I. Warm-up Among the four language skills, reading might be the most familiar to our Chinese learners of English.
1. What is reading? Read the following statements and decide whether you agree with them or not. 1)Reading is recognizing the written words in a text. 2) Reading is the ability to articulate the words and pronounce them correctly. 3) Reading is an active process. It constantly involves guessing, predicting, checking and asking oneself questions.
4) Reading is the ability to understand the written words and respond to them in proper ways. 5) Reading means getting meaning out of the given text.
2. Why do we read? You may have various purposes for reading different types of texts. In general three main reasons why people read.
1) Reading for survival. This kind of reading serves your immediate needs or wishes. 2) Reading for learning and information. It means that reading can help extend your general knowledge of the world. 3) Reading for entertainment or pleasure. Reading for entertainment is done for its own sake. The readers don’t have to do it.
3. Why teach reading in YL classes? 1) Many students show both interest and enthusiasm in doing reading when they start English. 2) Reading can help to reinforce what they are learning orally. 3) Being able to read something meaningful in English, such as a party invitation, an email, short message, or shopping list, can give students a real sense of achievement. 4) Exposure to the written record of what is being learnt can be important for those whose learning is more visual and who like to see the words and phrases written down.
4.How do we read? The traditional ways to teach reading in a Chinese middle school. 1.The “new words” from the text are learnt in lists with their Chinese translations. 2.The teacher asks the students to read the text aloud sentence by sentence, paragraph by paragraph, interrupting them to correct their pronunciation. 3.The teacher explains the meaning of words and phrases in English and Chinese and draw the students’ attention to certain grammatical points.
4.The students’ comprehension of the text is checked by the teacher asking questions and nominating students to answer. 5.After this, the teacher and students will do the language exercises from the textbook.
Questions: 1.What do you think are the problems with this way of teaching reading? 2.How motivated do you think the students are to study this text at the beginning of the lesson? 3.Does the teacher do anything to increase their motivation? 4.How do you think the students feel during the teacher’s lengthy explanations of the phrases and grammar points in the text?
5.Is this interesting for them? 6.Will they remember and use what is being taught to them? 7.Has any effort been made to make the students remember what they have read and learned from the text? 8.Can they use it the next time they have to use English? 9.Do you think it is clear to them what they have gained from this lesson?
II. Approaches to reading 1. Read the following descriptions, tick those which suit your situation. 1) I usually start reading a text by recognizing words, word connections, and phrase patterns as well as sentence patterns, then I can rapidly and automatically get meaning from the text.
2) When reading a text, I first identify the topic, purpose and structure of the text, then I make guesses, predictions during reading. In this way, I create meaning from the text as a whole.
3) I think the meaning of a text is more than the sum of the individual words and sentences. When reading a text, I start by predicting the probable meaning, then I get to read and understand the words and phrases in the text to check whether that is really what the writer means. Sometimes I go the other way round. That’s to say, I combine the above 2 ways in my reading.
2.Three approaches to reading: Bottom-up approach: Decode and understand words, phrases and sentences in the text in order to understand the text. Top-down approach: Use our expectations, previous knowledge to understand the general ideas of the text first. Interactive approach: The reader uses bottom-up and top-down approaches together, and two approaches interact with each other in understanding a text. The reader may shift from one focus to another during the process.
3. Overcome the bad habits of reading 1.We should enlarge the distance between eyes and the reading passage. 2.We should not always do reading aloud. 3.We should not read word for word.
III. English Reading requirements for middle school students 课标三至九级的阅读要求： 英语阅读教学目标.doc 英语阅读教学目标.doc
IV. Reading skills 略读 （ Skimming ） 找读、查读、寻读（ Scanning ） 预测下文 （ Prediction ） 理解大意（ Understanding the gist ） 分清文章中的事实和观点（ Understanding facts and opinions ） 猜测词义（ Guessing the meaning of the vocabulary ） 推理判断（ Inferring ） 了解重点细节（ Understanding the detailed information ）
理解文章结构 （ Understanding the structure of the text ） 理解图表信息（ Understanding the information in the diagram ） 理解指代关系（ Understanding the reference words ） 理解逻辑关系 （ Understanding the logical relations ） 理解作者意图 （ Understanding the writer’s intention ） 评价阅读内容 （ Evaluating the content of the reading text ）
V. Training Ss’ Reading skills 1. Guessing the difficult words 1) Understanding a word from its context (1) 根据同义关系猜测词义 例如： 1. In order to discover who had a natural ability to learn languages, the students were given tests to determine their language aptitude. 2.The job applicant sat in the personnel office and filled out a vita. When she finished the resume, she gave it to the secretary.
3.Tom answered quickly. But after he thought about the matter more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision. (2) 根据反义关系猜测词义 例如： 1. She has a love of rote work, but no fondness for creative jobs. Rote means ______. a. creative b. mechanical c. fondness 2. It is better to be reflective about problems than to be thoughtless. Reflective means _______. a. thoughtful b. uncaring c. problem 3. Today’s teenagers seem to be more liberal in their ideas than their conservative grandparents. Conservative means ________. a. free-thinking b. traditional c. old
(3) 根据整个句子的意思猜测词义 例如： 1.She loves music: she can play the guitar, the piano and the cello. 2. He walked into the sitting-room and sat down on the settee. 3. Look! There’s a big fly on the window.
(4) 根据段落或篇章的上下文来猜测词义 Zip was stopped during the war and only after the war did it become popular. What a difference it has made to our lives? It keeps people at home much more. It has made the remote parts of the world more real to us. Photographs show a country, but only zip makes us feel that a foreign country is real. Also we can see scenes in the street, big occasions are zipped, such as the coronation ( 加冕典礼 ) in 1953 and the Opening of Parliament. Perhaps the sufferers from zip are the notable people, who, as they step out of an areoplane, have to face the battery of zip
cameras and know that every movement, every gesture will be seen by millions of people. Politicians not only have to speak well, they now have to have what is called a “zip personality”. Perhaps we can sympathize when Members of Parliament say that they do not want debates to be zipped. Zip means a. cinema. b. photography. c. television. d. telephone.
2) Understanding a word from its form （ 1 ）根据前缀来猜测和推测词义： 例如： Read the following sentences ， and guess the meaning of the italicized words. 1. An education enriches the mind. 2. He did not write his composition well and the teacher told him to rewrite it. 3. Mr Smith unlocked the safe and took out five thousand dollars.
4. He had been overworking and fell sick at last. 5.We disapprove of middle-school students smoking cigarettes. 6. At midnight, several hours after the ship had left the port, she ran into bad weather. 7. The country is underdeveloped and the living standard of the people is rather low. 8. It is impolite to turn your back on someone who is speaking to you. 9. Those old people are very active in anti-pollution activities. 10. Don’t let his friendly words mislead you into believing him.
（ 2 ）根据后缀来猜测和推测词义： 例如 : Read the following sentences, and guess the meaning of the italicized words. 1.You must stop dreaming and face reality. 2.Travel broadens the mind. 3.My work is still in the experimental stage. 4.He did too little preparation for his examination. 5.The line of waiting people seemed to be endless.
6.I was very much impressed by the friendliness of the people there. 7.The country is trying to popularize education. 8.Our troops won a decisive victory in that battle. 9.They were very friendly and even offered assistance. 10.The magazine is called ‘English Language Learning’ and is published monthly.
3) Compound words 例如： Identify and underline the compound nouns in these sentences. (Not all the sentences have compound nouns in them and some have more than one.) 1.We bought a town plan at the corner shop. 2.I’d like a return ticket to London, please. 3.Do you want to go to the sports center this evening? There’s a good tennis match on. 4.He was wearing a brown coat and a pair of jeans. 5.We decided to meet in the hotel bar.
6. There was a small gas fire in the corner of the town. 7.There’s a lovely little fruit market on Wednesdays. It’s very cheap and the fruit is really nice. 8. He walked in, sat down, and started reading a magazine. 9. I took the film to a photo shop, but the shop assistant said it was too old to develop. 10.Please do not make copies for personal use with this machine. It is for office use only.
2. Predicting 例 1 ： Imagine you are going to read an article with the title “Some Rules for Living Longer”. Try and think six points the article will make.
2. Predicting 例 2 ：初二下 M2 U2 Look at the title “A beautiful smile”. and guess what the text is about.
2. Predicting 例 3 ：高一下学期 必修 3 M3 P23 The Violence of Nature Look at the pictures of the reading text and guess what the text is about.
2. Predicting 例 4 ：高二下学期 顺序选修 8 M 1 P11 Welcome to the South Poles ！ Look at the title of the passage. Write down a question which you hope the writer will answer.
3. Understanding the reference words 例如： Mr. and Mrs. Smith visited Paris last week. They liked the city very much. A myth suggests that both the poor and the wealthy are criminals, or at least potential lawbreakers, because the poor are pressed to crime by their poverty, and because the latter could hardly have gained their possessions with honesty and constructive work. The fiction also …
Exercise: Read the following sentences and find out what the italic words refer to in the passage. Write the meaning of the italic words on the line beside the sentence. 1) … because the poor are pressed to crime by their poverty… ____________ 2) … and because the latter could hardly have gained their possessions… ____________ _____________ 3)The fiction also … _____________
例 1 ： Body Language Read the opening and ending paragraphs of the text and find the main idea of it. Although we may not realize it, when we talk with others we make ourselves understood not just by words. We send messages to the people around us also by our expressions and body movements. A smile and handshake show welcome. Waving one’s hands is to say“Goodbye”.Nodding the head means agreement, while shaking it means disagreement. These gestures are accepted both by Chinese and English speakers as having the same meanings.
When one uses a foreign language, it is important to know the meanings of gestures and movements in the foreign country. Using body language in a correct way will help communicate with people and make the stay in a foreign country easy and comfortable.
例2：例2：例2：例2： 高二下学期 顺序选修 8 M 2 P25 The Puzzle of the Mona Lisa Read the opening and ending paragraphs of the text and find the main idea of it.
Beginning The Mona Lisa is the subject of many stories, but there is one anecdote which remains a puzzle. Is the painting in the Louvre the authentic work by Leonardo da Vinci…or just a copy?
Ending But there is still a puzzle. There were a number of precise copies of the Mona Lisa painted by gifted students of Leonardo da Vinci. Part of the painting’s fascination is whether the one in the Louvre was authentic … even before it was stolen. And if Perugia stole a copy…who has the authentic Mona Lisa?
1. It‘s the fastest train in the world. It goes from Shanghai to Pudong Airport in 8 minutes. 2. More than 32 million passengers travel on British Airways planes every year. 3. It’s the most famous ferry in the world. 4. These fast, comfortable buses go to 2,500 places in USA.
Task: Read and match the paragraphs with the headings. A. British Airways B. The Greyhound Bus C. The Shanghai-Pudong Express D. The Star Ferry
例 4 ：初二下 M8 U2 people world celebrate New Year begin family day make resolution say goodbye welcome
例5：例5：例5：例5： 高一下学期 必修 3 M3 P23 The Violence of Nature Read the subheading and see your prediction: 1.What Is a Tornado? 2. What Is a Hurricane? 3. An Extraordinary Event
Topic sentence: 1.A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. 2.Hurricanes are strong tropical storms, and they usually occur in the southern Atlantic ocean. 3.This is a story about the 1900 Galveston hurricane.
例 6 ：高二下学期 顺序选修 8 M 1 P2-3 Task: Read the passage and choose a heading for each paragraph. A. A great place for researchers B. Plants and animals C. The Antarctic Treaty D. The discovery of Antarctic E. The land
例 7 ：高二下学期 顺序选修 8 M 2 P25 The Puzzle of the Mona Lisa Read the passage and choose the best summary.
6. Looking for detailed information 1) 先读题，了解题旨，做到对所寻读的具体细节心中有 数 例 1 ： Smoking How many packets of cigarettes are smoked each day by Chinese ？ 2) 用目光扫寻全文，快速寻读到一个数字 3) 当找到这个带数字的句子，看是不是所要回答的问 题的答案。如果是，可以把答案写下来，这个寻读的 任务就完成了。如果不是，那么就要继续快速搜寻、 查阅，直到找到答案为止。 例 2 ： Read the newspaper article carefully, and complete the table underneath.
例 4 ： 高二下学期 顺序选修 8 M3 P29-33 Foreign Food P32 Ex6 Passage 1: 1.What mistakes did the writer make at the Chinese banquet? 2.What impressed the writer at the banquet? 3.What did the writer find shocking at first but then got used to eating.
Passage 2: 4. What does the writer say about the appearance of food? 5. What does the writer think about eating cold food? 6. What does the writer think about the way British people eat?
例 5 ： 高一下学期 必修 3 M5 P42-43 Philosophers of Ancient China P42 Ex 3 Read the passage again. Choose the correct answers.
例 6 ： 高一下学期 必修 3 M4 P32-33 Sandstorms in Asia P33 Ex 4 Read the text again and complete these sentences.
7.Inferring opinions and attitudes 例 1 ：初三下 M6U3
例 3 ：高二下学期 顺序选修 8 M3 P30-31 Foreign Food P31 Ex3 Choose the best summaries. 1.The writer of passage 1 ____. a.doesn’t like Chinese food b.hasn’t got used to most Chinese food yet c.Likes most Chines food
2. The writer of passage 2_____. A. doesn’t like British food B. doesn’t like the way British food is prepared and swerved C. doesn’t like the way British eat
8.Comment on the content of reading 例 1 ：高二下学期 顺序选修 8 M3 P30 Foreign Food P30 Now read passage 1 and 2 and say whether they are humorous sketches or serious essays.
VI. The three stages of teaching reading 1. Pre-reading stage 1) Purpose of this stage (1)Arousing the students’ interest in the topic of the text (2)Motivating students to read the text by providing a purpose for reading (3)Preparing the students for the content of the text
1) The skill can be practiced on this stage Predictions about what to read 2) The activities can be done at this stage The students can be asked to: (1)examine the accompanying visual information (diagram, maps, photographs) (2)reflect on the title or the topic (3)state what they already know about the topic (4)state what they would like to know about the topic
(5)write their own questions that they want the text to answer (6)answer the teacher’s general questions about the text type or topic (oral or written) (7)brainstorm the topic in groups or whole class (8)guess the topic by looking at key words from the text (given, and if necessary taught, by the teacher)
2. While-reading stage 1)Purpose of this stage It aims to help the reader to understand the content and structure of the text, as well as the author’s purpose in writing it. 2)The skill can be practiced on this stage Skimming, scanning, reading for detail, drawing inferences about the author’s purpose and intention.
3)The typical sort of activities to train such skills are: (1) skim reading to get the gist (main idea) of the text (2) locating specific information (3) transferring information from the text to a diagram, table, form, map, graph or picture (4) taking notes on the main points, or on specific points of the text (5) drawing a diagram to show the text structure (6) answering factual questions on the text (7) answering inference questions on the text (reading between the lines)
( 8) putting the events in the correct order (9) stating if statements given about the text are true or false (10) working out the meaning of words and phrases in the text from the context (11) examining referents in the text and stating what they refer to (12) putting the paragraphs of a jumbled text back in the correct order (13) giving sections of a text appropriate headings (14) giving the text an appropriate title (also possibly a post-reading activity)
3.Post-reading stage 1)Purpose of this stage Quite different from the pre-reading and while- reading stage, post-reading work is not directly connected with the text, but usually “grow out” of it.
The aims are: (1) to consolidate or reflect on what has been read in the text (2) to relate the text to the students’ own knowledge, interests, or views. (3) If you have used the text to teach new language, then the post-reading stage should also give the students the chance to consolidate that language by using it freely.
2) The kinds of post-reading activities (1) oral discussion (2) role-play a different situation from that of the text but using the same characters, or role- play the same situation as in the text but using different character (3) writing a summary of the main content of the text (4) comment on the content of the text
(5) retelling the story of the text (6)finishing the story (orally or in writing), that means either predicting an ending or changing the ending to one of your own choice (7)listening to or reading some supplementary materials about the topic
读后活动 1 、 Retelling 转述所读内容 2 、 Role play 根据所读内容进行角色扮演 3 、 Discussion 讨论 4 、 Rewrite the text 改写 5 、 Write the ending 续尾 6 、 Write the summary 写摘要
VII. Teachers’ role in reading class Encourage 鼓励 Enlighten 启发 Direct 引导 Facilitate 帮助 Monitor 监控 Participate 参与 Give feedback and evaluation 反馈与评价