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EQL 671: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION (Chapters 1 & 2) Facilitator: Prof Dr Chang Lee Hoon Chapter 1: Introduction to Qualitative Research.

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Presentation on theme: "EQL 671: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION (Chapters 1 & 2) Facilitator: Prof Dr Chang Lee Hoon Chapter 1: Introduction to Qualitative Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 EQL 671: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION (Chapters 1 & 2) Facilitator: Prof Dr Chang Lee Hoon Chapter 1: Introduction to Qualitative Research What is Qualitative research? -Interpretation of phenomena in natural setting -Understand in-depth meanings -Focuses on why? -Inductive research -Rich description of data

2 Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative R 1.Philosophy 2.Goal 3.Focus 4.Method 5.Data collection techniques 6.Research design 7.Sample 8.Generalisation 9.Analysis 10.Role of researcher

3 Qualitative research methods Case study Ethnography Phenomenology Historical Action Research Content analysis Grounded theory Generic

4 Checklist on Qualitative research Theoretical approach - Phenomenology in educational research Study design - Sampling Data collection - methods Validity - Researcher as the research instrument - Context biasness - Triangulation Analysis - coding and analysis - reliability & creditability Ethics - human subjects

5 Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Document examination Observation Interviews

6 Kinds of Documents as Data: Bogdan & Biklen (1998) categorized documents as (a) Personal documents – written by subjects on their actions, experiences and beliefs, private purposes and limited use –diaries – description and reflective commentary of events e.g. record on experience, thoughts, feelings, problems etc –logs – less intimate e.g. daily entry on lesson plans or daily activities –personal letters between friends and family members – reveal relationships, experiences –Autobiographies – available source of data on person’s own story –useful for understanding categories under study e.g. gender, ethnic minorities etc

7 Kinds of Documents as Data: (b) Official documents – produced by organizations for specific purpose - record keeping and dissemination - internal documents – memos, minutes of meetings and others that are circulated inside an organisation usually in hierarchical course – provide info on internal rules & regulations, leadership style, organisational values etc - external communication – produced by organisation for public consumption eg. Newsletters, yearbook, notes to parents, brochures etc – indicators of organisational strategies - Student records and personnel files – achievement records, discipline records, attendance, profiles of family etc – indicators of student’s school career, comments from teachers on the student’s records

8 Kinds of Documents as Data: (c) Popular culture documents – produced for commercial purposes to entertain, persuade & enlighten the public - videos, magazines, TV, films, advertisements – studied as texts (transcripts of shows, lyrics etc) and interpretations of viewers – to make visible “messages” or social constructions in the texts.

9 Personal Documents Broadly refer to any first person narrative that describes an individual’s actions, experiences and beliefs (Plummer, 1983; Taylor & Bogdan, 1984) Intimate diaries; for educational researchers, teachers’ diaries that record in detail first teaching experiences, problems with students. Personal letters (emails?); could reveal the nature of relationships between people, insights of author’s experiences Autobiographies, including novels

10 Official Documents Internal documents –Memos or other communications that are circulated inside an organization –Could provide the hierarchical structure, leadership style, potential insight about what organizational members value External communication –Materials produced for public consumption e.g. letters to parents, curriculum materials etc –Useful in understanding official perspectives on programs, administrative structure Student Records and Personal Files –Records of all testing, attendance etc

11 Popular Culture Documents Advertisements Magazines Eg. How advertisement of cigarette smoking was constructed as healthy in advertisements (Kellner, 1991); how romance novels for adolescence girls constructed femininity (Christian Smith, 1988)

12 Why documents? As sole data source (e. g. text and discourse analysis) As supplement or in support to other data source – interviews and observations

13 Guidelines on documents Keep a record of documents required and received Guideline on Document Summary - Ref no: – Site: – Date received: – Type and name of document: – How was the document obtained – Document’s summary of content – Importance of document to study

14 Observation (1) Non-participant/Passive observation -Keep your distance -Unobstrusive -Outsider observation/etic -Phases of non-participant observation (Adler & Adler, 1998; Denzin, 1989, Spradley (1980): -Selection of a setting (where and when) -Definition of what is to be documented in observation and in every case -Training of observers for standardisation in observation -Descriptive observations – initial, general presentation of the field -Focused observation – on aspects relevant to research Q -Selective observation – to purposively grasp central aspects -The end of observation – when theoretical saturation is reached

15 (2) Participant Observation Participates in activities Insider/emic perspective Active to stimulate discussion Phases of participant observation (Spradley, 1980) - descriptive observation – provides orientation to field under study, non-specific descriptions to grasp complexity of the field and develop more concrete research questions - focused observation – narrows perspectives on processes and problems most essential for research questions - selective observation – towards end of data collection and focused on finding further evidence and e.g. for the types of practices and processes found in step 2.

16 (3) Active Observation Participation is allowed but limited Can intrude in activities but researcher remains passive.

17 Process of Observing (Creswell, 2005) Select a site to be observed that can help you best understand the central phenomenon – obtain required permission to gain access Ease into the site slowly by looking around, getting a general sense of site, taking limited notes initially At the site, identify who, what, when, how long to observe Determine your role Conduct multiple observation over time Design some means of recording notes during observation – protocol/fieldnotes

18 Example of Observation Protocol Event/Activity of observation: Site/Address: Observer Role of observer Date and time of observation Length of observation Place of observation

19 GuidelineObsevational notesResearcher’s reflective notes Descripton of physical environment social enviromment participants Desciption of activites conducted - types of learning activities - teacher’s teaching style - use of materials - students’ responses Description of social interactions T – P P – T P - P Repetitive event/ activity/issue Emerging idea/issue/theme Unique event/ activity/issue

20 Interviews Three types Structured interviews Semi-structured interviews Unstructured interviews Three types of probe questions Detailed oriented “What happened after you found out that your friend cheated? Elaboration e.g “Can you tell me more” Clarification e.g “Did you talk to your teacher?

21 Conducting Interviews (Creswell, 2005) Identify the interviewees Determine type of interview you will use During interview, audiotape the questions and responses Take brief notes during interviews Locate a quite and suitable place for conducting interview Obtain informed consent from interviewee to participate in study Have a plan, but be flexible Use probes to obtain additional information Be courteous and professional when interview is over

22 Example of interview protocol Name of project: Time of interview: Date: Place: Time: Interviewer: Interviewee: Duration of interview:

23 GuidelineResearcher’s notesResearcher’s reflective notes Establishing Rapport: Desribe the project, tell interviewee of purpose of study, sources of data being collected, how long the interview will take, read and sign the consent form. Probe Questions detailed-oriented elaboration Clarification Closure Thank interviewee, assure confidentiality and potential for future interview (if required)

24 Triangulation of methods 3 types -Methods triangulation -Investigator triangulation -Theory triangulation

25 Sampling Gaining access Selecting samples - convenience/availability, -representativeness/critical/typical case Sampling techniques - purposive - quota - snowballing

26 Skills required of Qualitative Researcher Impartiality Tolerance for ambiguity Sensitive Detect personal biases Good communicator, including writing skills

27 Length of time spent in collecting data Span of time Degree of contact refer to other studies

28 Validity of Qualitative Research method 3 types -Descriptive validity -Interpretative validity -Theoretical validity External validity Internal validity


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