Presentation on theme: "EQL 671: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION (Chapters 1 & 2) Facilitator: Prof Dr Chang Lee Hoon Chapter 1: Introduction to Qualitative Research."— Presentation transcript:
1 EQL 671: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION (Chapters 1 & 2) Facilitator: Prof Dr Chang Lee HoonChapter 1: Introduction to Qualitative ResearchWhat is Qualitative research?Interpretation of phenomena in natural settingUnderstand in-depth meaningsFocuses on why?Inductive researchRich description of data
2 Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative R PhilosophyGoalFocusMethodData collection techniquesResearch designSampleGeneralisationAnalysisRole of researcher
3 Qualitative research methods Case studyEthnographyPhenomenologyHistoricalAction ResearchContent analysisGrounded theoryGeneric
4 Checklist on Qualitative research Theoretical approach- Phenomenology in educational researchStudy design- SamplingData collection- methodsValidity- Researcher as the research instrument- Context biasness- TriangulationAnalysis- coding and analysis- reliability & creditabilityEthics- human subjects
5 Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Document examinationObservationInterviews
6 Kinds of Documents as Data: Bogdan & Biklen (1998) categorized documents as(a) Personal documents – written by subjects on their actions, experiences and beliefs, private purposes and limited usediaries – description and reflective commentary of events e.g. record on experience, thoughts, feelings, problems etclogs – less intimate e.g. daily entry on lesson plans or daily activitiespersonal letters between friends and family members – reveal relationships, experiencesAutobiographies – available source of data on person’s own story –useful for understanding categories under study e.g. gender, ethnic minorities etc
7 Kinds of Documents as Data: (b) Official documents – produced by organizations for specific purpose - record keeping and dissemination- internal documents – memos, minutes of meetings and others that are circulated inside an organisation usually in hierarchical course – provide info on internal rules & regulations, leadership style, organisational values etc- external communication – produced by organisation for public consumption eg. Newsletters, yearbook, notes to parents, brochures etc – indicators of organisational strategies- Student records and personnel files – achievement records, discipline records, attendance, profiles of family etc – indicators of student’s school career, comments from teachers on the student’s records
8 Kinds of Documents as Data: (c) Popular culture documents – produced for commercial purposes to entertain, persuade & enlighten the public- videos, magazines, TV, films, advertisements– studied as texts (transcripts of shows, lyrics etc) and interpretations of viewers – to make visible “messages” or social constructions in the texts.
9 Personal DocumentsBroadly refer to any first person narrative that describes an individual’s actions, experiences and beliefs (Plummer, 1983; Taylor & Bogdan, 1984)Intimate diaries; for educational researchers, teachers’ diaries that record in detail first teaching experiences, problems with students.Personal letters ( s?); could reveal the nature of relationships between people, insights of author’s experiencesAutobiographies, including novels
10 Official Documents Internal documents External communication Memos or other communications that are circulated inside an organizationCould provide the hierarchical structure, leadership style, potential insight about what organizational members valueExternal communicationMaterials produced for public consumption e.g. letters to parents, curriculum materials etcUseful in understanding official perspectives on programs, administrative structureStudent Records and Personal FilesRecords of all testing, attendance etc
11 Popular Culture Documents AdvertisementsMagazinesEg. How advertisement of cigarette smoking was constructed as healthy in advertisements (Kellner, 1991); how romance novels for adolescence girls constructed femininity (Christian Smith, 1988)
12 Why documents? As sole data source (e. g. text and discourse analysis) As supplement or in support to other data source – interviews and observations
13 Guidelines on documents Keep a record of documents required and receivedGuideline on Document Summary Ref no:Site:Date received:Type and name of document:How was the document obtainedDocument’s summary of contentImportance of document to study
14 Observation (1) Non-participant/Passive observation Keep your distance UnobstrusiveOutsider observation/eticPhases of non-participant observation (Adler & Adler, 1998; Denzin, 1989, Spradley (1980):Selection of a setting (where and when)Definition of what is to be documented in observation and in every caseTraining of observers for standardisation in observationDescriptive observations – initial, general presentation of the fieldFocused observation – on aspects relevant to research QSelective observation – to purposively grasp central aspectsThe end of observation – when theoretical saturation is reached
15 (2) Participant Observation Participates in activitiesInsider/emic perspectiveActive to stimulate discussionPhases of participant observation (Spradley, 1980)- descriptive observation – provides orientation to field under study, non-specific descriptions to grasp complexity of the field and develop more concrete research questions- focused observation – narrows perspectives on processes and problems most essential for research questions- selective observation – towards end of data collection and focused on finding further evidence and e.g. for the types of practices and processes found in step 2.
16 (3) Active ObservationParticipation is allowed but limitedCan intrude in activities but researcher remains passive.
17 Process of Observing (Creswell, 2005) Select a site to be observed that can help you best understand the central phenomenon – obtain required permission to gain accessEase into the site slowly by looking around, getting a general sense of site, taking limited notes initiallyAt the site, identify who, what, when, how long to observeDetermine your roleConduct multiple observation over timeDesign some means of recording notes during observation – protocol/fieldnotes
18 Example of Observation Protocol Event/Activity of observation:Site/Address:ObserverRole of observerDate and time of observationLength of observationPlace of observation
19 Researcher’s reflective notes GuidelineObsevational notesResearcher’s reflective notesDescripton ofphysical environmentsocial envirommentparticipantsDesciption of activites conductedtypes of learning activitiesteacher’s teaching styleuse of materialsstudents’ responsesDescription of social interactionsT – PP – TP - PRepetitive event/ activity/issueEmerging idea/issue/themeUnique event/ activity/issue
20 Interviews Three types Structured interviews Semi-structured interviewsUnstructured interviewsThree types of probe questionsDetailed oriented “What happened after you found out that your friend cheated?Elaboration e.g “Can you tell me more”Clarification e.g “Did you talk to your teacher?
21 Conducting Interviews (Creswell, 2005) Identify the intervieweesDetermine type of interview you will useDuring interview, audiotape the questions and responsesTake brief notes during interviewsLocate a quite and suitable place for conducting interviewObtain informed consent from interviewee to participate in studyHave a plan, but be flexibleUse probes to obtain additional informationBe courteous and professional when interview is over
22 Example of interview protocol Name of project:Time of interview:Date:Place:Time:Interviewer:Interviewee:Duration of interview:
23 Researcher’s reflective notes GuidelineResearcher’s notesResearcher’s reflective notesEstablishing Rapport:Desribe the project, tell interviewee of purpose of study, sources of data being collected, how long the interview will take, read and sign the consent form.Probe Questionsdetailed-orientedelaborationClarificationClosureThank interviewee, assure confidentiality and potential for future interview (if required)
24 Triangulation of methods 3 typesMethods triangulationInvestigator triangulationTheory triangulation