Presentation on theme: "1 Academic Content Standards Targets. 2 Chapter 6 The American Revolution Chapter 6, Section 1 ► Did You Know? (find a grave) Know? ► Thomas Paine's Common."— Presentation transcript:
1 Academic Content Standards Targets
2 Chapter 6 The American Revolution Chapter 6, Section 1 ► Did You Know? (find a grave) Know? ► Thomas Paine's Common Sense was published in 1776 in order to influence Americans to support the Revolution, The pamphlet met this goal, Today, more than 200 years later, Common Sense is still in print! The Crisis pamphletlaterThe CrisispamphletlaterThe Crisis ► “ THESE are the times that try men's souls.” About religion, The Age of Reason says: I do not believe in the creed professed by the Jewish church, by the Roman church, by the Greek church, by the Turkish church, by the Protestant church, nor by any church that I know of. My own mind is my own church. All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit. He also wrote An Essay on the Origin of Free-Masonry ( ), about the Bible being allegorical myth describing astrology: The Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the sun, in which they put a man called Christ in the place of the sun, and pay him the adoration originally payed to the sun. Needless to say this did not win him many friends in the new Unites States. In 1793, Thomas Paine was imprisoned in France for not endorsing the execution of Louis XVI. During his imprisonment, he wrote and distributed the first part of what was to become his most famous work at the time, the anti-church text, The Age of Reason ( ). He was freed in 1794 (narrowly escaping execution) thanks to the efforts of James Monroe, then U.S. Minister to France. Paine remained in France until 1802 when he returned to America on an invitation from Thomas Jefferson. Paine discovered that his contributions to the American Revolution had been all but eradicated due to his religious views. Derided by the public and abandoned by his friends, he died on June 8, 1809 at the age of 72 in New York City. When Paine returned to the US in 1802, he received a cool welcome. He was now the infamous author of The Age of Reason, an infidel with whom even old allies like his friend in the White House, Thomas Jefferson, were reluctant to associate. Meddlesome Christians urged the sick and dying man to embrace their faith, but were brusquely dismissed. One of his friends facetiously suggested that Paine could resolve his financial worries by publishing a ‘recantation’. The author of The Age of Reason replied, ‘Tom Paine never told a lie’. Thomas Paine’s funeral was sparsely attended. Thomas Paine, who died 200 years ago, in June 1809, at the age of 72, and was buried in the small farm he owned in what was then the rural hamlet of New Rochelle, 20 miles north of New York City. Not long before, New Rochelle’s bigwigs had barred Paine from voting, claiming he was not a US citizen. Paine, who had virtually invented the idea of US citizenship, was furious. But this was not the end of his indignities. When he sought a place to be buried, even the Quakers would not oblige him. Hence the muted funeral of the man who had inspired and guided revolutions in north America and France, and equally important, the revolution that did not happen in Britain. At the time of his death, most American newspapers reprinted the obituary notice from the New York Citizen, which read in part: "He had lived long, did some good and much harm." Only six mourners came to his funeral, two of whom were black, most likely freedmen. The writer and orator Robert G. Ingersoll wrote:New York Citizen freedmenRobert G. Ingersoll Thomas Paine had passed the legendary limit of life. One by one most of his old friends and acquaintances had deserted him. Maligned on every side, execrated, shunned and abhorred – his virtues denounced as vices – his services forgotten – his character blackened, he preserved the poise and balance of his soul. He was a victim of the people, but his convictions remained unshaken. He was still a soldier in the army of freedom, and still tried to enlighten and civilize those who were impatiently waiting for his death. Even those who loved their enemies hated him, their friend – the friend of the whole world – with all their hearts. On the 8th of June, 1809, death came – Death, almost his only friend. At his funeral no pomp, no pageantry, no civic procession, no military display. In a carriage, a woman and her son who had lived on the bounty of the dead – on horseback, a Quaker, the humanity of whose heart dominated the creed of his head – and, following on foot, two negroes filled with gratitude – constituted the funeral cortege of Thomas Paine.  
3 ► "Posterity — you will never know how much it has cost my generation to preserve your freedom. I hope you will make good use of it." — John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) eldest son of John Adams, 2nd US president. John AdamsJohn Adams
4 I. The Opposing Sides ( Pages ) ► In order for the colonies to actually gain their independence from Britain, they had to fight (and win) a war. No one expected it to last long, however. ► The Patriots, or Americans who supported independence, faced several obstacles: ► Britain had a larger population-8 million against 2.5 million. ► Britain had the strongest navy in the world and a well-trained army as well strongest navystrongest navy The Americans did not have a regular army or navy. Many colonists belonged to militias who were basically volunteers and served for short periods of time. Not all Americans supported the war effort. Some were neutral,
5 Americans were ill-prepared for war with a military giant such as England. Examine the problems in gaining support for the war effort, from mustering soldiers to buying ammunition, clothing, and food for the army. 2:33
6 I. Continued ► The Loyalists, or Tories, supported Britain for several reasons: ► Some were members of the Anglican Church and thus loyal to Britain. Some depended on the British for jobs. Some feared the changes a new government might bring and feared challenging an existing government. Some just did not understand the war. Loyalist strength varied from region to region but was strongest in the Carolinas and Georgia. ► Some African Americans were promised their freedom if they fought on the British side, so they became Loyalists. ► The Patriots had some advantages over the British troops. They fought on their own ground, not 3,000 miles from home. They had a personal stake in fighting to protect the freedom of their own land as opposed to the Hessian mercenaries, or hired soldiers, who fought for the British for money. George Washington was a leader with courage, honesty, and determination (video: The Real George Washington 49 minutes) leader After the war ended in 1783, some 17,313 Hessians returned to their homelands. Of the 12,526 who did not return (see chart below) George Washington's life mask was made in 1785 by French sculptor Jean Antoine Houdon when Washington was fifty-three. In commenting to a friend, Houdon said he had no idea of "the majesty and grandeur of Washington's form and features" until he studied him as a subject. The life mask shows Washington as he really appeared in life....without the personal and, often, subjective interpretations of the many artists, painters and sculptors who came to sketch, paint and model his countenance. When Washington returned to Mount Vernon after the War, he was one of the most famous men in the world. His newly-won celebrity status brought him a steady pilgrimage of visiting foreigners, Americans, historians and innumerable artists, all of whom consumed many hours of his time. In a letter to Francis Hopkinson in 1785, the year his life mask was made, Washington wrote: "I am so hackneyed to the touches of painters' pencils that I am now altogether at their beck, and sit 'like patience on a monument,' whilst they are delineating the lines of my face. It is a proof, among many others, of what habit and custom can accomplish." George Washington Houdon Life Mask First President of the USA FACE CAST IN WHITE Member id the-haunted-studiosMember id the-haunted-studios ( Feedback Score Of 515) Feedback Score Of 515 Item condition:New Time left:7d 15h (Nov 02, :46:58 PDT) Time left:7d 15h (Nov 02, :46:58 PDT) Price:US $32.50
7 ► Quick Review1: Explain how, for many colonists, the Revolutionary War was also a civil war.
8 This clip shows the life of George Washington from childhood to the start of his military career to his leading role in the first and second Continental Congresses, and his eventual leadership of American forces. Once Washington led the U.S. to victory in the American Revolution, the video discusses Washington's leadership role in the Constitutional Convention. 4:47
9 Why did the thirteen colonies have to fight a war if they declared their independence from Britain? Great Britain was not just going to let the colonies go without a fight. The colonies were too profitable (mercantilism required colonies as sources of raw materials and controlled markets) and too important to the empire to just let them go. Can’t we all just get along?
10 ► ► The Articles of Confederation were written ____ the U.S. Constitution. ► ► a.before ► ► b.after ► ► c. to replace ► ► d. to explain Adopted by Congress on November 15, 1777, the Articles became operative on March 1, 1781 when the last of the 13 states signed on to the document.
11 What would be an appropriate title for this chart about the American Revolution? ? _________________________________ Forces were poorly organized and untrained Had few cannons, little gunpowder, and no navy Few colonists enlisted in the Continental Army _____________________________________________ a.Patriot Disadvantages b. British Disadvantages c.British Advantages d.Patriot Advantages
12 Which of the following choices represents the proper sequence of events surrounding the American Revolution? a. Declaration of Independence Battles of Lexington and Concord Articles of Confederation Treaty of Paris b. Battles of Lexington and Concord Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation Treaty of Paris c. Battles of Lexington and Concord Articles of Confederation Declaration of Independence Treaty of Paris d. Declaration of Independence Battles of Lexington and Concord Treaty of Paris Articles of Confederation
13 II.Fighting in New York (Pages ) ► The British troops outnumbered the Americans. During the summer of 1777, Britain sent 32,000 troops to fight in America. The British hoped to win an early victory. ► The British defeated the Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island in August. Nathan Hale became a hero for America. He was discovered as a spy and hanged. After the defeat, Washington retreated to attack Manhattan and then slipped across New Jersey into Pennsylvania, pursued by the British. Battle of Long Island Battle of Long Island ► The Continental Army faced many obstacles. They ran short of supplies. The size of the army shrank. Soldiers became discouraged. Some soldiers finished their term of service and went home. Others ran away. (usually one year was customary)
14 What if the term of service for the armed forces had been a mandatory three-year term or the length of the war, not just the one-year term? Would the Americans have had an advantage and won the war earlier? It depends. If the overall effect of the term lengthening translated into greater overall troop numbers, then perhaps. However, such a long length of service may have caused fewer to enlist.
15 II. continued ► Raising an army was difficult. Congress had trouble enlisting soldiers and raising money to fight the war. The Americans had militias, not a regular army. Soldiers, usually signed up for one year of service. The Congress offered a three-year term, or length of service, but the one-year enlistment was most common. ► Some women links also fought in the war as Patriots. women
16 Women in the War ► Sarah Franklin Bache ► Mary McAculey AKA Molly Pitcher AKA Molly Pitcher Molly Pitcher at the Battle of Monmouth, Battle of MonmouthBattle of Monmouth ► Deborah Sampson: "Robert Shurtliff" ► Lydia Darragh: Quaker spy Quakerspy Quakerspy ► Margaret Corbin November 16, 1776, ► the British and Hessians mounted a joint attack on ► Fort Washington in northern Manhattan ► Quick Review 2: Explain some of the ways in which colonial women contributed to the effort (there are at least 6 of them)
17 ► Quick Review 2: Explain some of the ways in which colonial women contributed to the effort (there are at least 6 of them) ► ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________ ► Many colonial women(1) boycotted British goods. Farm women (2)took care of their farms while their husbands fought in the war. City women (3)managed their husbands’ businesses. Some women (4)raised money (Sarah Franklin Bache) for the soldiers, some (5)made clothes for the troops, and others, such as Molly Pitcher, Deborah Sampson and Lydia Darragh, (6)took an active part in the fighting. Sarah Ludington-rode to Danbury Conn. To warn.
18 African Americans in the War ► British-American Black Loyalist Foot Soldiers, Yorktown Campaign Black LoyalistBlack Loyalist This portrait (left) of an unidentified Revolutionary War sailor was painted in oil by an unknown artist, circa Prior to the war, many blacks were already experienced seamen, having served in the British navy and in the colonies' state navies, as well as on merchant vessels in the North and the South. This sailor's dress uniform suggests that he served in the navy, rather than with a privateer. Quick Review 3: Why did the Continental Army begin to allow African Americans to enlist after first banning them from service?
19 ► Quick Review 3: Why did the Continental Army begin to allow African Americans to enlist after first banning them from service? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ► This policy was changed after the British began offering freedom to any slave who fought for them. Large numbers of slaves flocked to the British army in the South. As many as 14,000 African Americans left with the British after the war was over; As more and more African Americans joined the British, George Washington and all the states (except Georgia and South Carolina) changed their minds about allowing African Americans to fight in the war. Slaves who enlisted were promised their freedom at the war’s end, but they could not join without their masters’ permission. As a result, ‘most of the 5,000 African Americans who enlisted were from the North. Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, the words "Liberty to Slaves" emblazoned on their chests.
20 Guided Reading 1. ► Women at War The Revolutionary war affected everyone in the 13 colonies. Men, women, African Americans, Native Americans, Patriots, Loyalists and all other people were touched by it. In some ways, the war was a social as well as a political revolution. The Revolutionary war affected everyone in the 13 colonies. Men, women, African Americans, Native Americans, Patriots, Loyalists and all other people were touched by it. In some ways, the war was a social as well as a political revolution. Colonial women supported the Revolution an many ways. They stuck to the boycotts of British goods in the years before the war. After the war began farm women took care of their families and farms while their husbands were away. In towns and cities, other women managed their husbands’ businesses while they fought the British. At the same time, women managed chores at home and held their families together. They often gave shelter, food and supplies to Washington’s troops. Colonial women supported the Revolution an many ways. They stuck to the boycotts of British goods in the years before the war. After the war began farm women took care of their families and farms while their husbands were away. In towns and cities, other women managed their husbands’ businesses while they fought the British. At the same time, women managed chores at home and held their families together. They often gave shelter, food and supplies to Washington’s troops.
21 ► Other women helped the war effort directly. A group called the Daughters of Liberty sewed clothes for the troops. The ladies Association raised money. Benjamin Franklin’s daughter, Sarah Franklin Bache, joined other women of Philadelphia to raise $300, 000 to assist soldiers. Sixteen year old Sybil Ludington rode twice as far as Paul Revere to warn minutemen and citizens that the British were coming to Danbury, Connecticut.
22 ► Mary McAculey, better known as Molly Pitcher, carried pitchers of water to soldiers on the battlefield. When her husband was struck in battle, she took over the firing of his canon until the battle was over. Deborah Sampson disguised herself as a man and enlisted. Lydia Darragh took the dangerous job of spying for the Continental Army. Margaret Corbin of Pennsylvania accompanied her husband when he joined the Continental Army. After he died in battle, she took his place.
23 African Americans at War ► Many African Americans fought in the war right from the beginning. They participated in the battles of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Bunker Hill. After the Continental Army was formed, however, African Americans were not allowed to serve. This policy was changed after the British began offering freedom to any slave who fought for them. Large numbers of slaves flocked to the British army in the South. As many as 14,000 African Americans left with the British after the war was over; As more and more African Americans joined the British, George Washington and all the states (except Georgia and South Carolina) changed their minds about allowing African Americans to fight in the war. Slaves who enlisted were promised their freedom at the war’s end, but they could not join without their masters’ permission. As a result, ‘most of the 5,000 African Americans who enlisted were from the North.
24 Native Americans at War ► Most Native American tribes chose to stay out of the war Many, however, had developed some trust in the British. Over and over again, the British had tried to restrict the expansion of colonial settlement onto Native American lands. The colonists, on the other hand, just kept trying to push the Native Americans farther and farther west. For that reason, some Native Americans chose to join the British. In the end, the war had several negative consequences for Native Americans. After the Patriot victory, white migration to Western lands increased. More Native Americans were forced to move. Also, many whites were angry with the Native American tribes that had assisted the British war effort. They insisted on treating the tribes as conquered peoples.
25 Analyze the diagram below. Which of the following periods is BEST described by the rights and powers listed? a. Renaissancec. Great Awakening b. Glorious Revolutiond. Enlightenment
26 Guided Reading 2 George Washington and the Continental Army ► George Washington was the first great American hero. He became, for many colonists, the symbol of what they were fighting for in the Revolutionary War. Although many colonists did not rally independence, they had faith in Washington. They respected him for suffering along with his soldiers. They were proud of his courage to fight the strongest military power in the world. When Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775, he had to form an army out of an undisciplined group of local militia and volunteers..
27 ► Throughout the war, he had trouble keeping his soldiers from deserting. Most soldiers felt loyal to their states but not to the nation as a whole. They were eager to defend their home ground, but when the war moved on, they left the fighting to someone else. Washington was forced to maintain strict discipline. He issued harsh punishments for deserters
28 ► Toward the end of 1776, more than 30,000 well-trained British troops faced no more than 18,000 inexperienced colonial soldiers. Patriots won few victories at first, but they were learning how to fight a war. Furthermore, Washington knew how the British fought from his service for them in the French and Indian War. The British army did not move very fast on land. He was often able to stay one jump ahead of the British by making quick retreats. Again and again, through six years of war, Washington and the Continental Army managed to defeat the powerful British army.
29 The War in the South guided reading ► The war in the northern part of the colonies was at a standstill by the end of Starting that same year, the British decided to attack some of the important cities in the Southern colonies, such as Savannah, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina. Battles were also fought in North Carolina and Virginia. The British won most of these battles, and largely wiped out the Continental Army in the South. Groups of soldiers from individual colonies kept on fighting, however. In 1781, a new group of Continental Army soldiers won the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina, which caused the British army in the South, commanded by General Cornwallis, to move north, toward Virginia.
30 Cont. Cont. ► At this point, General Washington began to move Continental Army troops south. A force led by the French general Lafayette faced the British, who moved to Yorktown, Virginia, where British Navy forces were stationed. On October 6, 1781, a combined force of French and American troops attacked the British army and navy. Thirteen days later, Cornwallis could see no way out. He surrendered his forces. Peace talks began after that. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the war.
31 The War in the North reading ► The Revolutionary War had two parts—or fought in the northern part of the colonies and one fought farther south. From 1775 to 1778, most of the fighting took place around Boston, New York and Philadelphia. The first major battle of the war was at Bunker Hill in Boston, in June The Patriots were driven from their position by the British but performed better than expected. More lives were lost in this battle than in any other battle of the war. Despite this victory, the British would be forced out of Boston even before the Declaration of Independence was signed. They captured New York City during the fall of 1776.
32 ► The outlook was very bleak for the Patriots at this point. Fearing the worst, the Continental Congress fled from Philadelphia. However, Washington decided to attack the British before they could move against Philadelphia. On Christmas night 1776, Washington’s army sneaked across the Delaware River to attack the British. He captured 1,000 enemy troops that were celebrating Christmas at Trenton, New Jersey. In the summer of 1777, the British would take Philadelphia without much of a fight.
33 ► At about the same time British troops were marching into Philadelphia, the British came up with another plan to end the war. They would invade New York and take control of the Hudson River. By controlling the Hudson River, they would cut off New England from the other colonies. According to the plan, three British armies, under William Howe, Barry St. Leger and John Burgoyne, were supposed to unite in Albany.
34 Guided Reading ► Had the plan worked, it probably would have divided the United States in two and led to a British victory. But the plan failed for many reasons. One was that people from the neighboring countryside took part in the war, unlike what the British army was used to in Europe Poor leadership by British generals also played a role. St. Leger was defeated before he even made it halfway to Albany. In a disastrous mistake for his country, Howe decided to attack Philadelphia, the rebel capital, instead of going to Albany.
35 ► Burgoyne, who was leading an army south from Canada, was slowed by Patriots who cut down trees and destroyed bridges to block his way. Americans encircled Burgoyne at Saratoga, where he surrendered to General Horatio Gates! The rebels took almost 6,000 prisoners there. The victory at Saratoga convinced France to join the war on the American side. It also eliminated the British threat from the North and wiped out an entire regiment of the British army.
36 Guided Reading ► Armies in the 18th century did not fight in the winter. The Continental Army camped for the winter at Valley Forge outside Philadelphia. The weather Was cold and supplies were short. One quarter of the soldiers in the army died from disease, cold and hunger. Those who survived, however, were ready to fight again in the spring. In the summer of 1778, the British abandoned Philadelphia because they feared being attacked by the French, the Americans’ new ally. At the end of the year, the Continental and British armies were in about the same places they had been two years earlier
37 Quick Review 4: What was one of Washington’s major problems as commander- in-chief of the Continental Army? ► A. keeping his men from deserting ► B. traveling as fast as the British army ► C. getting his soldiers to defend their home ground ► D. convincing colonists to rally behind independence. Of course, another problem was financing the war effort. With a new national government lacking the power to tax (Articles of Confederation 1777), an absence of an established military bureaucracy and organized supply division, Washington was forced to rely upon either the states or private individuals for resources. The following letter to the governor of Delaware illustrates this point.1777 Headquarters Morristown 26 December, 1779 Sir—The situation of the army with respect to supplies is alarming beyond description. It has been five or six weeks on half rations. We have not more than three days of bread, at one third ration on hand, nor…
38 III. Patriot Gains (Page 167) ► More soldiers were needed, so some states enlisted African Americans. As many as 5,000 African Americans fought. Among them were Lemuel Haynes and Peter Salem. African ► American troops scored victories at Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey. Washington caught the British troops off guard when he surprised them at Trenton in late December ries Trentonries Trenton
39 IV. A British Plan for Victory (Pages ) ► The British planned to gain control of Albany and the Hudson River to separate New England from the Middle Colonies.. ► Howe's troops captured Philadelphia, and the Continental Congress fled to the countryside. Howe postponed the move to Albany and stayed in Philadelphia (the American capital) during the winter. ► The Americans, however, were able to slow down the British. American forces led by Benedict Arnold forced the British under General St. Leger retreat at Fort Stanwix, New York. Story St. St. Leger’s army spent after Battle of Oriskany and he could not hook-up with Burgoyne Fort Stanwix, New Yorknot Fort Stanwix, New Yorknot ► The British lost the Battle of Saratoga. Burgoyne's troops were completely surrounded by the Patriot Army. On October 17, 1777, they handed over their weapons to the Americans and surrendered. The central figure is the American General Horatio Gates, who refused to take the sword offered by General Burgoyne, and, treating him as a gentleman, invites him into his tent
40 Why did the British want to take Albany? By taking Albany, located between New England and the Middle States, they would sandwich themselves between the Americans and take control of the Hudson River. By controlling the region in between, they could make it difficult for the Patriots to receive supplies and to form a united front.
41 Chapter 6, Section 2 ► Did You Know? ► The Saratoga battlefield in Stillwater, New York, was established as a New York state park in 1927 on the 150th anniversary of the battles. It was made part of the National Park System in 1938 by Congress.
42 I. Gaining Allies (Pages ) ► European nations helped the American cause. France and Spain were at war with the British in Europe and hated the British. They realized that the Americans had a chance to win their war, so they offered assistance. ► France at first secretly gave money to help the American war effort and then publicly announced its support after the Battle of Saratoga monument. In February 1778, the French and the Americans worked out a trade agreement and an alliance. ► France declared war on Britain and gave the Americans money, equipment, and troops to fight the British. ► Spain and the Netherlands were at war with Britain. Spain did not recognize America’ s independence until after the Revolution, but the Spanish governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Galvez, helped the war effort. Bernardo de GalvezBernardo de Galvez "First Salute" of 16 November 1776, when Commander Johannes de Graaff of Sint Eustatius decided to return the salute fire of the visiting American brigantine Andrew Doria by firing the cannons of Fort Oranje, the first international acknowledgment of the independence of the United States.
43 ► Washington’s troops spent a hard winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. The army lacked enough food, clothing, and shelter. Some men deserted; others resigned. Yet the Continental Army survived. In April news of France’s alliance cheered them. ► A French nobleman, Marquis de Lafayette, spent the winter at Valley Forge. He offered his services and became one of Washington’s trusted aides. ► Other Europeans also volunteered to help. Casimir Pulaski from Poland died fighting for the Continental Army in Friedrich von Steuben from Germany taught military discipline to Washington’s troops. Valley Forge 1777–1778 Friedrich von SteubenValley Forge Friedrich von SteubenValley Forge
44 . Juan de Miralles from Spain lent money I became friends with Patriot leaders, and convinced Cuba, Spain, and Mexico to send financial aid to the colonies. ► Getting money to finance the war was difficult. To pay for the war, Congress and the states printed hundreds of millions of dollars of paper money. Soldiers had to be paid and supplies bought. The paper quickly lost its value and in turn led to inflation. Congress stopped issuing paper money because no one would use it ► Difficulties of establishing a national government— Articles of Confederation
45 II.Life on the Home Front (Pages ) ► Women often took over the duties of men while the men were in the military. Some women questioned their place in society, and some fought for women's interests. ► The Loyalists in the colonies faced hard times. ► The issue of slavery was questioned, especially in light of the ideals of freedom for which people went to war. Governor William Livingston of New Jersey in 1778 Said, “Slavery is utterly inconsistent with the principles of Christianity and humanity.” “ I hope we shall at last, and if it so please God I hope it may be during my life time, see this cursed thing [slavery] taken out.... For my part, whether in a public station or a private capacity, I shall always be prompt to contribute my assistance towards effecting so desirable an event. “
46 IT’S IMPORTANT: ► Early battles of the Revolutionary War took place in Northern areas, but the war shifted to southern areas later in the war ► The Revolution involved all American groups including Native Americans, African Americans and Women.
47 III. War in the West (Pages ) ► The war in the West took place along the frontier, west of the Appalachian Mountains, and involved Native Americans. They often helped the British by raiding American settlements. ► George Rogers Clark went west to end the attacks. In July 1778, he and 175 soldiers took the British post at Kaskaskia in present-day Illinois and then captured the town of Vincennes in present-day Indiana. ► The British recaptured Vincennes under Henry Hamilton in December. In February Clark and his troops surprised the British and forced Hamilton to surrender. This victory helped strengthen the western position.
48 What did Governor William Livingston of New Jersey in 1778 mean when he said that slavery was "utterly inconsistent with the principles of Christianity and humanity"? He believed that slavery was inhumane as well as in opposition to the ideals espoused in Christianity. Slavery took away a person’s rights and freedoms, and thus went against the ideals for which the colonies fought against Britain. In fact, the governor felt so strongly that he asked the New Jersey legislature to free all enslaved people in the state.
49 Notes Chapter 6 Section 3 ► Did You Know? ► Naval hero John Paul Jones is considered to be one of the founders of the United States Navy. He was the first person to hoist the new American flag on a warship. In 1778 Jones sailed into a French bay and exchanged gun salutes with a French ship. This was the first time the United States flag was officially recognized by a foreign government.
50 I. Glory at Sea (Pages ) ► A. The British had a powerful navy and thus were able to wage battles at sea. ► B. The American Navy was too weak to fight the British, so they used privateers. ► C. John Paul Jones became a naval hero as a result of his battle near the coast of Great Britain in September Jones Bonhomme Richard and British warship Serapis engage in a 3 hour battle. “I have not yet begun to fight!” “I wish to have no connection with any ship that does not sail fast; for I intend to go in harm's way.” John Paul Jones “I may sink, but I'll be da***d if I strike! “ John Paul Jones John Paul Jones' marble and bronze sarcophagus at the United States Naval Academy John Paul Jones Memorial in Washington, D.C. John Paul Jones, Navy Issue of 1937 A person with a personality disorder indicated by a pattern of lying, exploitativeness, heedlessness, arrogance, sexual promiscuity, low self-control, and lack of empathy and remorse.
51 II. Struggles in the South (Pages ) ► By 1778 the British saw that it would be difficult to unite the American colonies back into their empire. They concentrated their efforts in the South, which had many Loyalists. ► In late 1778 the British occupied Savannah, Georgia, and took over most of the state. In 1780 General Henry Clinton himself went to attack Charles Town, South Carolina. In May Charles Town surrendered. It was the worst defeat for the Americans during the war. ► General Charles Cornwallis remained in the South as commander of the British forces. The British scored another victory at Camden, South Carolina, in August ► The Patriots used guerrilla warfare to catch the British off guard. Frances Marion was one of the successful guerrilla leaders of eastern South Carolina. ► The Patriots were victorious at Kings Mountain in central North Carolina in September They forced the British to retreat. Frances Marion
52 II. Cont. ► Another battle at Cowpens, South Carolina, saw the British defeated in January (Battle of Cowpens) ► ( The Waxhaws Massacre ) ► In March the Continental commander Nathaniel Greene met General Cornwallis's army at Guilford Courthouse in present-day Greensboro, North Carolina. Greene, (a draw) even though Cornwallis's troops ended the battle. They suffered many losses, so Cornwallis abandoned the campaign to take North Carolina. ► In April 1781, the Cornwallis troops decided to march north to Virginia, carrying out raids and nearly capturing Governor Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia legislature in June. Cornwallis set up camp at Yorktown, Virginia. George Washington sent Lafayette and General Anthony Wayne image to fight Cornwallis. The battle for the South was almost over, but the war was at a point where each side needed a victory to win. CornwallisAnthony WayneCornwallisAnthony Wayne Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton
53 Why did more of the Native Americans help the British, not the Patriots? The British had been successful in making the Indians believe that the King was on their side and would help them in their struggles with the “Americans.”
54 Chapter 6, Section 4 ► Did You Know? ► The song, "Yankee Doodle,"song played as the British surrendered at Yorktown, was reportedly written by a British army surgeon in the 1750s. The lyrics of the song make fun of the clothing Americans wore to battle during the French and Indian War. Americans wore buckskins, furs, and ragged, unmatched clothing, while the British wore spotless uniforms. Even though "Yankee Doodle" began as a song that ridiculed the American soldiers, they adopted it as their own and sang it with pride. Yankee DoodleYankee Doodle Yankee doodle, keep it up Yankee doodle dandy Mind the music and the step And with the girls be handy. And then the feathers on his hat They looked so' tarnal fin-a I wanted pockily to get To give to my Jemima. And then we saw a swamping gun Large as a log of maple Upon a deuced little cart ► Father and I went down to camp Along with Captain Gooding And there we saw the men and boys As thick as hasty pudding. Chorus Yankee doodle, keep it up Yankee doodle dandy Mind the music and the step And with the girls be handy. There was Captain Washington Upon a slapping stallion A-giving orders to his men I guess there was a million. Chorus And then the feathers on his hat They looked so' tarnal fin-a I wanted pockily to get To give to my Jemima. Chorus And then we saw a swamping gun Large as a log of maple Upon a deuced little cart
55 I.Victory at Yorktown (Pages ) ► Washington planned a complex and secretive takeover at Yorktown, Virginia, in hopes of surprising Cornwallis. Washington was originally going to attack New York City because he was expecting a French fleet to arrive there to help. The French fleet never reached New York City because the British fleet trapped them in Newport. Washington planned an attack on Yorktown instead. He knew the British expected him at New York City, so this change would surprise and confuse them. He learned that a second French fleet was to arrive near Chesapeake Bay, and he hoped that they would meet at Yorktown.
56 I. cont. A third group from the west under Anthony Wayne was to march toward Yorktown, Virginia. ► The plan worked. By the end of September, 14,000 American and French troops trapped Cornwallis's 7,500 troops. The British troops could not escape by sea because de Grasse's ships blocked them. The rest of the British Army was in New York under General Clinton, unable to help Cornwallis in the South. ► On October 11, American and French troops bombarded the British. On October 19, Cornwallis surrendered. painting The Patriots had won the Battle of Yorktown and George III agreed to give them their freedom. surrendered. The British bands are reputed to have played “The world turned upside down” as the troops marched out to surrender. After the surrender the American and French officers entertained the British officers to dinner, other than Tarleton with whom the Americans refused to eat, due to the atrocities committed by his troops in North and South Carolina. Version 1 If buttercups buzz'd after the bee, If boats were on land, churches on sea, If ponies rode men and if grass ate the cows, And cats should be chased into holes by the mouse, If the mamas sold their babies To the gypsies for half a crown; If summer were spring and the other way round, Then all the world would be upside down. Version 2 Goody Bull and her daughter together fell out, Both squabbled and wrangled and made a great rout. But the cause of the quarrel remains to be told, Then lend both your ears and a tale I'll unfold. Derry down, down, hey derry down, Then lend both your ears and a tale I'll unfold. The old lady, it seems, took a freak in her head, That her daughter, grown woman, might earn her own bread, Self-applauding her scheme, she was ready to dance, But we're often too sanguine in what we advance. Derry down, down, hey derry down, But we're often too sanguine in what we advance. For mark the event, thus for fortune we're cross, Nor should people reckon without their good host, The daughter was sulky and wouldn't come to, And pray what in this case could the old woman do? Derry down, down, hey derry down, And pray what in this case could the old woman do? Zounds, neighbor, quoth pitt, what the devil's the matter? A man cannot rest in his home for your clatter Alas, cries the daughter, Here's dainty fine work, The old woman grows harder than Jew or than Turk Derry down, down, hey derry down, The old woman grows harder than Jew or than Turk. She be damned, says the farmer, and do her he goes First roars in her ears, then tweaks her old nose, Hello Goody, what ails you? Wake woman, I say, I am come to make peace in this desperate fray. Derry down, down, hey derry down, I am come to make peace in this desperate fray. Alas, cries the old woman, And must I comply? I'd rather submit than the hussy should die. Pooh, prithee, be quiet, be friends and agree, You must surely be right if you're guided by me, Derry down, down, hey derry down, You must surely be right if you're guided by me.
57 After a long wait, French General Rochambeau finally received word that a French fleet would sail from the Caribbean to the Chesapeake Bay. See how American and French troops launched a massive assault on the British stronghold of Yorktown. Run time 12:36
58 II. Independence (Pages ) ► Fighting continued after the Battle of Yorktown, but the British realized that the war was too costly to continue. Delegates (for the Americans: John Jay, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin) from both sides met in Paris. After a preliminary treaty was ratified in April 1783, the final Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, It said that Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation the United States territory extended from the Atlantic Ocean west to the Mississippi River and from Canada in the north to Spanish Florida in the south the British promised to withdraw all troops and agreed to give Americans the right to fish off the coast of Canada the United States agreed that British merchants could collect on debts owed by Americans property taken from Loyalists would be returned to them
59 II. Cont. ► George Washington gave up his command and on December 4 commentary gave his farewell speech. Two weeks later, he formally resigned and returned home to Mount Vernon. December 4 December 4 ► America won the war against the world's strongest power. Americans fought on their own land. Americans controlled the countryside, where they knew the local terrain, even though Britain captured the cities. Help from other nations contributed to the victory. Mostly, the people fought the battles with determination and belief in their ideals.
60 Pick one of the following to answer on the chapter test ► What were the Patriots’ advantages in the War? The Patriots’ disadvantages? ► How did financing the war lead to inflation?
61 Run Time: [26:41] The Revolutionary War created lingering problems for American people, politics, and economy. Find out how the leaders of the new nation struggled to unite the thirteen states when the Articles of Confederation failed to support a central government.
62 The Outcome Guided Reading 3 ► After the Revolutionary War had ended, George Washington wrote that people in years to come would hardly believe that the Patriots had won. He described the Patriot army as a hodgepodge group of men, “half starved, always in rags, without pay, and experiencing at times every species of distress which human nature is capable of undergoing.” ► How did the Patriots manage to defeat a powerful country like Great Britain? There are several answers. For one, the British had to resupply their troops from thousands of miles away. Their lines of communication were long, and the British government was not always very well-informed. They expected thousands of Loyalists to help stage uprisings, but this never happened. Furthermore, the British had taken on an almost impossible task. How could they ever gather an army large enough to occupy an entire continent?
63 ► Patriots, on the other hand, had the advantage of fighting on their homeland. The terrain was familiar. That made it easier to retreat from the British and blend in with the civilian population. Blending in made it difficult for the British to tell who they were fighting against. The rebels also used unheard-of battle tactics, such as attacking from the rear and dressing up in British uniforms. The British army was used to fighting in classic battle formations like they had always done in Europe. Their leaders weren’t sure how to respond. ►
64 ► A series of blunders by British military leaders also benefited the Patriots British generals thought the war would be easy to win, and they treated the conflict as an inconvenience. Yet their battle plans were cautious Some aggressive leadership at any point in the war, particularly early an, might have turned the tables. ► Even with all of these advantages, the Patriots could not have won without the help of the French. France officially entered the war in February of France provided a powerful navy as well as much-needed money, supplies and troops. It has been estimated that as much as 90 percent of the gunpowder Patriots used in the war came from France.
65 ► Quick Review 5: What were three advantages the Patriots had that helped them win the war? ► ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ (1)The Patriots were fighting on their homeland; (2) they used innovative battle tactics; they had a (3) great leader in Washington; they had help from the French
66 ► Quick Review 6: What were three disadvantages faced by the British? ► ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ The British had to (1) resupply their troops from thousands of miles away; (2) communication between Britain and its army was difficult, so the British government was not very well-informed; (3) Britain could never create an army large enough to occupy a continent; (4) the Loyalists failed to stage uprisings; (5) British generals were overly cautious and made a series of blunders that hurt their cause.
67 Which of the following was NOT a central issue for which the colonists fought the British during the Revolutionary War? a. unfair taxation b. British control over judges c. the cost of land in the colonies d. limitations on colonial trade