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In the 1500’s scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation. It was a Renaissance of Science!

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Presentation on theme: "In the 1500’s scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation. It was a Renaissance of Science!"— Presentation transcript:

1 In the 1500’s scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation. It was a Renaissance of Science!

2 (File this information away for future reference!)
Medieval View: ARISTOTLE’S THEORY… The Geocentric Theory - sun, moon, and planets revolve around the earth in circular paths. Christian church supported Geocentric Theory. The church taught that God created the heavens & earth and deliberately placed the earth in the center. (File this information away for future reference!)

3 Scientific Revolution – new theories based on observation.
Nicholas Copernicus – Polish cleric who studied planetary movements for 25 years concluding the earth & other planets revolve around the sun. (Heliocentric Theory) Copernicus knew his theory would offend the church and waited until near his death to have his findings published.

4 Men who changed the world.

5 Johannes Kepler – studied the work of Danish astronomer,Tycho Brahe and concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. Kepler established that planets move in elliptical orbits and his work totally supported the theories of Copernicus. Galileo – Developed the Law of the Pendulum and disputed the theories of Aristotle. Built and successfully used a telescope Contradicted the teachings of the church

6 Trial of Galileo Tried by the church and convicted of heresy. Forced to recant his teachings. Kept under house arrest until his death.

7 Scientific Method Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes. - Observation
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. This method was supported by Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes. - Observation - Hypothesis - Analyze & Interpret - Conclusion

8 Francis Bacon – not a scientist but a politician who supported the scientific method which he believed would improve people’s lives. Rene Descartes - developed analytical geometry which linked algebra and geometry. He though everything should be questioned and proven. Famous Quote – “I think therefore I am.” Isaac Newton – Theory of Motion. He believed that all physical objects are affected equally by the same forces. (Law of Universal Gravitation)

9 Robert Boyle – Father of Chemistry.
Known for Boyle’s Law explaining the relationship between volume, temperature, and gas pressure. FYI – During the Scientific Revolution, many of the laws of science established by Aristotle were proven wrong by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and others. Also, the heliocentric theory was first proposed by Hellenistic scientist, Aristarchus but was rejected in favor of Aristotle’s geocentric theory. (1300 years)

10 Major Scientific Discoveries!
Janssen – invented the microscope Torricelli – developed the mercury barometer Fahrenheit – developed the mercury thermometer Jenner – vaccine for small pox

11 The Scientific Revolution questioned accepted beliefs
in science. Enlightenment questioned accepted beliefs in society including government, religion, philosophy, economics, and education. Together they changed Europe and eventually the world.

12 Two Views of Government
ENLIGHTENMENT Two Views of Government Thomas Hobbes – People are selfish and not capable of governing themselves, therefore they should enter into a social contract by surrendering their rights to a strong ruler who will make decisions for them. The responsibility of that ruler would be to control all citizens. The ideas of Hobbes were supported by most of the monarchs of Europe!

13 John Locke – believed that individuals have the ability to govern themselves.
- all people are born free and equal with the God given natural rights of life, liberty, and property. - the job of the government is to protect the natural rights of man and if a government fails to do so the citizens have the right to overthrow the government. [ PRINCIPLE OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE]

14 Locke’s theory greatly influenced modern political thought and helped lead to the French and American Revolutions. FYI – French social critics were called philosophes. (French for philosophers) They attempted to apply reason to all aspects of life.

15 Voltaire – most influential of the philosophers
Published 70 books Critical of the French government through satire Imprisoned twice, even exiled to England Supported the English form of government Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of speech and religion

16 Montesquieu– (Mon –tes-quieu,)
* Separation – of – Powers * Checks – and – Balances Rousseau – supported individual freedoms * government corrupts people’s natural goodness

17 Beccaria – believed laws exist to preserve social order, not to punish crimes
- rebelled against torture of witnesses, irregular trials, and that punishment should be based on the degree of the crime - supported the right to a speedy trial Mary Wollstonecraft - supported rights for women based on Locke’s theory - focused on the education of women

18 Because of Enlightenment
Old ideas of society & government were challenged Divine right Unity of church and state Inequality of the social classes These challenges eventually led to the French, American, and Russian Revolutions.

19 Spread of Enlightenment
Salons – social gatherings for Enlightenment philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and musicians to meet and discuss ideas and to enjoy artistic performances. Encyclopedia – 1751 – Denis Diderot published an encyclopedia of the most current Enlightenment information. - angered the church - banned by French censors - later permission was given to resume publication Media – books, newspapers, magazine articles, pamphlets, and songs all spread the ideas of Enlightenment.

20 Enlightenment Art, Music and Literature
Art – Baroque was the accepted style, grand and ornate, which dominated the 1600 – 1700’s. Neoclassical (new classic) reflected the Enlightenment emphasis order and balance borrowed from classical Greek and Roman art.

21 Classical Music Mozart – began composing at age 5, wrote more than 600 musical pieces. Known for his operas. Beethoven – his early works were similar to those of Mozart, but his later works carried music into the Age of Romanticism

22 Literature – new style of literature, the novel -
- lengthy work of prose fiction - Samuel Richardson & Henry Fielding developed many features of the modern novel

23 Enlightened Despots (absolute rulers)
Some monarchs supported the ideas of Enlightenment and were called Enlightened Despots. Frederick II, Prussia - Granted religious freedom, reduced censorship, improved education, and reformed the justice system Called himself, “servant of the state.

24 Enlightened Despots Joseph II, Austria
- most radical of the enlightened despots - son of Maria Theresa - supported freedom of worship for all - abolished serfdom - ordered peasants be paid in cash for labor Many reforms were undone after his death. BUT, once the people have experienced freedoms they tend to seek them by whatever means necessary!

25 Catherine the Great, Russia
Enlightened Despots Catherine the Great, Russia Most admired by the philosophers Exchanged letters with Voltaire Took steps to modernize Russia Reformed laws based on ideas of Rousseau Abolished torture Religious toleration Changed her reform movement after serf uprising Expanded the borders of Russia

26 American Revolution FYI – British colonies were established in N. America as early as 1607. Rapid growth occurred between 1700 – 1770. Colonies thrived on trade from Europe. 1660 Parliament passed Navigation Acts preventing colonists from selling good to any nation but Britain. In addition, colonists had to pay high taxes on imported goods.

27 American Revolution Colonists smuggled goods in & out of small ports on the east coast to keep from having to pay taxes and to sell to other nations. After the French and Indian War, Britain toughened its trade laws believing the colonists should help pay for the war. Parliament passed a series of acts taxing the colonists. 1765 – Stamp Act required colonists to pay tax to have a stamp placed on printed materials. The colonists felt it was a violation of their natural rights and boycotted all British goods. Britain, hurt by the boycott, repealed the Stamp Act in 1766

28 American Revolution Over the next 10 years, Britain continued to tighten control over the colonists until July, 1776, when the colonists drafted the Declaration of Independence, declaring themselves free of British control.

29 Declaration of Independence
*statement/ reasons for separation from England *declaring the Rights of Man/ Britain’s failure to protect the rights *27 specific abuses by the king

30 American Revolution Enlightenment ideas greatly influenced the American Revolution, especially Thomas Jefferson. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

31 The American Revolution
Thomas Jefferson included in the Declaration of Independence, a long list of grievances against King George and the British Parliament. The American Revolution * The war was fought on colonial soil and with the help of the French and Spanish, the American colonists were able to defeat the British.

Government for the United States of America After declaring independence, the colonists established the first form of government for the independent colonies. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Gave most power to the individual states Gave little power to the central government No executive branch of government No real way to enforce laws

33 Shay’s Rebellion (details on next slide) What did it lead to?
Established the need for a stronger government!

34 FYI – SHAY’S REBELLION After the war, a group of Massachusetts farmers protested the government’s demand for taxes. The farmers pressed for lower taxes and the issuance of paper money to pay the taxes. When Massachusetts refused the rebel farmers attacked several courthouses destroying government property and courthouse records. Shay’s rebellion underscored the need for a stronger national government.

35 First Government of the United States of America
*Loose confederation of states *Weak national government *States held the most power *No executive branch *No judicial branch *Each state had one vote in Congress *Congress had no power to collect taxes

36 From Articles of Confederation to Constitution
When the Founding Fathers met to rewrite the Articles of Confederation they found the document too flawed to be “fixed.” Through a series of meetings by representatives of each colony, the Articles of Confederation was replaced by the Constitution.

37 The Constitution of the United States
Three branches of government as established by the Constitution Legislative Executive Judicial Provided a system of checks & balances to prevent one branch of government from becoming too powerful.

38 The Constitution of the United States of America
Federal System powers shared between the state and federal government Passage of the Constitution had to be approved by at least 9 of the 13 colonies Federalists – those that supported the passage Anti-federalists – those who felt the Constitution gave too much power to the central government and wanted individual rights protected in the document. To gain support of passage, the Federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights upon approval of the Constitution.

39 The Constitution of the United States of America
After the passage of the Constitution, the first 10 Amendments, the Bill of Rights, was added protecting basic rights to speech, press, assembly, religion, and due process of law.

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