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Introduction: the structure and logic (part-3) Scientific Writing.

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1 Introduction: the structure and logic (part-3) Scientific Writing

2 Outline :next sessions Importance Continuity Question precision Summary –Empty sheet-2 Two question Signals –Empty sheet-3 Population and material Descriptive papers Method paper

3 Outline From last session Exercise Key terms References Tens Size Exercise

4 Introduction Literature Cited Abstract Discussion Materials and Methods Results Title Abstract

5 1)the background of the research question, 3) problems should included with that research 4) what you did to fix those problems. 2) previous research in the area Known-unknown Question-hypothesis

6 ORGANIZATION FOR HYPOTHESIS- TESTING PAPERS

7 What is the problem? Drinking three glasses of whisky a week does not reduce teetotallers' chances of dying of coronary artery disease.

8 No Answer, Results, or Implications Should not be included in the Introduction –Answer to the question –Results –Implications

9 Checklist for introduction 1)the background of the research question –Focused (Too many details) –Informative, enlighten (Trivial, unimportant ) –Intriguing (Dull, boring, clichéd ) –Reader-friendly (Arcane, don't just launch (start) into your exposition (show). ) 2) previous research in the area –Synthetic (Pedantic, sophistic ) –go back at least 10 years 3) problems should included with that research –Explanatory, clarifying (Uninformative) – Relevant (ridicule) –True (Misleading) –Gentle, passive voice (Harsh) 4) what you did to fix those problems. –highlight innovative features of your design, sample, or measurement methods.

10 1)the background of the research question, 3) problems should included with that research 4) what you did to fix those problems. 2) previous research in the area Known-unknown Question-hypothesis

11 3) problems with past research Do not be hypercritical or overly detailed in your criticism. Your reviewer may be a colleague of the criticized author who uses the same methodology. Worse, the reviewer may be the subject of your criticism herself. Instead, describe the general category of the problem. Avoid antagonistic phrases ("failed to,,',,made the mistake of," "used invalid techniques") and singling out a specific author for blame.

12 3) problems with past research Harsh: Incredibly, Langford-an incompetent researcher if there ever was one, despite his Nobel Prize foolishly did not recognize the importance of asking about prior history of stroke, and erroneously misclassified several living subjects as dead because they did not return a questionnaire. Gentle: Previous research did not account for the possible effects of prior history of stroke, or hove l00% complete follow-up.

13 3) problems with past research Even better, sometimes you can cite another author who has criticized the prior study in an editorial, review, or letter to the editor. The use of the passive voice softens the blow: The results of that study have been questioned because. Some have suggested that the results of this study ….

14 3) problems with past research Sometimes, there is nothing wrong with previous research: Some studies found black, and others found white. If that is the case, then say so, providing the references. Of the three previous studies of this question, two found that a routine program of physical therapy for elderly inpatients was associated with a modest reduction in length of hospital stay (4,5), whereas another study concluded that there was no benefit (6). Several Vs several !? no

15 Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran Sima Hashemipour,1 Bagher Larijani, 1 Hossein Adibi,1 Ebrahim Javadi,1 Mojtaba Sedaghat,1 Mohammad Pajouhi,1 Akbar Soltani,1 Ali Reza Shafaei,1 Zohreh Hamidi,1 Ali Reza Khalili Fard,1 Arash Hossein-Nezhad,1 and Fargol Booya1 Introduction: Vitamin D is an essential element for establishing and maintananing bone structure. Vitamin D deficiency results in rickets and osteomalacia. Even slight vitamin D deficiency results in secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone resorption [1,2]. In addition, there has been increased attention to the physiologic importance of vitamin D in non-skeletal tissues [3].123 Vitamin D is supplied by consumption of vitamin D-rich foods and by vitamin D synthesis in skin. Natural nutrient materials are not a sufficient source of vitamin D to supply the body requirements; therefore where there is no supplementation of foodstuffs, the main source for vitamin D is produced by UV light [4,5].45 Regarding the significant role of sunlight in vitamin D synthesis, it is quite logical to suggest low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries. However the studies carried out in the preceding two decades have shown a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries such as China, Turkey, India, Iran and Saudi Arabia [6-14]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied between 30% and 93%. However, the majority of these studies were limited to specific age and sex groups. Therefore, elucidation of vitamin D status at the community level and in different climates of a country seems essential.614 The present study is a part of a national project of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis that investigates the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its influencing factors in the population of Tehran.

16 1)the background of the research question, 3) problems should included with that research 4) what you did to fix those problems. 2) previous research in the area

17 4) what you did to fix those problems Conclude the introduction by telling the reader about the major improvements you have made on past research. Here is your chance to highlight innovative features of your design, sample, or measurement methods. The introduction should end with a one-sentence overview of your study:

18 4) what you did to fix those problems To address these problems, we documented variceal bleeding using this newly developed noninvasive in situ scintigraphic technique. Patients who were bleeding of a rate of 2O cc per minute or more were randomly assigned to sclerotherapy with either SuperGlue or shark liver oil, and followed for rebleeding, length of hospital stay, and 6-month mortality.

19 4) what you did to fix those problems What if your study is a “sequel (continuation)" to a prior study from your research group? In that situation, clearly state how the current study expands on that work. –Are you reanalyzing previously reported data? – Did you enroll new, or additional, subjects? –Did you develop a new methodology? –Have the results changed because of additional follow-up?

20 4) what you did to fix those problems We expand our prior findings by including 50 additional patients, for a total of 96, as well as the results of the newly developed latex heterophile agglomeration test.

21 Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran Sima Hashemipour,1 Bagher Larijani, 1 Hossein Adibi,1 Ebrahim Javadi,1 Mojtaba Sedaghat,1 Mohammad Pajouhi,1 Akbar Soltani,1 Ali Reza Shafaei,1 Zohreh Hamidi,1 Ali Reza Khalili Fard,1 Arash Hossein-Nezhad,1 and Fargol Booya1 Introduction: Vitamin D is an essential element for establishing and maintananing bone structure. Vitamin D deficiency results in rickets and osteomalacia. Even slight vitamin D deficiency results in secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone resorption [1,2]. In addition, there has been increased attention to the physiologic importance of vitamin D in non-skeletal tissues [3].123 Vitamin D is supplied by consumption of vitamin D-rich foods and by vitamin D synthesis in skin. Natural nutrient materials are not a sufficient source of vitamin D to supply the body requirements; therefore where there is no supplementation of foodstuffs, the main source for vitamin D is produced by UV light [4,5].45 Regarding the significant role of sunlight in vitamin D synthesis, it is quite logical to suggest low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries. However the studies carried out in the preceding two decades have shown a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries such as China, Turkey, India, Iran and Saudi Arabia [6-14]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied between 30% and 93%. However, the majority of these studies were limited to specific age and sex groups. Therefore, elucidation of vitamin D status at the community level and in different climates of a country seems essential.614 The present study is a part of a national project of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis that investigates the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its influencing factors in the population of Tehran.

22 Checklist: introduction should be direct and to the point be clear and informative be short and arresting, and they should tell the reader why you have undertaken the study. not say Several studies Vs several others not summarise everything (analysis Vs synthesis!) not repeat material that is in all the textbooks and that your readers will know. not be wholly unfamiliar

23 1.be direct and to the point 2.be clear and informative 3.be short and arresting, and they should tell the reader why you have undertaken the study. 4.not say Several studies Vs several others 5.not summarise everything (analysis Vs synthesis!) 6.not repeat material that is in all the textbooks and that your readers will know. 7.not be wholly unfamiliar 1)the background of the research question –Focused (Too many details) –Informative, enlighten (Trivial, unimportant ) –Intriguing (Dull, boring, clichéd ) –Reader-friendly (Arcane, don't just launch (start) into your exposition (show).) 2) previous research in the area –Synthetic (Pedantic, sophistic ) –go back at least 10 years 3) problems should included with that research –Explanatory, clarifying (Uninformative) – Relevant (ridicule) –True (Misleading) –Gentle, passive voice (Harsh) 4) what you did to fix those problems. –highlight innovative features of your design, sample, or measurement methods. Checklist for introduction

24 Outline From last session Exercise Key terms References Tens Size Exercise

25 Key terms The question should repeat the key terms of the title and the Introduction as well as the objectives, the independent and dependent variables, the species, and, when necessary, the groups.

26

27 Example General Area Restenosis after an initially successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty remains an important unsolved problem with this promising revascularization technique. Retrospective studies have found that several clinical, angiographic, and procedural variables are important predictors of restenosis.

28 Example (cont’d) Gap or General Problem There is considerable variation among the studies, however, and the results are often difficult to interpret. Prospective trials are clearly needed to confirm the observations made in retrospective studies and to assess whether the risk of restenosis can be predicted accurately in specific patients.

29 Example (cont’d) Previous Findings Several studies have reported high rates of restenosis among patients with coronary vasospasm, such as Prinzmetal’s angina, as well as among those with coronary lesions susceptible to abnormal vasoconstriction during provocative testing.

30 Example (cont’d) Hypothesis or Research Question We designed a prospective trial to test whether abnormal coronary vasoconstriction, detected by hyperventilation testing before angioplasty, increases the likelihood of restenosis. A test that could accurately identify patients at high risk of restenosis might influence management.

31 Example (cont’d) This Introduction reads well. Note the repetition of key words and phrases, which also serve as transitions for the reader. With the first word, you know the subject of the paper, “restenosis,” which is followed almost immediately by the narrowed subject, “predictors of restenosis.” The author then discusses the shortcomings of the available retrospective studies and addresses the need for a prospective study. His hypothesis, “We designed a prospective trial...” follows obviously from the gap in knowledge. The author’s final statement informs the reader of the importance of this work to patient care.

32 Length Logic: The Introduction should be as short as possible consistent with clarity and informativeness. Generally; shorter is better. The amount of background information needed for complete informativeness depends on how much the intended audience can be expected to know about the topic.

33 Length Logic: Do not review the topic. That is what review articles are for. The purposes of the Introduction are to prepare the reader to understand the paper and to awaken interest. Long introductions kill off interest and are often confusing and misleading. So tell only as much as necessary to get the reader from a reasonable starting point to the question. (BMJ)

34 Size For a typical journal article, one double-spaced page (about words) is often sufficient. When a longer Introduction is needed, try to keep it to two double-spaced pages ( words). Try to limit it within two double-spaced pages or 2-3 paragraphs (BMJ) Keep the Introduction short: one or two typed pages.

35 Verb Tense Statement Example Present Present perfect Present or present perfect Past or present Simple past Hypothetical Question Known Transition clause introducing something known Unknown Signal of the question Experimental approach, and anything else done by you or others in the past Suggestions, possibilities "whether X increases Y" "X is a component ofY." "It has long been known that..." "X is unknown." "X has not been determined." "We hypothesized that.. "The purpose of this study was... "We asked whether,,," but "This report describes "we assessed" "X may have an effect on.. "X might reduce..."

36 References The statements about what is known must include references (see Examples 4.1 ). The number of references should be kept to a minimum. If a lot of work has been done on the topic, select papers describing the first, the most important, the most elegant, and the most recent studies. You can also cite review articles.

37 Exercises 4.1 Example 4.1: A Brief Introduction A lt is known that several general anesthetics, including barbiturates, depress the bronchomotor response to vagus nerve stimulation (1, 7, 9). B How- ever, the site of this depression has not been determined. C To determine which site in the vagal motor pathway to the bronchioles is most sensitive to depression by barbiturates, D we did experiments in isolated rings of ferret trachea in which we stimulated this pathway at four different sites before and after exposure to barbiturates.

38 References In this section, preliminary reports or abstracts can be cited, as can closely related, previously published work. However, avoid using the names of investigators in the Introduction; remember, the Introduction is intended to hook your reader into reading the paper. –Logic: Mentioning others by name (rather than by contributions) takes the attention away from your work.

39 1)the background of the research question, 3) problems should included with that research 4) what you did to fix those problems. 2) previous research in the area

40 Thank you


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