The Amorites Background: –2300 BC, Sumeria fell to Sargon of Akkad
The Amorites Background –Sargon of Akkad built the first ________ in history. –His capital was at Akkad, central Mesopotamia
The Amorites After the Sumerians fell in 2000 BC, large numbers of ________ people moved into Mesopotamia.
The Amorites The Amorites were part of this larger group to enter Mesopotamia. They entered from the west. They eventually controlled the city of Akkad, changing its name to _________, after one of their gods. They built the “Old” Babylonian Empire (1900-1600 BC)
The Amorites The Amorites adopted _______________culture Except: No more city-states All were _________ under one Amorite leader, Hammurabi (1790-1750 BC). –He advocated ___________ ownership of land –Kept priests and political leaders separate. Main god of Babylon: Marduk Isin-Larsa Period: fall of Sumeria to Hammurabi Main Cities: Mari, Isin, Larsa
Hammurabi: –Babylonian empire was a collection of __________ peoples, languages and customs. –To unite these people: Power/independence was taken from cities and invested in king. New laws: crimes vs. state
The Amorites Hammurabi had set of laws written up: –Hammurabi’s Code: _______ specific laws Inscribed on a 6ft. Tall black basalt ________ Top: picture of Hammurabi receiving laws from god Shamash. Included harsh penalties: eye for an eye.
The Amorites Hammurabi: Hammurabi receiving the law from the god Shamash
The Amorites Hammurabi’s Code: Prologue Prologue to Hammurabi's Code (extracts) "When the lofty Anu, king of Anunnaki, and Enlil, lord of heaven and earth, who determines the destinies of the land, committed the rule of all humankind to Marduk, the first born son of Ea they pronounced the lofty name of Babylon, made it great among the quarters of the world and in its midst established for him an everlasting kingdom whose foundations were firm as heaven and earth, at that time Anu and Enlil named me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, the worshipper of the gods, to cause righteousness to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil, to prevent the strong from plundering the weak, to go forth like the sun over the black-headed race, to enlighten the land and to further the welfare of the people. I am Hammurabi, the shepherd, named by Enlil, I increased plenty and abundance, I made everything complete [another 210 lines recount Hammurabi's great achievements] The sun of Babylon who caused light to go forth over the lands of Sumer and Akkad, the favorite of Inanna
The Amorites Hammurabi also… –Improved irrigation –Organized an ______ –Repaired temples –Elevated the god Marduk Originally, Sumerian god, became Babylonian sun god