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Chapter II The Neoclassical Period The Neoclassical Period the 17 th century---the 18 th century English Department in Hetao University By Song Xiaoqing.

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1 Chapter II The Neoclassical Period The Neoclassical Period the 17 th century---the 18 th century English Department in Hetao University By Song Xiaoqing

2 English Literature English Department in Hetao University I. The Introduction of the Background Time of the period Time of the period Some great historical and political events Some great historical and political events Some main conflicts in the period Some main conflicts in the period The economy in England The economy in England The industrial revolution The industrial revolution British bourgeoisie and its belief British bourgeoisie and its belief

3 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Time of the Period Time: from the return of the Stuarts to the English throne in 1660 to the assertion of Romanticism marked by the publication of Lyrical Ballads 《抒情诗集》 by Wordsworth 华 兹华斯 and Coleridge 科勒律治 in Time: from the return of the Stuarts to the English throne in 1660 to the assertion of Romanticism marked by the publication of Lyrical Ballads 《抒情诗集》 by Wordsworth 华 兹华斯 and Coleridge 科勒律治 in 1789.

4 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Political and Historical Background The restoration of king Charles II in 1660 The restoration of king Charles II in 1660 The Great Plague: of 1665,70,000 people died in it The Great Plague: of 1665,70,000 people died in it The Great Fire :in the same year, 2/3 people were homeless. The Great Fire :in the same year, 2/3 people were homeless. The Glorious Revolution: king James II replaced by his protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband in The Glorious Revolution: king James II replaced by his protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband in 1689.

5 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Some Main Conflicts Conflict between the monarch and parliament Conflict between the monarch and parliament Conflict between the two big parties :the Tories 托利党 and the Whigs 辉格党 argued over the control of the parliament and the government. Conflict between the two big parties :the Tories 托利党 and the Whigs 辉格党 argued over the control of the parliament and the government. Conflicts among different religions Conflicts among different religions Conflict between the rich and the poor Conflict between the rich and the poor

6 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Economy in England A golden age A golden age Abroad : a vast expansion of British colonies in North America, India and the West Indies,and a continuous increase of colonial wealth and trade provided England with a market for which the small-scale hand production methods of the home industry were hardly adequate. This created not only a steady demand for British goods but also standardized goods. Abroad : a vast expansion of British colonies in North America, India and the West Indies,and a continuous increase of colonial wealth and trade provided England with a market for which the small-scale hand production methods of the home industry were hardly adequate. This created not only a steady demand for British goods but also standardized goods. At home : The Acts of Enclosure 《圈地法》,the wealth under very few rich landowners. At home : The Acts of Enclosure 《圈地法》,the wealth under very few rich landowners.

7 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution : The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanization of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19 th Industrial Revolution : The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanization of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19 th centuries. 工业革命指的是 17 世纪末、 18 世纪初英国工业的机械化,以及因此而导 致的社会结构和经济结构的变化。

8 English Literature English Department in Hetao University British Bourgeoisie and Its Belief The British bourgeois or the middle class grows quickly with the fast development of its economy. It was the major force of the revolution and was mainly composed of the city people: traders, merchants manufacturers, and other adventurers like slave traders and colonists. The British bourgeois or the middle class grows quickly with the fast development of its economy. It was the major force of the revolution and was mainly composed of the city people: traders, merchants manufacturers, and other adventurers like slave traders and colonists. 18th century middle class believed: self- restraint, self-reliance and hard work. To work, to economize and to accumulate wealth constituted the whole meaning of their life. 18th century middle class believed: self- restraint, self-reliance and hard work. To work, to economize and to accumulate wealth constituted the whole meaning of their life.

9 English Literature English Department in Hetao University II. An Age of Enlightenment or an Age of Reason The Enlightenment Movement The Enlightenment Movement The humanist views and the rational rule The humanist views and the rational rule The result of enlightenment The result of enlightenment The result of enlightenment to literature The result of enlightenment to literature

10 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Enlightenment Movement The Enlightenment Movement: a progressive intellectual movement which flourished first in France and swept through the western Europe.It is the furtherance of the Renaissance.It ’ s purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas. The Enlightenment Movement: a progressive intellectual movement which flourished first in France and swept through the western Europe.It is the furtherance of the Renaissance.It ’ s purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas.

11 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Humanist Views and the Rational Rules The enlighteners celebrated The enlighteners celebrated reason or rationality, equality and science. They held that rationality or reason should be the only cause of any human thought and activities. They called for a reference to order, reason and rules. They believed that when reason served as the yardstick for the measurement of all human activities and relations, every superstition, injustice and oppression was to yield place to “ eternal truth, ” “ eternal justice, ” and “ natural equality. ” The enlighteners also advocated universal education. reason or rationality, equality and science. They held that rationality or reason should be the only cause of any human thought and activities. They called for a reference to order, reason and rules. They believed that when reason served as the yardstick for the measurement of all human activities and relations, every superstition, injustice and oppression was to yield place to “ eternal truth, ” “ eternal justice, ” and “ natural equality. ” The enlighteners also advocated universal education.

12 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Result of Enlightenment This provided theory for the 1776 American War of Independence and 1789 French Revolution. This provided theory for the 1776 American War of Independence and 1789 French Revolution.

13 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Result of Enlightenment to Literature Neoclassicism: in the field of literature, the Enlightenment Movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works. This tendency is known as neoclassicism. According to the neoclassicists, all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek and Roman writers ( Homer, Virgil( 维吉尔 ), Horace ( 负拉 ), Ovid( 奥维德 ), etc.) and those of the contemporary French ones. Neoclassicism: in the field of literature, the Enlightenment Movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works. This tendency is known as neoclassicism. According to the neoclassicists, all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek and Roman writers ( Homer, Virgil( 维吉尔 ), Horace ( 负拉 ), Ovid( 奥维德 ), etc.) and those of the contemporary French ones.

14 English Literature English Department in Hetao University They believed that the artistic ideals should be order, logic. Restrained emotion and accuracy, and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity. This belief led them to seek proportion, unity, harmony and grace in literary expressions, in an effort to delight, instruct and correct human beings, primarily as social animals. They believed that the artistic ideals should be order, logic. Restrained emotion and accuracy, and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity. This belief led them to seek proportion, unity, harmony and grace in literary expressions, in an effort to delight, instruct and correct human beings, primarily as social animals.

15 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Neoclassicists had some fixed laws and rules for almost every genre of literature. Neoclassicists had some fixed laws and rules for almost every genre of literature. In the last decades, the neoclassicism was rebelled against or challenged by the sentimentalists and was in due time replaced by Romanticism In the last decades, the neoclassicism was rebelled against or challenged by the sentimentalists and was in due time replaced by Romanticism

16 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Some Famous Writers among the Great Enlighteners in England John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele, the two pioneers of familiar essays, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson. 约翰. 德莱顿,亚历山大. 蒲柏,约瑟夫. 艾迪森与理查. 斯蒂尔(这两位是现代散文的先驱),乔纳森. 斯 威夫特,丹尼尔. 迪福,理查.B. 谢立丹,亨利. 费 尔丁和塞缪尔. 约翰逊。 John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele, the two pioneers of familiar essays, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson. 约翰. 德莱顿,亚历山大. 蒲柏,约瑟夫. 艾迪森与理查. 斯蒂尔(这两位是现代散文的先驱),乔纳森. 斯 威夫特,丹尼尔. 迪福,理查.B. 谢立丹,亨利. 费 尔丁和塞缪尔. 约翰逊。

17 English Literature English Department in Hetao University III. The Literary Development of the Period The modern English novel The modern English novel Other forms of literature Other forms of literature Laws and rules of literary creation Laws and rules of literary creation

18 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Modern English Novel It witnessed the flourish of English poetry in the classical style from Restoration to about the second half of the century.Much attention was given to the wit, form and art of poetry. Mock epic, romance, satire and epigram were popular forms adopted by poets of the time. The mid-century was, however, predominated by a newly rising literary form- the modern English novel, which, contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of common English people. It ’ s a natural product of the Industrial Revolution and a symbol of the growing importance and strength of the English middle class. It witnessed the flourish of English poetry in the classical style from Restoration to about the second half of the century.Much attention was given to the wit, form and art of poetry. Mock epic, romance, satire and epigram were popular forms adopted by poets of the time. The mid-century was, however, predominated by a newly rising literary form- the modern English novel, which, contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of common English people. It ’ s a natural product of the Industrial Revolution and a symbol of the growing importance and strength of the English middle class.

19 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Other Literary Forms from the middle part to the end of the century, Gothic novels and the literature of sentimentalism also prevailed. from the middle part to the end of the century, Gothic novels and the literature of sentimentalism also prevailed. Gothic novels: mostly stories of mystery and horror which take place in some haunted or dilapidated Middle Age castles. Gothic novels: mostly stories of mystery and horror which take place in some haunted or dilapidated Middle Age castles. Sentimentalism: Graveyard School-eulogizing or lamenting lyrics by nature poets like James Thomson, William Collins and etc. Sentimentalism: Graveyard School-eulogizing or lamenting lyrics by nature poets like James Thomson, William Collins and etc. Romanticism: romantic poems by Scottish peasant poets like Robert Burns and William Blake. Romanticism: romantic poems by Scottish peasant poets like Robert Burns and William Blake.

20 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Laws and Rules of Literary Creation Prose should be precise, direct, smooth and flexible. Poetry should be lyrical,epical, didactic, satiric or dramatic, and each class should be guided by its own principles. Drama should be written in the Heroic Couplets( iambic pentameter rhymed in two lines ); the three unities of time,space and action should be strictly observed; regularity in construction should be adhered to, and type characters rather than individuals should be represented. Prose should be precise, direct, smooth and flexible. Poetry should be lyrical,epical, didactic, satiric or dramatic, and each class should be guided by its own principles. Drama should be written in the Heroic Couplets( iambic pentameter rhymed in two lines ); the three unities of time,space and action should be strictly observed; regularity in construction should be adhered to, and type characters rather than individuals should be represented.

21 English Literature English Department in Hetao University IV. Famous Enlighteners and Writers John Bunyan 班扬 John Bunyan 班扬 Alexander Pope 薄柏 Alexander Pope 薄柏 Daniel Defoe 笛福 Daniel Defoe 笛福 Jonathan Swift 斯威福特 Jonathan Swift 斯威福特 Henry Fielding 菲尔丁 Henry Fielding 菲尔丁 Samuel Johnson 约翰逊 Samuel Johnson 约翰逊 Richard Brinsley Sheridan 谢立丹 Richard Brinsley Sheridan 谢立丹 Thomas Gray 格雷 Thomas Gray 格雷

22 English Literature English Department in Hetao University John Bunyan 班扬 John Bunyan (November 30, August 31, 1688), was the most famous of the Puritan writers and preachers. He was born at Harrowden (1 mile south-east of Bedford), in the Parish of Elstow, England. He is most well- know for his book “ The Pilgrim ‘ s Progress ”, one of the most printed books in history, which he composed while in prison for the crime of preaching the Gospel( 福音书) without a license. John Bunyan (November 30, August 31, 1688), was the most famous of the Puritan writers and preachers. He was born at Harrowden (1 mile south-east of Bedford), in the Parish of Elstow, England. He is most well- know for his book “ The Pilgrim ‘ s Progress ”, one of the most printed books in history, which he composed while in prison for the crime of preaching the Gospel( 福音书) without a license.

23 English Literature English Department in Hetao University On a trip to London, John Bunyan caught a severe cold, and he died at the house of a friend at Snow Hill on August 31, His grave lies in the cemetery ( burial ground ) at Bunhill Fields in London.

24 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The Pilgrim’s Progress

25 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Bunyan ’ s other works include Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, The Life and Death of Mr.Badman, The Holy War and The Pilgrim ’ s Progress, Part II. 班扬其他的作品还有 《罪人头目的赦免》,《拜得门先生生死 录》,《圣战》以及《天路历程》第二部 Bunyan ’ s other works include Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, The Life and Death of Mr.Badman, The Holy War and The Pilgrim ’ s Progress, Part II. 班扬其他的作品还有 《罪人头目的赦免》,《拜得门先生生死 录》,《圣战》以及《天路历程》第二部

26 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Alexander Pope (1688 ~ 1744) 《人论》 An Essay on Man On Criticism 《批评论》

27 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Pope, a very sensitive man, would strike back hard, and in the constant verbal battles he developed a style of biting satire. 蒲伯本身是个很敏感的人,自然要 用笔墨来反击,在此期间,他发展了犀利的讽刺文体。 He worked painstakingly on his poems, developed a satiric, concise, smooth, graceful and well- balanced style. 他致力于诗歌创作,发展了讽刺,简练, 通顺,优雅,平衡的风格。 Pope made his name as a great poet with the publication of An Essay on Criticism in The next year, he published The Rape of the Lock, a finest mock epic.1711 年,他出版了散文《论批评》, 从此奠定了他在诗坛的地位。次年,他又出版了《夺发 记》,一部极妙的讽刺史诗。 Pope, a very sensitive man, would strike back hard, and in the constant verbal battles he developed a style of biting satire. 蒲伯本身是个很敏感的人,自然要 用笔墨来反击,在此期间,他发展了犀利的讽刺文体。 He worked painstakingly on his poems, developed a satiric, concise, smooth, graceful and well- balanced style. 他致力于诗歌创作,发展了讽刺,简练, 通顺,优雅,平衡的风格。 Pope made his name as a great poet with the publication of An Essay on Criticism in The next year, he published The Rape of the Lock, a finest mock epic.1711 年,他出版了散文《论批评》, 从此奠定了他在诗坛的地位。次年,他又出版了《夺发 记》,一部极妙的讽刺史诗。

28 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Daniel Defoe 笛福

29 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Jonathan Swift ( ) his life his life the most powerful satirist of the age(his pamphlets) the most powerful satirist of the age(his pamphlets) have no equal at pamphlet writing have no equal at pamphlet writing

30 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Swift ’ s chief works are: A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, The Drapier ’ s Letters (note:Drapier=Swift, alias), Gulliver ’ s Travels and A Modest Proposal. 斯威夫特的作品主要有《桶的故 事》,《书籍的战斗》,《德拉皮尔的 信》,《格列佛游记》和《一个温和的建 议》。 Swift ’ s chief works are: A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, The Drapier ’ s Letters (note:Drapier=Swift, alias), Gulliver ’ s Travels and A Modest Proposal. 斯威夫特的作品主要有《桶的故 事》,《书籍的战斗》,《德拉皮尔的 信》,《格列佛游记》和《一个温和的建 议》。

31 English Literature English Department in Hetao University

32 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Henry Fielding 亨利. 费尔丁 Of all his plays, the best known are The Coffee- House Politician, The Tragedy of Tragedies, Pasquin, and The Historical Register for the Year 他的作品中最有名的要数《咖啡屋的政治家》, 《悲剧中的悲剧》,《巴斯昆》,《 1736 历史年鉴》。 The History of Tom Jones is a masterpiece on the subject of human nature. 费尔丁的代表作《汤姆. 琼 斯:一个弃儿的故事》主题是对人性的讽刺。 Fielding has been regarded by some as “ Father of the English novel, ” for his contribution to the establishment of the form of the modern novel. 费 尔丁被一些人尊为 “ 英国小说之父 ” ,因为他为现代小说模 式的创立作出很大贡献。 Of all his plays, the best known are The Coffee- House Politician, The Tragedy of Tragedies, Pasquin, and The Historical Register for the Year 他的作品中最有名的要数《咖啡屋的政治家》, 《悲剧中的悲剧》,《巴斯昆》,《 1736 历史年鉴》。 The History of Tom Jones is a masterpiece on the subject of human nature. 费尔丁的代表作《汤姆. 琼 斯:一个弃儿的故事》主题是对人性的讽刺。 Fielding has been regarded by some as “ Father of the English novel, ” for his contribution to the establishment of the form of the modern novel. 费 尔丁被一些人尊为 “ 英国小说之父 ” ,因为他为现代小说模 式的创立作出很大贡献。

33 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Fielding ‘ s language is easy, unlaboured and familiar, but extremely vivid and vigorous. His sentences are always distinguished by logic and rhythm, and his structure carefully planed toward an inevitable ending. 费尔丁的创作语言自然流畅,通 俗易懂,同时又栩栩如生并富有活力,他的句子以逻辑性 和韵律性见长,小说结尾总是水到渠成,顺理成章。 Tom Jones brings its author the name of the “ Prose Homer. ” It provides the panoramic view of the 18th-century English country. 《汤姆. 琼斯》为费尔 丁赢得了 “ 散文荷马 ” 的盛名,小说为读者提供了一幅英国 18 世纪乡村与城市的宏伟的全景图。 Fielding ‘ s language is easy, unlaboured and familiar, but extremely vivid and vigorous. His sentences are always distinguished by logic and rhythm, and his structure carefully planed toward an inevitable ending. 费尔丁的创作语言自然流畅,通 俗易懂,同时又栩栩如生并富有活力,他的句子以逻辑性 和韵律性见长,小说结尾总是水到渠成,顺理成章。 Tom Jones brings its author the name of the “ Prose Homer. ” It provides the panoramic view of the 18th-century English country. 《汤姆. 琼斯》为费尔 丁赢得了 “ 散文荷马 ” 的盛名,小说为读者提供了一幅英国 18 世纪乡村与城市的宏伟的全景图。

34 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Samuel Johnson 塞缪尔. 约翰逊 His chief works include poems: “ London ”, and “ The Vanity of Human Wishes ” ; a romance: The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia; a tragedy: Irene. 他的主要作品有诗歌: 《伦敦》,《人类欲望的虚幻》骑士浪漫 诗:《拉塞拉斯的历史》,《阿比西尼亚 王子》;一部悲剧:《艾琳》。 His chief works include poems: “ London ”, and “ The Vanity of Human Wishes ” ; a romance: The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia; a tragedy: Irene. 他的主要作品有诗歌: 《伦敦》,《人类欲望的虚幻》骑士浪漫 诗:《拉塞拉斯的历史》,《阿比西尼亚 王子》;一部悲剧:《艾琳》。

35 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Johnson was the last great neoclassicist enlightener in the late eighteenth century. He was very much concerned with the theme of the vanity of human wishes. 约翰 逊是十八世纪下半叶最后一位新古典主义启蒙文 学家,他十分关心人类欲望的虚幻,几乎他所有 的作品都含有这样的主题。 His sentences are long and well structured, interwoven with parallel words and phrases. 他使用的句子一般较长,但结构工整, 包含有许多排比,对仗。 Johnson was the last great neoclassicist enlightener in the late eighteenth century. He was very much concerned with the theme of the vanity of human wishes. 约翰 逊是十八世纪下半叶最后一位新古典主义启蒙文 学家,他十分关心人类欲望的虚幻,几乎他所有 的作品都含有这样的主题。 His sentences are long and well structured, interwoven with parallel words and phrases. 他使用的句子一般较长,但结构工整, 包含有许多排比,对仗。

36 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Richard Brinsley Sheridan 理查. 比. 谢立丹 His plays, especially The Rivals and The School for Scandal, are generally regarded as important links between the masterpiece of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw, and as true classics in English comedy. 他的代表作《情敌》和《造谣 学校》被认为是上承莎士比亚,下接萧伯纳的纽 带,是真正的英国古典派喜剧。 In his plays, morality is the constant theme. 他的作品永 恒的主题是道德。 His plays, especially The Rivals and The School for Scandal, are generally regarded as important links between the masterpiece of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw, and as true classics in English comedy. 他的代表作《情敌》和《造谣 学校》被认为是上承莎士比亚,下接萧伯纳的纽 带,是真正的英国古典派喜剧。 In his plays, morality is the constant theme. 他的作品永 恒的主题是道德。

37 English Literature English Department in Hetao University The School for Scandal is mainly a story about two brothers, the hypocritical Joseph Surface and the good-natured, imprudent, spendthrift Charles Surface. The play ends with great disgrace for Joseph and double bliss for Charles. It is a sharp satire on the moral degeneracy of the aristocratic- bourgeois society in the eighteenth-century England. No wonder, the play has been Regarded as the best comedy since Shakespeare. 《造谣学校》 主要讲述了两个兄弟的故事,一个是伪君子约瑟夫. 萨尔菲斯,另一个 是放荡不羁但心地善良的查尔斯. 萨尔菲斯。戏剧的结尾约瑟夫名声扫 地,而查尔斯既获得了美人的芳心,又获得了丰厚的遗产,而梯泽尔 夫人在丈夫的感化下与其重归于好。《造谣学校》是对 18 世纪英国贵 族资产阶级的道德败坏,对无聊的富人恶意的制造谣言,对上层社会 骄奢淫逸的生活以及对在高贵生活方式和高尚道德准则的掩饰下的道 德沦丧与虚伪假善的辛辣讽刺。毫无疑问,它被认为是自莎士比亚以 来最出色的喜剧。 The School for Scandal is mainly a story about two brothers, the hypocritical Joseph Surface and the good-natured, imprudent, spendthrift Charles Surface. The play ends with great disgrace for Joseph and double bliss for Charles. It is a sharp satire on the moral degeneracy of the aristocratic- bourgeois society in the eighteenth-century England. No wonder, the play has been Regarded as the best comedy since Shakespeare. 《造谣学校》 主要讲述了两个兄弟的故事,一个是伪君子约瑟夫. 萨尔菲斯,另一个 是放荡不羁但心地善良的查尔斯. 萨尔菲斯。戏剧的结尾约瑟夫名声扫 地,而查尔斯既获得了美人的芳心,又获得了丰厚的遗产,而梯泽尔 夫人在丈夫的感化下与其重归于好。《造谣学校》是对 18 世纪英国贵 族资产阶级的道德败坏,对无聊的富人恶意的制造谣言,对上层社会 骄奢淫逸的生活以及对在高贵生活方式和高尚道德准则的掩饰下的道 德沦丧与虚伪假善的辛辣讽刺。毫无疑问,它被认为是自莎士比亚以 来最出色的喜剧。

38 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Thomas Gray 托马斯. 格雷 His masterpiece, “ Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard ” was published in The poem once and for all established his fame as the leader of the sentimental poetry of the day, especially “ the Graveyard School ”.1757 年,他的代表作《写在 教堂墓地的挽歌》出版这首诗奠定了他在当时作为感伤主 义诗歌创始人的地位,尤其是从此他便成为 “ 墓地诗歌 ” 流 派的代表。 His other poems include “ Ode on the Spring ”, “ Ode on the Death of a Favourite cat ” and so on. (Ode: …. 赞,颂 ) 他的其他作品还有《春之颂》,《伊顿 公学展望》,《爱猫之死》等等。 His masterpiece, “ Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard ” was published in The poem once and for all established his fame as the leader of the sentimental poetry of the day, especially “ the Graveyard School ”.1757 年,他的代表作《写在 教堂墓地的挽歌》出版这首诗奠定了他在当时作为感伤主 义诗歌创始人的地位,尤其是从此他便成为 “ 墓地诗歌 ” 流 派的代表。 His other poems include “ Ode on the Spring ”, “ Ode on the Death of a Favourite cat ” and so on. (Ode: …. 赞,颂 ) 他的其他作品还有《春之颂》,《伊顿 公学展望》,《爱猫之死》等等。

39 English Literature English Department in Hetao University Thank you !


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