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1 1 Early Inhabitants of North America PaleoArchaicWoodlandMississippianHistoric

2 2 Native Americans or 1 st Immigrants? One of the first questions that scientists try to decide is where did the 1 st people come from that lived in “America” come from and why were they moving? One of the first questions that scientists try to decide is where did the 1 st people come from that lived in “America” come from and why were they moving? Were they always here? Were they always here? Did they come from Asia? Did they come from Asia? Did they come from South America? Did they come from South America? Did they sail over the Pacific? Did they sail over the Pacific? DNA testing, the study of skeletal remains, and a comparison of languages also lend support of special affinities between Native Americans and the peoples of Siberia. DNA testing, the study of skeletal remains, and a comparison of languages also lend support of special affinities between Native Americans and the peoples of Siberia.

3 3 PALEO: ICE AGE (Hollywood style) The Ice Age locked up more of the world’s water in polar icecaps that allowed a land crossing over the Bering Sea from Asia to North America. Also, similar archaeological sites on in such faraway places on North American continent such as present-day California and Florida.

4 Animals of the Paleo Tradition Prehistoric Camel Mastodon 4

5 Animals of the Paleo Tradition Saber-Tooth Tiger Giant Sloth 5

6 Animals of the Paleo Tradition Fossilized Skull of Saber- Tooth Tiger Saber-Tooth Tiger Attacks Giant Sloth 6

7 7 PALEO (10,000-8,000 B.C. ) “Very Old” The “Band”: Because the survival of the group depended on a successful hunt, the number of people in the band was usually people. The “Band”: Because the survival of the group depended on a successful hunt, the number of people in the band was usually people. Men: The men would hunt together with large spears called “Clovis Points” and stabbed the large animal until it died. They would run up and try to stab the animal in its soft underbelly or joints. Once the animal died, the group would move near the “kill site”. Young boys would hunt when he was a teen. Men: The men would hunt together with large spears called “Clovis Points” and stabbed the large animal until it died. They would run up and try to stab the animal in its soft underbelly or joints. Once the animal died, the group would move near the “kill site”. Young boys would hunt when he was a teen. Women: The women would quickly pack up the camp site and move to the “kill site”. The women and girls would help prepare the slain animal for all of its different uses. Women: The women would quickly pack up the camp site and move to the “kill site”. The women and girls would help prepare the slain animal for all of its different uses. FYI: The average age span of Paleo: years. FYI: The average age span of Paleo: years.

8 8 PALEO (10,000-8,000 B.C. ) “Very Old” Over these years, Paleo groups chased big game into North America. At the end of this time, these animals began to die off. Scientists have many theories: -End of Ice Age (early version of Global Warming) -Overhunting-Disease Humans began to move less and develop cultural ties more.

9 Paleo Camp: A Modern Version of a Paleo “Household” 9

10 Pleistocene Overkill: intensified hunting efforts brought on in response to lowered reproduction and survival rates of large animals. 10

11 11 PALEO (10,000-8,000 B.C. ) “Very Old” The “Clovis Point” was the large spearhead that was used to stab the animal in the soft underbelly. (Clovis was the site where this technology was discovered The “Clovis Point” was the large spearhead that was used to stab the animal in the soft underbelly. (Clovis was the site where this technology was discovered These stone points later became more delicate and lighter to be on throwing spears (rather than stabbing spears). These were called “Folsom Points” and showed how technology was improving. These stone points later became more delicate and lighter to be on throwing spears (rather than stabbing spears). These were called “Folsom Points” and showed how technology was improving.

12 Paleo Humor: End of Ice Age OR The 1 st Global Warming? 12

13 13 ARCHAIC (8,000 -1,000 B.C.) “Old” Why the Change? Why the Change? When the Ice Age ended, the larger animals became extinct, and the people in North America did not have to travel as far to hunt the smaller animals. So these Archaic Indians moved on a more “seasonal” basis: winter on the seashore, summer in the mountains might be a year’s plan. When the Ice Age ended, the larger animals became extinct, and the people in North America did not have to travel as far to hunt the smaller animals. So these Archaic Indians moved on a more “seasonal” basis: winter on the seashore, summer in the mountains might be a year’s plan. Though these Indians were still hunters & food gatherers, they did live longer in an area before moving. So, they lived in groups of bands, numbering people and moved just a few times in a year. Though these Indians were still hunters & food gatherers, they did live longer in an area before moving. So, they lived in groups of bands, numbering people and moved just a few times in a year. All tools continued to be made from wood, stone, or bone; no metal tools were used by these Native Americans. All tools continued to be made from wood, stone, or bone; no metal tools were used by these Native Americans.

14 14 ARCHAIC (8,000 -1,000 B.C.) “Old” Atlatl: A new weapon for hunting smaller game was created: the atlatl. Atlatl: A new weapon for hunting smaller game was created: the atlatl. By shrinking the size of the spear, and transferring energy from the person to the atlatl to the spear, a hunter could throw this weapon from a great distance. It was a perfect adaptation for hunting smaller game. By shrinking the size of the spear, and transferring energy from the person to the atlatl to the spear, a hunter could throw this weapon from a great distance. It was a perfect adaptation for hunting smaller game. FYI: An atlatl could throw a spear the length of a football field… on a straight line. FYI: An atlatl could throw a spear the length of a football field… on a straight line.

15 Atlatl 15

16 Atlatl Atlatl Throwing Motion Close-up View of Atlatl 16

17 Atlatl How does the weight help the atlatl’s aim & power? Atlatl bringing home the bacon! (or at least the venison!) 17

18 Atlatl 18

19 19 Woodland (1000 B.C A.D.) Eventually, people in America made an important discovery. Besides gathering food and hunting, they could plant seeds and expect a corn crop to grow during the summer. The discovery of farming gives incentive for people to stay to harvest the crop. Eventually, people in America made an important discovery. Besides gathering food and hunting, they could plant seeds and expect a corn crop to grow during the summer. The discovery of farming gives incentive for people to stay to harvest the crop.

20 20 ARCHAIC (8,000 -1,000 B.C.) “Old” Innovations: Innovations: Stone Boiling: Rocks were placed in a fire, and then moved with two forked sticks into a pit that was lined with an animal skin and filled with water. The sticks would be used to drop the rocks in the water. The rocks would make the water boil and the vegetables could be cooked! --Pottery: As people needed less time to gather food, they had time to invent things, such as simple pottery to use in cooking.

21 21 Archaic Differences Begin to Emerge While some groups moved seasonally, some began to stay more stationary, depending on the food source: While some groups moved seasonally, some began to stay more stationary, depending on the food source: The Chumash (in present-day California) benefited from the food resources such as acorns, plants, etc. in the forests. The Chumash (in present-day California) benefited from the food resources such as acorns, plants, etc. in the forests. The Northwest Peoples (in present-day Washington) benefited from the abundant salmon supplies. The Northwest Peoples (in present-day Washington) benefited from the abundant salmon supplies. (This period covers the same time as the Mesolithic period in European chronology.) Trading occurred between the bands, as marine shells from the oceans were found by the Great Lakes.

22 22 Woodland (1000 B.C A.D.) Because food was easier to get, the need for movement was reduced. The groups of bands (of the Archaic period) grew to be tribes ( ) of people by the Woodland period. Because food was easier to get, the need for movement was reduced. The groups of bands (of the Archaic period) grew to be tribes ( ) of people by the Woodland period. Men still hunted, and farming was left to the women. Men still hunted, and farming was left to the women.

23 23 Woodland (1,000 B.C A.D.) Technology: Technology: Bow and Arrow: for hunting small game such as deer or squirrel. Dart/Blow Gun: for hunting very small game such as birds, rabbits, etc.

24 Blow-Gun 24

25 Bow and Arrow 25

26 26 Woodland (1,000 B.C A.D.) Examples of Woodland Tradition: Examples of Woodland Tradition: Hohokam (Southwest) Hohokam (Southwest) Anasazi (Southwest) Anasazi (Southwest) Rock Eagle (Southeast) Rock Eagle (Southeast) Corn (maize) was the major crop in most areas. Corn (maize) was the major crop in most areas.

27 27 Woodland (1000 B.C A.D.) Horticulture Techniques: Horticulture Techniques: Girdling: This is the process of cutting down a tree with a stone axe. The Woodland Indian would cut a circle around the base of the tree trunk. Eventually, the tree would die, and could be pushed over easily. Slash & Burn: This process involves cutting away all vegetation on the ground, and then burning it. The soil can then be used for planting, or allowed to grow back naturally. (The young plants that grow there attract deer, rabbits, etc. because those plants are the best to eat)

28 28 Woodland Landmark One of the signs of the Woodland period in Georgia is the Rock Eagle Effigy Mound. One of the signs of the Woodland period in Georgia is the Rock Eagle Effigy Mound. Quartz Rocks were piled 10 ft. high, 102 feet in length, and 120 ft. wide. Quartz Rocks were piled 10 ft. high, 102 feet in length, and 120 ft. wide. Archaeologists think Rock Eagle might have been used as a religious center for many groups in the area. Archaeologists think Rock Eagle might have been used as a religious center for many groups in the area.

29 Rock Eagle Today 29

30 30 Mississippian Culture 1000 A.D Carrying Capacity: the number of people a given area can support with food. Carrying Capacity: the number of people a given area can support with food. The “Cahokia” (near present-day St. Louis) had a population that was estimated as high as 25,000. Though no written Indian language would occur until the 1840’s, the Cahokia did leave pictographs in clay tablets. The “Cahokia” (near present-day St. Louis) had a population that was estimated as high as 25,000. Though no written Indian language would occur until the 1840’s, the Cahokia did leave pictographs in clay tablets. The Aztecs (in present-day Mexico) developed great pyramids and practiced human sacrifice in their religious ceremonies. This “mesoamerican” culture existed from central Mexico to Central America. The Aztecs (in present-day Mexico) developed great pyramids and practiced human sacrifice in their religious ceremonies. This “mesoamerican” culture existed from central Mexico to Central America.

31 31 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) As time went on, cultures got even better at growing food. Where the Woodland Indians grew corn (“maize”), the Mississippian Indians grew a variety of crops such as pumpkin, squash, beans, As time went on, cultures got even better at growing food. Where the Woodland Indians grew corn (“maize”), the Mississippian Indians grew a variety of crops such as pumpkin, squash, beans, and many other crops. and many other crops.

32 Etowah Etowah is a Mississippian chiefdom in Northwest Georgia (near Cartersville). Etowah is a Mississippian chiefdom in Northwest Georgia (near Cartersville). Archeologists think that the closer you lived to the center, the more important you were in the chiefdom. Archeologists think that the closer you lived to the center, the more important you were in the chiefdom. 32

33 Etowah’s Changing Technology V Trap: Rocks were placed in Etowah River for “Fast Food Fishing”. The fish had to swim through the hole at in the “V”, so a basket could be held there to catch them for dinner! 33

34 Ocmulgee Ocmulgee Mounds are located near Macon. The mounds have one of the few hollow mounds that served as a meeting place for the leaders of the chiefdom. Ocmulgee Mounds are located near Macon. The mounds have one of the few hollow mounds that served as a meeting place for the leaders of the chiefdom. The Black Drink was consumed in the Earth Lodge (sweat lodge) as part of the purification process- it made you throw up! Example: if you killed someone in battle, you needed to be rid of the “evilness” of that deed! The Black Drink was consumed in the Earth Lodge (sweat lodge) as part of the purification process- it made you throw up! Example: if you killed someone in battle, you needed to be rid of the “evilness” of that deed! 34

35 Ocmulgee The leaders would sit on a platform in the shape of an eagle. The chief’s seat was directly in line with the door. Twice a year the 1 st sunbeam of the morning would shoot in and land on the chief like a spotlight. They calculated which day this would occur and would meet before daybreak to “spotlight’ the mico. The leaders would sit on a platform in the shape of an eagle. The chief’s seat was directly in line with the door. Twice a year the 1 st sunbeam of the morning would shoot in and land on the chief like a spotlight. They calculated which day this would occur and would meet before daybreak to “spotlight’ the mico. 35

36 Kolomoki Kolomoki Mounds are near the Walter George Reservoir by the Alabama state line. Kolomoki Mounds are near the Walter George Reservoir by the Alabama state line. When a chief died, they’d burn his body & house on his mound. Then, after dirt was added, the son would build his new house on the grave of his father. When a chief died, they’d burn his body & house on his mound. Then, after dirt was added, the son would build his new house on the grave of his father. 36

37 37 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) Because food was easily provided, group size grew to chiefdoms (2000+ people) for this tradition. Because food was easily provided, group size grew to chiefdoms (2000+ people) for this tradition. The Chief, or mico, was the spiritual & political of the chiefdom. He could be carried down from his mound on a “litter” (a seat carried between two poles by warriors). The Chief, or mico, was the spiritual & political of the chiefdom. He could be carried down from his mound on a “litter” (a seat carried between two poles by warriors).

38 38 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) He could be carried down from his mound on a “litter” (a seat carried between two poles by warriors). He could be carried down from his mound on a “litter” (a seat carried between two poles by warriors). Effigy statues were often made and buried at the king at the burial. Effigy statues were often made and buried at the king at the burial.

39 39 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) The chief lived on man- made mounds of dirt. Other smaller mounds might be for a lesser chief (medicine man) or a burial mound. The chief lived on man- made mounds of dirt. Other smaller mounds might be for a lesser chief (medicine man) or a burial mound. When a chief died, his body & house might be burned on top on the mound. Then, more dirt would be added and the new chief (his son) would live on top of the mound. When a chief died, his body & house might be burned on top on the mound. Then, more dirt would be added and the new chief (his son) would live on top of the mound.

40 40 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGY: The bow and arrow was improved with the triangular arrowhead The bow and arrow was improved with the triangular arrowhead Pottery was decorated with patterns. It was also made into many different shapes & forms. Pottery was decorated with patterns. It was also made into many different shapes & forms.

41 Triangular Arrowheads 41

42 42 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) LEISURE TIME: LEISURE TIME: “Chunkey”- A game in which two spears are thrown at a rolling stone. The one that lands closest to the stone (without hitting it) would score a point. “Bear Skull”- A game in which a skull is tied on top of a pole. The two teams try to take a dear skin ball and hit the skull with it. If they do, they get a point. If not, everyone goes for a rebound. Teams try to tackle players with the ball and steal it. If a team scores, then the other team gets the ball. “Stick Ball” – A game like our modern-day of lacrosse. Players use two netted sticks to pass the ball to teammates to get across a goal. Sometimes two chiefdoms might agree to play this game to settle a dispute rather than going to war.

43 Baggataway: “Stickball” Lacrosse (as later named by the French) 43

44 44 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) The Native Americans called the stickball game: “baggataway” (bag AT uh way). It could be used to decide disputes, instead of a war. The game of lacrosse came from this game. The Native Americans called the stickball game: “baggataway” (bag AT uh way). It could be used to decide disputes, instead of a war. The game of lacrosse came from this game.

45 45 Mississippian (1000 A.D A.D.) Famous sites: Famous sites: Etowah: located in NW GA (near Cartersville), this site has 7 mounds and used the “V” trap for fishing. The chief would live on the highest mound. Etowah: located in NW GA (near Cartersville), this site has 7 mounds and used the “V” trap for fishing. The chief would live on the highest mound. Ocmulgee: located in middle GA (near Macon), this site also has mounds, including an earth mound that was hollow so that meetings could be held in there. A raging fire would make it a “sweat lodge” and the “Black Drink” would make people vomit before entering. Ocmulgee: located in middle GA (near Macon), this site also has mounds, including an earth mound that was hollow so that meetings could be held in there. A raging fire would make it a “sweat lodge” and the “Black Drink” would make people vomit before entering. Question: Why would sweating and purging with the Black Drink be used at these meetings? (Hint: think about symbolism) Question: Why would sweating and purging with the Black Drink be used at these meetings? (Hint: think about symbolism)

46 46 Mississippian Culture When the mico died, sometimes his wife and slaves were killed to accompany him to the afterlife with the Creator. Chiefdoms would dominate, then be overwhelmed by a neighboring chiefdom, or split from within. Disease and drought were other threats to the health of the chiefdom. The Aztecs (present-day Mexico) was the strongest chiefdom in mesoamerica during this time period. Animism was “a conviction that the supernatural was a complex & diverse web of power woven into every part of the natural world.” (American Colonies, pg. 18) The European cultures would struggle with this concept.

47 Historic Period: 1492-??? 47

48 THE END 48

49 49 Question for the Day: Where’s the Food? This led to a 3 rd way that anthropologists describe how a group of people got their food: This led to a 3 rd way that anthropologists describe how a group of people got their food: MASTER FARMERS: MASTER FARMERS: These people could grow many different foods to feed a large number of people.

50 50 Archaeology 101 “Hi, my name is: “Hi, my name is: Dr. U. R. Ancient!” Dr. U. R. Ancient!” I’m Shiloh’s resident archaeologist. I hope you will learn a few things about the people who were here before the Europeans arrived.” I’m Shiloh’s resident archaeologist. I hope you will learn a few things about the people who were here before the Europeans arrived.”

51 51 The P.A.W.M. Pilot Our graphic organizer for this unit will be a paper “P.A.W.M.” Pilot. (It’s cheaper than a real Palm Pilot). The letters stand for the 4 time periods of the Native Americans in Georgia. They are: Our graphic organizer for this unit will be a paper “P.A.W.M.” Pilot. (It’s cheaper than a real Palm Pilot). The letters stand for the 4 time periods of the Native Americans in Georgia. They are: -- P aleo -- A rchaic -- W oodland -- M ississippian

52 52 The P.A.W.M. Pilot 1 st Step: Fold your paper in half (hot dog; down) 1 st Step: Fold your paper in half (hot dog; down) 2 nd Step: Fold the paper into four parts by folding in half (across), and then fold it in half again (across). 2 nd Step: Fold the paper into four parts by folding in half (across), and then fold it in half again (across). 3 rd Step: Take the front flap and cut it into 4 “lids”; do NOT cut through the fold of the paper. 3 rd Step: Take the front flap and cut it into 4 “lids”; do NOT cut through the fold of the paper.

53 53 The P.A.W.M. Pilot On the “Cover”: On the “Cover”: Write one letter per flap: P, A, W, M. Make it colorful! (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian) (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian) On the Flip Side of the “Cover” & Inside Section: On the Flip Side of the “Cover” & Inside Section: Write a summary of each Native American tradition. Tell about: Write a summary of each Native American tradition. Tell about: Family Family Food Food Weapons (draw a picture) Weapons (draw a picture) Group Size Group Size Technology Technology

54 54 The P.A.W.M. Pilot On the “Back” of the Uncut Page: On the “Back” of the Uncut Page: Make a timeline that shows when all the time periods occurred. Make a timeline that shows when all the time periods occurred. (Hint: make each inch = 1000 years (Hint: make each inch = 1000 years or each ½ inch= 1000 years)

55 55 Time Periods When archaeologists study past cultures, they estimate when these people might have lived in Georgia. For example, the term, “Paleo” means “very old” and refers to any person who was alive in Georgia during that time period. So, Paleo is more of a time period than a name of a tribe. When archaeologists study past cultures, they estimate when these people might have lived in Georgia. For example, the term, “Paleo” means “very old” and refers to any person who was alive in Georgia during that time period. So, Paleo is more of a time period than a name of a tribe.

56 56 Indiana Jones v. CSI In the movie, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones plays a scientist who looks for valuable artifacts of the past at archaeological sites (while fighting bad guys). These clues to the past can be found in “middens” or trash piles that were left behind. In the movie, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones plays a scientist who looks for valuable artifacts of the past at archaeological sites (while fighting bad guys). These clues to the past can be found in “middens” or trash piles that were left behind. Anthropologists are like the experts on CSI They also try to describe how one culture is different from another. They explain how humans changed their living styles over time. Anthropologists are like the experts on CSI, who look for how different crime scenes may be related. They also try to describe how one culture is different from another. They explain how humans changed their living styles over time. Georgia Story: Archaeology

57 57 SURVIVAL 101 Archaeologists want to know how cultures solved our basic needs: F ___ ___ ___ W ___ ___ ___ ___ S ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ By examining the artifacts left behind, the archaeologist can make educated guesses about how people lived.

58 58 Question for the Day: Where’s the Food? Because food was the main concern of each day, people were always looking for ways to make the search easier and less time- consuming. As anthropologists study the past, they describe cultures by how they got their food. The first category is: Because food was the main concern of each day, people were always looking for ways to make the search easier and less time- consuming. As anthropologists study the past, they describe cultures by how they got their food. The first category is: FOOD GATHERERS: these people hunted, fished, collected nuts, and ate whatever food that they could find as they walked about the land. FOOD GATHERERS: these people hunted, fished, collected nuts, and ate whatever food that they could find as they walked about the land.

59 59 Question for the Day: Where’s the Food? As time went on, people wanted to have some control of where they found their food. They grew tired of packing up and moving every time food got scarce in an area. As time went on, people wanted to have some control of where they found their food. They grew tired of packing up and moving every time food got scarce in an area. This led to the 2 nd category that anthropologists use to describe a culture: This led to the 2 nd category that anthropologists use to describe a culture:

60 60 Question for the Day: Where’s the Food? HUNTING FARMERS: HUNTING FARMERS: these people continued to be food gatherers but they added one great new skill: the ability to farm. Farming means you can decide that a crop such as “yellow corn” can be grown in a certain spot, and it will (with some work) appear there to provide food for all at some point during the year. these people continued to be food gatherers but they added one great new skill: the ability to farm. Farming means you can decide that a crop such as “yellow corn” can be grown in a certain spot, and it will (with some work) appear there to provide food for all at some point during the year. That is a huge burden to be lifted if you KNOW you’ll have food growing in a certain spot during the year. When the crop does comes to harvest, food will be plentiful. That is a huge burden to be lifted if you KNOW you’ll have food growing in a certain spot during the year. When the crop does comes to harvest, food will be plentiful.

61 61 Question for the Day: Where’s the Food? Eventually, people got very proficient at growing their food. Diversity in crops occurred, and groups quit moving around so much. Eventually, people got very proficient at growing their food. Diversity in crops occurred, and groups quit moving around so much. Cultures got more complex as people had more free time than every before. Cultures got more complex as people had more free time than every before.

62 62 Question for the Day: Where’s the Food? MASTER FARMERS: MASTER FARMERS: These people still hunted, fished, and gathered food like their ancestors; but the main “staple” of their diet came from their great ability to grow crops wherever they wished.

63 63 SO… Time to play “Detective” As you learn about the four time periods (or eras) of Native Americans in Georgia that lived before the Europeans arrived, think about how they collected their food. As you learn about the four time periods (or eras) of Native Americans in Georgia that lived before the Europeans arrived, think about how they collected their food. Food Gatherers: hunt, fish, collect (no farms) Food Gatherers: hunt, fish, collect (no farms) Hunting Farmers: hunt, fish, collect, farm corn Hunting Farmers: hunt, fish, collect, farm corn Master Farmers: hunt, fish, collect and grow a variety of crops to feed thousands of people Master Farmers: hunt, fish, collect and grow a variety of crops to feed thousands of people

64 64 Why didn’t the Native Americans leave us some written clues? “One interesting thing about all 4 of these cultures is that all of their story-telling, laws, religious beliefs, and values had to be taught verbally to each generation. No group created their own written language until Sequoyah did it for the Cherokees in the 1800’s.” “One interesting thing about all 4 of these cultures is that all of their story-telling, laws, religious beliefs, and values had to be taught verbally to each generation. No group created their own written language until Sequoyah did it for the Cherokees in the 1800’s.” --U.R. Ancient (archaeologist)

65 65 Myths: A Tool for Teaching After a full day, a grandparent may sit down and tell a story to their grandchildren around the campfire. It usually tried to do 3 things: (3 “E’s”) After a full day, a grandparent may sit down and tell a story to their grandchildren around the campfire. It usually tried to do 3 things: (3 “E’s”) Entertain (no TV or I-pod) Explain the “unexplainable” about nature ( “Why is there thunder? Why does a raccoon wear a mask? Why does a skunk stink?) Enlighten children on values that are important to the culture (Honesty, bravery, sharing, equality, etc.)

66 66 Myths: A Tool for Teaching Listen to this Cherokee myth about fire. Answer these questions after hearing the story: Listen to this Cherokee myth about fire. Answer these questions after hearing the story: -How was it entertaining? -What things in nature were explained? -What values were learned? Georgia Story: Cherokee Myth

67 67 THE FIRST FIRE “Grandfather, where did fire come from?” “Oh, dear granddaughter, we have the animals of the forest to thank for fire. For in the beginning, there was no fire and the world was cold. Then the lightning came down and put fire in a hollow sycamore tree that grew on an island.” “The animals saw the smoke and knew that fire had come down from the sky. So, they held a council to see what they could do to get the fire and bring it back to the forest. It was decided that every animal that could swim or fly would try to retrieve it.

68 68 THE FIRST FIRE “The raven went first because he was big and strong. But his feathers got scorched black by the fire, and he had to return without the fire.” “The raven went first because he was big and strong. But his feathers got scorched black by the fire, and he had to return without the fire.” “The owl tried next, but the smoke nearly blinded him and the hot ashes blew up in his face, leaving white rings around his eyes. He, too, came home without the fire.” “The owl tried next, but the smoke nearly blinded him and the hot ashes blew up in his face, leaving white rings around his eyes. He, too, came home without the fire.” The little snake then swam across and crawled in a hole at the bottom of the tree. But the hot coals made him slither back and forth in close quarters to get out; he moves now as a sidewinder. The little snake then swam across and crawled in a hole at the bottom of the tree. But the hot coals made him slither back and forth in close quarters to get out; he moves now as a sidewinder.

69 69 THE FIRST FIRE “Oh, grandfather, surely someone would be brave enough and smart enough to get the fire for us! After all, we’re by a camp fire now, aren’t we?” “Oh, grandfather, surely someone would be brave enough and smart enough to get the fire for us! After all, we’re by a camp fire now, aren’t we?” “Granddaughter, you are wise beyond your years. Yes, one animal did get the fire. It was a little water spider who wove a bowl out of a thread. She then lifted one little coal, put it in her little web bowl, and brought it back for all to share.” “Granddaughter, you are wise beyond your years. Yes, one animal did get the fire. It was a little water spider who wove a bowl out of a thread. She then lifted one little coal, put it in her little web bowl, and brought it back for all to share.” And ever since, we have had fire, and the water spider still carries her web bowl wherever she goes.” (Myths of the Cherokee by James Mooney). And ever since, we have had fire, and the water spider still carries her web bowl wherever she goes.” (Myths of the Cherokee by James Mooney).

70 70 Myths: A Tool for Teaching Try to write your own Native American Myth. It should have these parts to it: Try to write your own Native American Myth. It should have these parts to it: --Title --Title --Minimum One Page in length (use a lot of adjectives) --Minimum One Page in length (use a lot of adjectives) --Explain 1-2 things about nature that a child might want to know. (fire, animals characteristics, etc.) --Explain 1-2 things about nature that a child might want to know. (fire, animals characteristics, etc.) --Teach 1-2 values that a grandparent might want a child to know. (Last sentence: Moral of story is…) --Teach 1-2 values that a grandparent might want a child to know. (Last sentence: Moral of story is…) --Give a full-page illustration of your myth. --Give a full-page illustration of your myth.

71 A Myth is Born… 71

72 72 WHEW! We’re Done! “ I hope you’ve learned a lot about the Native Americans of Georgia. Between your P.A.W.M. Pilot and your Indian Myth, I’m sure you will ‘wow’ your teacher with your knowledge!” “ I hope you’ve learned a lot about the Native Americans of Georgia. Between your P.A.W.M. Pilot and your Indian Myth, I’m sure you will ‘wow’ your teacher with your knowledge!” --U.R. Ancient --U.R. Ancient (archaeologist)


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