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FAKTOR-FAKTOR PEMBENTUKAN TANAH. Soils We know more about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil underfoot. - Leonardo da Vinci DIUNDUH.

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Presentation on theme: "FAKTOR-FAKTOR PEMBENTUKAN TANAH. Soils We know more about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil underfoot. - Leonardo da Vinci DIUNDUH."— Presentation transcript:

1 FAKTOR-FAKTOR PEMBENTUKAN TANAH

2 Soils We know more about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil underfoot. - Leonardo da Vinci DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

3 Soil: Definition Solid earth material that has been altered by physical, chemical and organic processes so that it can support rooted plant life. Engineering definition: Anything that can be removed without blasting DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

4 Soil Production DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

5 Produksi Tanah: Input Conversion of rock to soil DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

6 Soil Production: Outputs Downslope movement of soil DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

7 Soil Thickness: Storage input ± output = soil thickness or: rock conversion ± soil transport = thickness that is, soil thickness reflects the balance between rates of soil production and rates of downslope soil movement. Slope Weathering Rate DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

8 Factors of Soil Formation Climate Organisms Parental Material Topography Time DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

9 Factors of Soil Formation Iklim Temperature & Precipitation (curah Hujan) Indirect controls (mis. Tipe-tipe vegetasi) Kecepatan Pelapukan batuan – The greater the rainfall amount, the more rapid the rate of both weathering and erosion. DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

10 Factors of Soil Formation Organisme 1.Types of native vegetation 2.Weathering is dependent of plant growth 3.Plant and animal activity produces humic acids that are powerful weathering agents. [acids derived from chemical breakdown of organic matter] 4.Plants can physically as well as chemically break down rocks. 5.Plants stabilize soil profiles, Animals (including humans) tend to increase erosion. DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

11 Factors of Soil Formation Bahan Induk Tanah: Kimiawi Mineralogi Ukuran Butiran DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

12 Factors of Soil Formation Topografi: Kemiringan Elevation – Tinggi tempat Aspek lereng (menghadap utara vs. selatan) DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

13 Downslope transport of soil is a function of slope: – Erosion rate = f(S) Steeper slopes erode faster. The steeper the surface slope, the more likely any eroded material is to be transported out of the system. Factors of Soil Formation DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

14 Soils on hillslopes reach an equilibrium thickness, often about 1m. Soils on flat surfaces, such as floodplains or plateaus, tend to thicken through time due to weathering rates being greater than sediment transport rates. Factors of Soil Formation DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013

15 Factors of Soil Formation Time for development and destruction of soil profiles Typical chemical reaction rates are slow  the longer a rock unit has been exposed, the more likely it is to be weathered And, the longer soil waits before transport, the thicker it can become… DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ….. 11/2/2013


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