on theme: "SENIOR SEMINAR MRS. CIVITELLA AND MRS. VERGULDI-SCOTT Review of the history leading to The Enlightenment."— Presentation transcript:
SENIOR SEMINAR MRS. CIVITELLA AND MRS. VERGULDI-SCOTT Review of the history leading to The Enlightenment
Timeline 475-500 A.D. Fall of Rome 500-1300 A.D. Early Middle Ages 1050-1450 A.D. High Middle Ages 1300-1650 A.D. The Renaissance 1517-1600 A.D. Protestant Reformation 1543-1687 A. D. Scientific Revolution 1660s- 1800 A.D. Enlightenment
What was it? The word means “rebirth” A time when western Europeans experienced a profound cultural awakening. It was a bridge between the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern times. Caused educated Europeans to develop new attitudes about themselves and the world around them. The Renaissance 1300-1650 A.D.
In the 11 th century, scholars began bringing manuscripts of Roman law to Italy from Constantinople History of the Renaissance
1. Physical reminders of the Roman Empire (architecture, coins, statues) 2. Italian cities prospered during the High Middle Ages as trading cities (began with the Crusades) 3. A wealthy merchant class stressed the cultural rebirth of Ancient Rome (education, the arts, individual achievements) 4. Italian scholars stressed the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, the arts) 5. Renaissance scholars who studied the humanities were called humanists Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Middle Ages God centered What is important is the next life Feudal system Knowledge is already known and recorded by the Church Catholic church is always right Human centered The individual is important, this life should be lived to the fullest Social status based on talent and merit Much knowledge yet to be discovered, man needed to use reason to gain knowledge Church may not always be right Differences between Renaissance and Middle Ages Renaissance
Three geniuses of Renaissance Art 1. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452-1519) 2. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1475- 1564) 3. Raphael Sanzio da Urbino (1483-1520)
1. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) a) Called the “Renaissance Man” b) Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer
Mona Lisa a.Women dressed in Florentine fashion b.da Vinci utilized the sfumato technique where the definition of form in a painting is without an abrupt outline. He blended one tone into another c.The Mona Lisa’s expression is the cause of much controversy. She is both alluring and aloof. d.It is said that da Vinci captured the mysteriousness of women in this painting e.1503-1505 f.Oil on wood
Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper 1495-1498 Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy
Other Italian Humanists A. Francesco Petrarch 1) Established a library of ancient Greek and Roman manuscripts 2) “The librarian of the Renaissance” B. Baldassare Castiglione 1) Book of the Courtier 2) a courtier is a refined, well-educated aristocrat 3) Provided a handbook for behavior for this class of people
C. Niccolo Machiavelli 1) Wrote The Prince 2) Considered the handbook for politicians 3) Studied Roman history and diplomacy 4) Was a diplomat for the Medici 5) Provided a theory of how to attain and keep power 6) “the end always justifies the means” 7) A “prince” must be shrewed and immoral to keep power 8) The term “Machiavellian” now means characterized by subtle or unscrupulous deception or dishonesty
Three Renaissance Authors A. Francois Rabelais- French doctor who wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel story of a father and son and the study of war, travel, philosophy and politics B. Miguel de Cervantes- Spanish writer 1) Wrote Don Quixote which mocked the medieval ideas of warfare 2) Called for reform of medieval ideas
C. William Shakespeare English playwright wrote 37 plays that made fun of or pointed out the corruption in society 1) He had to study history, sociology, and politics in order to write his plays 2) Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Richard III, and Romeo and Juliet 3) Patronized by Queen Elizabeth I
The Printing Revolution A. 1456, Johann Gutenberg of Germany printed the first complete addition of the Bible using movable metal type on a new machine called the printing press B. Printed books were cheaper and easier to produce than hand-copied books C. Increased literacy throughout Europe D. Significantly increased education throughout the continent
Natural Law and the Scientific Revolution During the Scientific Revolution, scientists began to look at how living things interacted with nature to find solutions to questions about the world Isaac Newton used natural law to discover the law of gravity natural law- laws found in nature Scientists used the scientific method to answer questions about the physical world
The Scientific Method New approach to science Like art and religion, the Renaissance inspired scientists not to rely on the past or the teachings in the Bible The new scientific method depended on observation and experimentation
Introduction to the Age of Reason reason- to use one’s intellect to come to a logical conclusion natural law- laws found in nature philosophers- intellectual theorists, thinkers In the late 1600s and early 1700s, philosophers reexamined society to try to find the natural laws that governed human nature human nature- how people behave in nature
Age of Reason or Enlightenment Philosophers believed that they could uncover these laws of human nature This era is referred to as both the Age of Reason and The Enlightenment enlighten- to give information to Political philosophers believed that they could find the laws of nature that governed human nature and determine the best types of government to create a peaceful society
Hobbes and Locke Two English philosophers, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, had a significant impact on the new area of political philosophy Both men saw the violence of the English Civil War They had opposing views about human nature
Mercantilism Mercantilism- economic theory stating that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that in order to receive a larger share, one country has to take some wealth away from another country 1. Mercantilism led to a colonization race by European countries around the world 2. Europeans sought out colonies that could provide them with either a) Gold and silver b) Raw materials (i.e. British colonies in N. America)
The British victory in the Spanish Armada of 1588 marked the beginning of the end of Spanish dominance in colonizing the New World and issued in the era of British naval dominance in the North Atlantic. Britain was now united behind a popular queen and perched for exploration and settlement of the New World.
It was significant that the Charter for the Virginia Company to settle Jamestown guaranteed settlers the same rights of Englishmen in England. These rights were extended to all settlers of British colonies.
Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations Described how the economy worked based on supply and demand Supplies will rise to reach demand because suppliers can make money Profit motivates production Living in a time of mercantilism, Smith advocated for free markets called laissez faire Laissez faire means to leave alone, no government regulation of business Countries would gain more wealth in a free market, capitalist, society than in a mercantilist economy
The Big Idea! The Enlightenment would be just theory in Europe at first The American Revolution would allow the U.S. to be the first country in the world to attempt enlightenment theory Giving people the power to govern themselves in a free market economy would be called the “American Experiment” Most of the world did not think that we would survive