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English for Academic Reading and Writing Chin-cheng Huang ( 黃金誠 ) Fooyin University Department of Applied Foreign Languages

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Presentation on theme: "English for Academic Reading and Writing Chin-cheng Huang ( 黃金誠 ) Fooyin University Department of Applied Foreign Languages"— Presentation transcript:

1 English for Academic Reading and Writing Chin-cheng Huang ( 黃金誠 ) Fooyin University Department of Applied Foreign Languages

2 ESP Classification by Professional Area EGP English for (academic) science and technology EAP English for (academic) medical purposes English for (academic) legal purposes ESP English for management, finance and economics E for professional purposesE for medical p EOP E for business p E for vocational purposesPre-vocational E Vocational E

3 Vocabulary 字彙: 2000 word families Grammar 文法: Basic sentence pattern Listening 聽 passive skills Reading 讀 receptive skills Speaking 說 active skills Writing 寫 creative skills Translation expertise Academic performance The Pyramid of English Proficiency

4 Technological Students’ Problems They lack: confidence motivation Interesting They have limited English competence.

5 Solutions 1. Need analysis 2. Focus on what you need 3. Constantly reading and writing 4. Apply what you know to decode what you don’t know 5. Increase your vocabulary knowledge 6. Happy learning

6 Influence of Vocabulary Size on Reading Comprehension Hu and Nation (2000): Even reading a fiction text for pleasure, a reader should possess approximately 98% coverage of the vocabulary in a reading text. Nation and Hwang (1995): Two thousand word families of general service vocabulary and the University Word List (UWL) might cover about 95% running words in general academic texts.

7 Influence of Vocabulary Size on Reading Comprehension Laufer (1989, 1992): An L2 reader had to recognize 95% (around 3,000 high- frequency words) of the running words of a general text; s/he then can correctly gain adequate information from the reading text. Hirsh and nation (1992): A reader who is able to read novels for pleasure should know 95%-98% of the running words (about 5,000 words families).

8 Vocabulary Knowledge High-frequency words Academic words Technical words Low-frequency words

9 Word Acquisition 2,000 sight words Alphabetic order Belongings/Topic Parts of speech Word family Affix, suffix Word roots Compound words From know words to unknown words

10 Alphabetic Order (1) A—a(an), a few, a little, a lot, a.m., able, about, above, abroad, absent, accept, accident, across, act, action, active, activity, actor, actress, actually, add, address, admire, adult, advertisement, advice, advise, affect, afraid, after, afternoon, again, against, age, ago, agree, ahead, aim, air, air conditioner, airlines, airplane (plane), airport, alarm, album, alike, alive, all, allow, almost, alone, along, aloud, alphabet, already, also, altogether, always, ambulance, America, American, among, ancient, and, angel, anger, angry, ankle, animal, another, answer, ant, any, anyone (anybody), anything, anywhere, apartment, apologize, appear, apple, appreciate, April, area, argue, arm, armchair, army, around, arrange, arrive, art, artist, as, ask, asleep, assistant, assume, at, attack, attention, August, aunt, autumn (fall), available, avoid, away

11 Alphabetic Order (2) J—jacket, jam, January, jazz, jealous, jeans, jeep, job, jog, join, joke, journalist, joy, judge, juice, July, jump, June, junior high school, just K—kangaroo, keep, ketchup, key, kick, kid, kill, kilogram, kilometer, kind, kindergarten, king, kingdom, kiss, kitchen, kite, kitten, knee, knife, knock, know, knowledge, koala

12 Belonging/Topics (1) 1.People ---adult, baby, boy, child, couple, customer, fool, genius, gentleman, giant, girl, guest, guy, hero, host, kid, king, lady, male, man, master, neighbor, partner, people, person, prince, princess, queen, stranger, teenager, visitor, woman, youth 9.Money ---bill, cash, cent, change, coin, credit card, dollar, money, price ---borrow, buy, charge, cost, earn, lend, pay, spend ---cheap, expensive

13 Belonging/Topics (2) 10.Food & drink ---fruit, apple, banana, grape, guava, lemon, mango, orange, papaya, peach, pear, pineapple, strawberry, tangerine, tomato, watermelon. ---vegetable, bean, cabbage, carrot, corn, lettuce, nut, onion, potato, pumpkin, meat ---beef, bread, bun, burger, cereal, chicken, dumpling, egg, fast food, fish, flour, food, French fries, ham, hamburger, hot dog, instant noodle, noodle, pizza, pork, rice, salad, sandwich, seafood, shrimp, soup, spaghetti, steak, tofu ---breakfast, brunch, dinner, lunch, meal, snack, supper ---beer, coffee, Coke, drink, ice, juice, liquid, milk, milk shake, soda, soft drink, tea, water ---cake, candy, cheese, chocolate, cookie, dessert, doughnut, ice cream, moon cake, pie, popcorn, toast ---butter, ketchup, cream, jam, oil, pepper, soy-sauce, salt, sugar, vinegar ---hungry, full, thirsty ---bitter, delicious, hot, sour, sweet, yummy ---bake, boil, burn, cook, eat, order ---menu, diet

14 Belonging/Topics (3) 37.Other adverbs ---always, ever, never, often, seldom, sometimes, usually ---actually, again, also, away, too, almost, altogether, especially, even, finally, hardly, least, maybe, nearly, perhaps, probably, rather, really, so, still, then, together, very, quite, yet ---aloud ---abroad, ahead, everywhere, anywhere, somewhere ---either, neither, no, nor, not, yes (yeah)

15 Parts of speech (1) Articles & Determiners a, an, the, this, that, those, my, our, your, his, her, its, their Pronouns & reflexives I, me, we, us, you,…. all, another, any, anybody, anyone…. mine, ours, yours, hers, theirs myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves….

16 Parts of speech (2) Wh-word How, what, which, who, whose, when, where, whether, while, why Be & Auxiliaries am, do, could…. Prepositions about, above, across, after…. Conjunctions Although, and, as, because, but, however, if....

17 Parts of speech (3) Interjections hello, hey, hi, oh, oops, uh-uh, wow…. Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs

18 Word family be 含 be, been, being, am, are, is, was, were Defer, deferred, deferring, deference, deferent, deferents Survive, survives, survived, surviving, survival, survivals, survivor, survivors, survivor’s, survivalist, survivalists, survivability

19 Affix Ab, abs-- (away, from) Abdicate, abnormal, abominate, aboriginal, abrupt, absence, absolute, absolve, absorb, abstract, abundant, abuse Uni-- (one) Uniform, unify, union, unique, unison, unit, unite, unity, universal, universe

20 Suffix Abolish, accomplish, admonish, anguish, astonish, banish, blandish, blemish, brandish, burnish, cherish, demolish, diminish, dish, distinguish, embellish, establish, extinguish, famish, finish, refinish, fish, overfish, flourish, furnish, refurbish, garnish, impoverish, languish, lavish, nourish, undernourish, perish, pish, plenish, deplenish, replenish, polish, publish, republish, punish, ravish, relinquish, relish, skirmish, tarnish, vanish, evanish, vanquish, varnish, whish, wish, unwish.

21 Word Roots (1) --ane” 烷 ” bane—bugbane, carbane, fleabane, henbane, murbane, ratsbane, urbane, inurbane cane—arcane, chicane, hurricane, sugarcane Dane fane--profane lane—air lane, plane, sealane mane—balletomane, humane pane--marchpane sane--insane vane—dogvane, paravane wane

22 Root words (2) see vis lookspect hear audi saydict speak log speakloqu speak parl speakfabl, fabul language lingu tongueglot, gloss letter liter readleg write scrib, script writescrib, cript paint pict laughrib, ris blow flat breathespir, hal will vol, volunt knowsci, cogn (Adopted from 蔣爭 (1990) 。飛越英文單字計憶難關:英文單字分解記憶法。台北:笛藤。 )

23 Compound words bakehouse, bathhouse, boathouse, beerhouse, blockhouse, bordinghouse, cavehouse, chophouse, clubhouse, coffeehouse, countinghouse, cowhouse, customhouse, deckhouse, dyehouse, farmhouse, firehouse, flophouse, gashouse, greenhouse, guardhouse, guesthouse, guesthouse, icehouse, lighthouse, outhouse, packhouse, packinghouse, penthouse, pesthouse, playhouse, poorhouse, pothouse, porterhouse, powerhouse, roadhouse, showhouse, smokehouse, statehouse, storehouse, sugarhouse, summerhouse, teahouse, tollhouse, treasurehouse, warehouse, washhouse, weighthouse, wheelhouse, White House, workhouse. (pp.674-75 )

24 From Known words to Unknown words book 1. 書 2. 卷 3. 唱詞腳本 4. 帳冊 keep books 記帳 5. 支票簿 6. 記載賭注的帳冊

25 Academic Words Coxhead’s Academic Words List (AWL): 570 words Nation’s University Words List (UWL): 868 words

26 Grammar (A) Types of Sentence 1. Declarative sentence 2. Interrogative sentence 3. Imperative sentence 4. Exclamatory sentence 5. Simple sentence 6. Compound sentence 7. Complex sentence 8. Compound-complex sentence

27 Grammar (B) Parts of Speech: 1. Nouns (n.) 2. Verbs (V.) 3. Pronouns (pron.) 4. Adjectives (adj.) 5. Adverbs (adv.) 6. Articles 7. Prepositions (prep.) 8. Conjunctions (conj.) 9. Demonstrative (Dem.)

28 Grammar (C) 1. NP (noun phrase) 2. VP (Verb phrase) 3. AP (Adjective phrase) 4. PP (Preposition phrase)

29 Reading Strategies (1) 1. Getting an overview from abstracts; 2. Checking the keywords; 3. Using all the features of the text such as titles, headings, typeface ( 字體 ), tables and figures ; 4. Skimming for content and meaning; 5. Scanning for specifics; 6. Identifying organizational patterns;

30 Reading Strategies (2) 7. Understanding relations within a sentence and between sentences; 8. Using cohesive markers; 9. Predicting, inferring, and guessing; 10. Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and details (examples); 11. Processing and evaluating the information during reading; 12. Taking notes.

31 Getting an Overview from Abstracts Abstract Managers in the service sector are under pressure to demonstrate that their services are customer-focused and that continuous performance improvement is being delivered. It is essential that customer expectations are properly understood and measured under the constraints that organizations must manage. The majority of the work to date has attempted to use the SERVQUAL (service quality) methodology in an effort to measure service quality. In this study, firstly the concept and factors of service quality are examined. Then a fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is structured to evaluate the proposed service quality framework. A case study in healthcare sector in Turkey is presented to clarify the methodology.

32 Checking the Keywords Service quality; SERVQUAL; Healthcare quality; Fuzzy AHP A recommender mechanism based on case- based reasoning Chen-Shu Wang a,, Heng-Li Yang a Keywords Recommender mechanism; Case-based reasoning; Multiple stage reasoning; Genetic algorithm; Artificial intelligence application

33 Using All the Features of the Text Titles: Strategic analysis of healthcare service quality using fuzzy AHP methodology Gülçin Büyüközkan, Gizem Çifçi, Sezin Güleryüz Expert Systems with ApplicationsExpert Systems with Applications Volume 38, Issue 8, August 2011, Pages 9407–9424Volume 38, Issue 8

34 Using All the Features of the Text Title: A framework for designing robust food supply chains Jelena V. Vlajic,,Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst, René Haijema International Journal of Production Economics Volume 137, Issue 1, May 2012, Pages 176–189 Analysis of outsourcing cost-effectiveness using a linear programming model with fuzzy multiple goals Wang, Earl Juei 1 ; Chen, Yen Chun 1 ; Wang, Wen Shi 1 ; Su, Tai Sheng 2 1 2 International Journal of Production Research, Volume 48, Number 2, January 2010, pp. 501-523(23)International Journal of Production Research

35 Using All the Features of the Text (Headings & subheadings) A Study of the Dispatching Order System to Support Module Structured Production System for the Demand Synchronized Production Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design System, and Manufacturing, 2010, 4(2) 1. Introduction (Background) 2. Module Structured Production System (MSPS) 2.1 Definition and configuration of the system 2.2 Flexible configuration

36 Using All the Features of the Text (Headings & subheadings) 3. Dispatching Order System 3.1 Problems and requirements of demand- synchronized production suing MSPS 3.2 Configuration and procedure of dispatching order system 3.3 Operation flow of dispatching order system 3.4 Calculation method of evaluation values 3.5 Features of dispatching order system 4. Evaluation of Dispatching Order System 5. Conclusion

37 Using All the Features of the Text Typefaces: In this section, some fundamental definitions and features about the concepts of “supply chain”, “supply chain management” are proposed. In this paper we use the term supply chain. as it is defined by the last of the quotes above. The objective of supply chain management is to be able to have the right products in the right quantities (at the right place) at the right moment at minimal cost.

38 Using All the Features of the Text (tables) Table 1. Characteristic differences between traditional ways of managing the supply chain and SCM (Cooper, Ellram, 1993) mentioned in (Vrijhoef, Koskela, 1999) Element Traditional management Supply chain management Inventory management Independent efforts Joint reduction of channel approach inventories Total cost approach Minimize firm costs Channel-wide cost efficiencies Time horizon Short term Long term

39 Using All the Features of the Text (figures)

40 Skimming for Content and Meaning To read something quickly to find the main facts, information, or ideas in an article Read the first sentence and last sentence of a paragraph

41 Scanning for Specifics To examine an area carefully but quickly, often because you are looking for a particular person or thing Applying 2 or 3 keywords or target terms to scan a passage

42 Identifying Organizational Patterns Genres: 1. Note: nursing note 2. Memorandum (Memo) 3. E-mail 4. Report: business report; 5. Resume 6. Letters: business letters

43 Identifying Organizational Patterns 7. Newspapers, magazines 8. story, novel 9. Legal documents: Contract & agreement 10. Present illness (PI) ( 病史 ) 11. Journal articles 12. Theses, dissertations

44 Understanding Relations Within a Sentence and Between Sentences 1. Temporal overlap: while, meanwhile 2. Temporal sequence: first, second, third, next, and then, last, finally. 3. Reason-result: because, since, because of, therefore, and therefore, so, and so, thus, as a result, so…that. 4. Means-purpose: to, for, by, using…

45 Understanding Relations Within a Sentence and Between Sentences (2) 5. Statement-example: such as, for example, for instance, like, particularly, including.... 6. Statement-amplification: and, as well as, also, an also, furthermore, moreover 7. Statement-exception: besides, except, in addition (to)

46 Understanding Relations Within a Sentence and Between Sentences (3) 8. Concession-comment: although, though, but, however, even though 9. Condition-consequence: if, even if, in case of, unless, so long as 10. Compare-contrast: Based on, according to, regarding to, with regard to, concerning, on the other hand, both A and B, as…as, 比較級, 最高級

47 Using Cohesive Markers Conjunctions: Co-ordinate conjunctions: and, both and, not only…but also, as well as, neither (nor), never…but, What is more (worse); moreover, furthermore, likewise, besides, in addition, similarly, further, indeed, also Adversative conjunctions: but, however, indeed …but, It is true…but, whereas, on the contrary, while, only, still, yet, but yet, nevertheless, on the other hand

48 Using Cohesive Markers Alternative conjunctions: or, not…but, either…or, otherwise Illative conjunctions: so, thus, ( and) consequently, therefore, then, so then, (and) accordingly, hence Explanatory conjunctions: for, such as, that is (to say), namely, for instance, to wit Subordinate conjunctions: that, when, as, while, which, who, what, where+ cl. Meanwhile, thus

49 Predicting, Inferring, and Guessing Regarding to the title, heading or subheading, and figures or tables to predict the content Based on the facts or numerical data to infer the unmentioned events or results Applying what you know to guess the familiar words, terms, and contents that you are reading

50 Identifying Main Ideas, Supporting Ideas and Details Main ideas: It is usually the first sentence of a paragraph. Supporting ideas: It usually follows the main idea sentence or starts from the second sentence of the paragraph. Details: They are used to described supporting each idea. They usually include one or more examples. Inferences: Based on the information you read, you may infer some results that are not showed in the texts. Criticize: According to the texts you read, offer the shortages or lacks of them. Comments: Write down your feelings, opinions, views, or systematic suggestions.

51 Processing and Evaluating the Information during Reading Holding your original attempt Taking the information that you really need Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the information Extracting, highlighting, and recording the relevant information

52 Taking Notes It may be the use of layout, capital letters, headings, systems of numbering, indentation, underlining, abbreviation symbols etc. One tendency of linear note- taking is that it is apt to become unnecessarily lengthy, whereas only a maximum of 10 per cent of the original is normally needed for recall purposes.

53 Taking notes 綜合評論彙整成表格 決策模式 隸屬函 數型態 組合目標運算子優缺點 Zimmerma nn [28] 線性函數小中取大 計算容易,可以轉成 LP 模式求解, 可得 Pareto 最佳解;缺點為線性隸 屬函數無法充分代表一般決策者 之行為。 Leberling [15] 雙曲線函數小中取大 計算容易,為 Zimmermann 模式之 延伸,可得 Pareto 最佳解;缺點為 須考量實際情況是否為雙曲線函 數。 Hannan [2] 區段線性函數●小中取大●最小離差值加權 總合 總合●最小離差值優先 順序總合 順序總合 採區段線性函數與實務情況需要 較符,並可依據實際需要選擇三 種運算子來組合各目標函數,顧 及各目標之重要性及決策者對不 同目標之偏好順序,可得 Pareto 最 佳解。

54 綜合評論彙整成表格 決策模式隸屬函數型態 組合目標運 算子 優缺點 Luhandjula [16] 線性函數最小和界線 可以轉成 LP 模式求解,計算容易, 可得 Pareto 最佳解;線性隸屬函數 無法充分代表一般決策者之行為。 Sakawa [22] 線性函數指數函數雙曲線函數反雙曲線函數區段線性函數小中取大 適用於五種不同型態隻力鼠函數, 並已發展出交談式電腦程式求解。 缺點為屬於非線性規劃模式,利 用二分法求算逼近妥協解過程較 為複雜。 Hsu and Tzeng [1] 同 Sakawa 模式 最小離差值加權 總合 結合 Zimmermann 、 Hannan 、 Sakawa 模式之優點,利用最小加 權總合來結合目標函數,涵蓋五 種不同隸屬函數型態;缺點為屬 於非線性規劃模式,利用二分法 求算逼近妥協解過程較為複雜。

55 Writing an abstract (1) Including research purpose(s), research question(s), research method(s), result(s) or finding(s), and implication

56 Research purposes: This article presents …. The present study aims to …. The main purpose of this (the) XXX study (research) is to …. 例 :This work presents a linear programming model with fuzzy multiple goals for analysing cost effectiveness during vendor selection.

57 Research purposes: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model on the role that information systems (IS) architecture planning plays in enhancing IS outsourcing's impact on IS performance and to empirically test the model.

58 Research purposes: This work presents a novel interactive multiple fuzzy objective linear programming (MFOLP) model for solving the aggregate production planning (APP) decision problem in a fuzzy environment.

59 Research method(s) In order to sustain a competitive advantage, a manufacturer needs to anticipate this dynamic environment and offer the right amount of the right products at the right time to the right markets. Therefore, companies need to understand and analyze the different influencing factors. Many of these factors occur at periodical intervals and demonstrate a cyclic behavior. This article proposes a number of models and methodologies for anticipating and managing the different occurring cycles.

60 Research method(s) Survey data were gathered and structural equation modeling technique is used to test hypotheses.

61 Research method(s) The majority of the work to date has attempted to use the SERVQUAL (service quality) methodology in an effort to measure service quality. In this study, firstly the concept and factors of service quality are examined. Then a fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is structured to evaluate the proposed service quality framework.

62 Result(s) or finding(s) The implementation results demonstrate that …. The results (findings) show (reveal) that …. Results showed that the image projected by the vendors was a major factor in their selection, while reliability, responsiveness, and customer empathy were less important.

63 Result(s) or finding(s) Therefore, the analytical results of this study, regardless of application outcomes or analysis methodology, provide decision criteria for manufacturing firms and introduce a new area of academic research.

64 Result(s) or finding(s) The empirical test clearly demonstrates the important role that IS architecture planning plays in enhancing IS outsourcing's impact on IS performance. In other words, it shows that IS architecture planning provides a blueprint for establishing necessary technical and administrative platforms, based on which IS outsourcing can be effectively implemented to positively impact IS performance. Consequently, the key proposition in the conceptual model of the study has been empirically validated.

65 Implication The empirical support of the key proposition that IS architecture planning enhances IS outsourcing's impact on IS performance makes it very clear that IS management should make due efforts to improve their understandings of various IS components, associated business processes, and their interactive relationships for better IS outsourcing management. Further, the identification of the antecedents of IS architecture planning will enlighten practitioners about how to improve their IS architecture planning competence.

66 Writing an abstract (2) 避免 : 1. 分段敘述 2. 出現框格、數據或公式 3. 列點說明 4. 使用加粗、底下劃線、圖、表 5. 應用註解 6. 解釋專有名詞

67 Writing an abstract (2) 7. 出現極端性字眼 8. 以不確定性時間表達 9. 出現問卷份數 10. 用 { } 和「」符號 11. 記載圖表編號 王貳瑞 (2003) 。學術論文寫作。東華書局。

68 Writing an abstract (3) Application of a linear programming model with fuzzy multiple goals for virtual business investments Abstract This article assesses the feasibility of virtual business investment planning models with specific virtual settings. The multiple criteria approach with fuzzy goals is deployed to analyze the available options as the model

69 Writing an abstract (4) is formulated in compliance with long-term settings. The model is developed to determine the optimum solution and suitable virtual options. The multiple objective approach is utilized to determine the cost and revenue interactions between capital limitations and profitability from a long-term viewpoint of outsourcing effectiveness in terms of virtual decisions.

70 Writing an abstract (5) The implementation is designed to survey the parameter variations of outsourcing quantities and escalation factors. The implementation results demonstrate that the use of both LP and multiple objective models enables business planners to employ a theoretical rigor not found in simpler decision models for virtual concepts.

71 Writing an abstract (6) Key words: fuzzy multiple, virtual business investment, outsourcing effectiveness


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