Presentation on theme: "Promoters of the industrial revolution :. « Promoters of the industrial revolution » : Why people in medallions ? British lithography, 1880… Britain :"— Presentation transcript:
« Promoters of the industrial revolution » : Why people in medallions ? British lithography, 1880… Britain : the cradle of most inventions = this picture was an opportunity to enlighten the rich and glorious legacy of British researchers and financers to the industrial age. Probably a means to show their strong contribution to this period of great breakthroughs… 1880 : the starting point of the « second » industrial revolution. The « first » dated back to the introduction of the steam engine technology into factories (early 1820-30s). 1880 : new powered-energy sources discovered and introduced : oil and electricity.
Promoters of the industrial revolution : WHY SCIENTISTS ? They researched and performed new machines, such as J. Watt, etc. because it was the age of rationalism = religion and dogmas were dethroned… « Religion can’t explain everything »… WHY ENGINEERS ? They made those machines capable of sustaining an industrial pace, they introduced them into firms… WHY BANKERS ? Theydirectly participated into the invention process as they financed, sponsored research and firms’ creation.
Innovations (basic description): Clipper which is bending = looks unstable + heavy clouds Steamer : huge, robust, breaks into the sea Barouche, facing the wind and winter season Train : sorting out from a tunnel (= movement) in a spring time… Dirty and grim street, poor lighting, narrow streets Luminous and large street, bright buildings, well- dressed couples, bicycle…
Clippers : wind and sail Steamers : coal + steam engine Develop the first line : Clippers made of wood. Steamers first started to join GB to Americas in the early 1840s. Transatlantic journeys. The Sirius e.g. Steam = James Watt, 1789. improved John Newcomen’s fisrt attempts (early 1720s) = quite an old research. Made of iron first = melted in furnaces. Later, made of steel (Henri Bessemer’s process, 1855) : more resistant and flexible material ; an alloy.
Coach, barouche, horse-drawn vehicle Train : steam engine + iron + steel Develop the second line : (Same inventions as before, so…) Account for the birth and development of the railway in Britain : 1829 ; G Stephenson’s Rocket ; Liverpool – Manchester…
Old-powered street lighting (gas, oil) Electricity : light bulb Develop the third line : Traditional lighting was ancient : oil and gas. Faraday M discovered the electric current in 1831 (magnetism and electricity) Edison Th. (Am. creator of the telephone - 1876) made the first light bulb (late 1870s) parallel to the discovery of generators…
SOCIAL & ECONOMIC CHANGES :two ideas developed… Discovery of new landscapes : the source underlines the positive aspects and easy travels affordable. Spring time, clear sky, fast, safe, robust and comfortable means of transportation… Real opportunity to travel and discover (cheaper costs, enclosed regions joined by train, …). e.g. in GB : tourism in South England (…), mountains. Fisrt leisure times… Easier trade : Source indicates velocity of new vehicles = opposed to slow and unstable movements, crossing on straigth lines, etc. Real asset because they boosted production & demand ; faster transport = more raw materials ; safer and more robust transport = more exchanges, more quantities of goods ; etc. e.g. Liverpool a crossroads between Manchester / US and Indias…