Presentation on theme: "Jennifer A. Poland M.A. (706) 616-4238."— Presentation transcript:
Jennifer A. Poland M.A. (706)
Presentation Outline The Need for Grant Writing Background Nonprofit Revenue Diversification Grant Writing Resources Common Elements of Success in Grant Writing Thesis Survey Research Methodology Development of the Questionnaire Results Grant Writing Application Grant Inventory Summary & Grant Proposal developed for Horse Time
The Need for Grant Writing Survey Research The vulnerability of nonprofit organizations is critical as 16% of organizations survive for only the first five years of operation (NCCS, ). Competitiveness for the estimated $38.44 billion given out by grant making organizations is great (Giving USA, 2010). Nonprofits are particularly subject to resource dependency, a reliance on any one stream of revenue that greatly impacts nonprofit organizational structures and financial health (Carroll & Stater, 2008). Grant programs may only fund 10 to 30 percent of applications (Porter, 2005).
EAAT Nonprofit organizations at risk for resource dependency? Equus: The Center for Equine Assisted Therapy, located in Kansas City, Missouri provides children, youth, and adults critical life skills through activities with horses reported 96% of their income from program service revenue alone in 2009 (Guidestar, 2010). In Tuscon, Arizona, Desert Dove Farm offers a horse therapy program for at risk youth reported 70% of their income from program service revenue alone in 2009 (Guidestar, 2010). Stride Ahead, in Atlanta, Georgia, provides youth development, animal related activities and general rehabilitative services using horses reported 100% of their income from contributions and grants in 2009 (Guidestar, 2010). Triple Creek Ranch in Redding, California, providing youth development, mental health treatment and general rehabilitative services using horses reported 78% of their income in 2008 from contributions, gifts, and grants (Guiedestar, 2010).
Grant Writing Resources Summary of Grant Services offered by different organizations (1) listing of grant consultants, (2) resources, research and/or reports, (3) searchable database for grants, and (4) workshops, classes, trainings, and/or certifications. Grant Opportunities Specific to Nonprofit EAAT Organizations
Grant Services Offered by Different Organizations There are positive and negative attributes to EAAT organizations utilizing a listing of grant consultants. A grant consultant would be beneficial to an organization due to their knowledge and experience composing the proposal and following a timeline. Adversely hiring a grant consultant maybe a poor option for organizations due to the lack of institutional memory, choosing the wrong individual, or a high cost. Resources to organizations in grant writing, research and reports related to grant writing or fundraising are valuable to EAAT organizations. Nonprofit organizations that provide services to the community are under increased pressure to justify their expenditures and demonstrate their value to the community (Grant, 2006) Nonprofit organizations choosing to use grants as a source of funding will require knowledge of where to access searchable database to locate potential funders for identified projects or programs. Searchable databases are a benefit to organizations as they are fast, user friendly and help focus the search for grant funders. Nonprofit organizations offering EAAT services may benefit from workshops, training, certifications or conferences in grant writing. Organizations may need training or development due to a lack of knowledge in grant writing, or a planned change in the organization to utilize grants. The benefits of networking and increasing employee efficiencies in process and the adoption of new methods may result in financial gain through awarded grants.
Grant Opportunities Specific to Nonprofit EAAT Organizations (1) EAAT organizations interested in conducting research can benefit from searching for grants to legitimize the effectiveness of their program. (2) The American Horse Council and their affiliate state Horse Council Member Associations represent the horse industry in government (AHC, 2011). Examples of three of the Horse Council Associations that offer grants include Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa. (3) Breed Associations can be a potential source of funding through grants, fundraisers, or benefit events. Further involvement with breed associations can increase marketing sources, donations, volunteers, horse donations and clientele. (4) Any organization utilizing horses in their EAAT programs, unless the animals are leased, or the facility use is leased, could consider utilizing sustainable, eco-friendly, horse keeping practices. (5) Funding for program costs can emanate from a variety of funding sources equine and non equine oriented (6) Nonprofit organizations operating a horse rescue, and utilizing these horses for EAAT programs. (7) Funding for the variety of programs offered through nonprofit organizations can have a beneficial impact on EAAT programs even if the funding is not directly related if the programs share staff, horses, and facilities.
Summary of Grant Services Available to Nonprofit Organizations Grant Writing Resources Specific to EAAT Traditional Organizations offering Grant Writing Resources Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association NARHA Association for Experiential Education Quick Start Grant Writing for Equine-Assisted Therapeutic Riding and Learning Programs (Bowman) First Strides: How to Create a Thriving EAP Program Without Losing your Money or Your Mind (Corcoran) Equinomics: The Secret to Making Money with Your Horse Business (Cordell) EAGALA Business Development Guide Horse Sense Business Sense: Practical Tools for Building a Successful Equine Assisted Program (Knapp, & Dammann) How to Start en EFP/EFL Program (NARHA) Equine Assisted Psychotherapy Business Planning Guide and Workbook (Scott) Planning your Business in the Horse as Healer/Teacher Professions (Strozzi) American Association of Grant Professionals The Foundation Center Grant Professionals Association of Fundraising Professionals The Grantsmanship Center Grant Writing USA Federal Government Grants Federal Grants Wire Fundsnet Services Online Grants Alert National Grants Management Association Grant Advocate Resource Center Giving USA Foundation & Giving Institute
Summary of Grant Writing: Funding Resources “The lives of all the people involved [can] be enriched by the experience (Schaff & Schaff, 1999, pg. 106)." Traditional funding sources include money received through direct mail fundraising, telephone-fundraising, major gift fundraising, planned giving fundraising, online/internet fundraising, special event fundraising, different foundation organizations, government agencies at either the national, state or local level, United Way, Lions, Kiwanis Club, Rotary Club, local community organizations (AFP, 2009; Smith, 2010). Flying Change (2011) lists different funding opportunities on their webpage to encourage the awareness of diversification of funding sources and focuses including: (1)suicide prevention; (2) domestic violence; (3) responding to the aftermath of disasters; (4) responding to the aftermath of crisis; (5) youth and social services (6) health; (7) schools; and (8) communities.
Summary of Grant Writing: Writing Skills Writing that includes originality, problem solving, timelines, compelling need, and outreach; is needed to convey stewardship in any proposal (Blum, 1996). The purpose of writing within grant writing is to enlighten, educate, persuade and entertain (Smith, 2010). Resources include: A Writer's Reference (Hacker, 2010), How to Write: Advice and Reflections (Rhodes, 1995), Writing to Change the World (Pipher, 2006), Writing for a Good Cause: The Complete guide to Crafting Proposals and other Persuasive Pieces for Nonprofits (Barbato & Furlich, 2000), The Elements of Style (Strunk & White, 2008).
Summary of Grant Writing Skills: Proposal Development Cover Letter Proposal Narrative (Smith, 2010) Proposal abstract History of the organization and mission statement Needs assessment and problem statement Goals of the organization Objectives of the proposal Plan of activities (who, what, where, why, when and how) Past year’s accomplishments Qualifications of key staff Accountability and evaluation plan of agency programs and progress Sustainability plan budget
Summary of Grant Writing Skills: Managing the Grant Process Grant Management Activities (Smith, 2010): Facilitation and/or supervision of a grant project team, Proposal research, Identification of funding and bid sources, Grant and proposal writing, Agency capability statement, and Program management and financial management.
Summary of Grant Writing Skills: Grant Management Checklist (1) obtain guidelines; (2) contact representative at funding agency; (3) select primary authors of proposal; (4) prepare abstract or prospectus and submit letter of intent; (5) contact departments and organizations for support or collaboration; (6) obtain initial administrative approval; (7) complete literature review; (8) determine study design; (9) prepare first draft of proposal; (10) prepare abstract of proposal; (11) initiate internal review; (12) prepare budget; (13) revise proposal based on feedback; (14) solicit letters of support; (15) obtain written assurances from support sources; (16) complete institutional forms; (17) type and proofread final document; (18) obtain administrative signatures; (19) proofread proposal; (20) duplicate proposal; (21) submit proposal; (22) follow-up grant review process; (23) monitoring of grant implementation plan; (24) supervision reviews; (25) financial management reports; (26) implementation of evaluation; (27) evaluation reports; (28) program reports to funding sources; (29) grant close-out; and (30) audit and financial reporting (Smith, 2010).
Thesis Title: An Examination of Developing Grant Proposals for Nonprofit Equine Facilitated Learning and Psychotherapy Programs The purpose of the qualitative study was to extend the research on EAMH nonprofit organizations commonalities in successful and unsuccessful elements within grant development. Survey Research Design a Questionnaire Assessed representatives of NARHA and EAGALA nonprofit organizations Grant Writing Projects with Horse Time Grant Inventory Summary Grant Proposal
Survey Research Questionnaire 25 questions Questions are separated based on content starting with: Demographic Information (q. 1-5), Financial Information (q. 6-13), Grant Writing Experience and Resources (q ), and Successful and Unsuccessful Grant Elements (q )
Survey Results 188 (82 NARHA, 106 EAGALA) potential participants were contacted for the research survey, 51 (19 NARHA, 32 EAGALA) participants agreed to participate, 24 (8 NARHA, 16 EAGALA) participants declined participation. Eight Participants returned survey, all female representatives of five NARHA nonprofit organizations, and three EAGALA nonprofit organizations.
Survey Results - Demographic Information All participants represented nonprofit organizations On average organizations registered with NARHA and EAGALA have been in operation for five or more years The majority of EFMH nonprofit organizations rely on less than five paid employees The EAGALA participants commonly ranked EFP services first followed by EAL services, the NARHA participants commonly ranked therapeutic riding services first The majority of participants, NARHA and EAGALA representatives, reported offering services to children, adolescents, and adult groups
Survey Results – Financial Information Participants most commonly reported their budget being $100,000-$200,000 NARHA participant members typically ranked grants as the primary source of income. EAGALA participants revealed no trends in the ranked sources of income The majority of NARHA and EAGALA participants reported grant funds increased with a subsequent increase in grant applications when the past year and previous five years where compared. 75% of participants responding as receiving both foundation and community grants
Survey Results - Grant Writing Experience and Resources No commonalities were found in relation to budget and years experience in grant writing Participants where split between individuals versus teams composing grant projects. 50% of participants reported using only one of the grant systems (funding development plan and grant inventory), 25% reported using none of the systems, while 25% reported using two or more of the systems. The majority of organizations employees will be accessing less than two sources, both traditionally and EAAT oriented, when searching for grants The majority of organizations employees will be accessing less than two resources, both traditionally and EAAT oriented, to improve their grant writing knowledge and experience
Successful Elements in Grant Writing Gerding, (2008), Eight elements of Success Gerding & Mackellar, (2006), Ten Points to Remember Himes, (n/d), Four Proven Keys to Success Bourne & Chalupa, (2006), Ten Rules in Successful Grant Writing Smaglik, (2004), Five Factors Grant Reviewers Choose as Successful in Grant Applications Porter, (2007), Five Strategies to Improve Academics Grant Writing Skills McCume, (2007), Ten Elements of Success Porter, (2005), Six Grant Reviewers Expectations & Seven Characteristics of a Good Proposal Whatley, (2000), Ten Ways to Improve Proposals
Unsuccessful Elements in Grant Writing Porter (2005) reports common grant writing mistakes as reported by grant reviewers. Grant reviewers critiqued: (1) writing that is vague and unfocused; (2) lack of proofreading; (3) incomplete response to the program announcement; (4) the project is too ambitious; (5) the research plan is vague; (6) the principal investigator lacks proven competence to do the research. Carlson, & O’Neal-McElrath (2008) discuss common difficulties in writing grants including: budget issues, ensuring proper requirements of a grant proposal are fulfilled to avoid rejection, and having a well written research proposal.
Survey Results - Successful and Unsuccessful Grant Elements Questions 21 & 23 Participants Ranked Successful and Unsuccessful Commonalities in Grant Writing on a Linear Scale of 1-7, 1 – Extremely Unimportant, and 7 – Extremely Important The inter item correlation lacked statistical significance due to the low sample size. The Frequency Distribution for Questions 21 and 23 indicated that participants rated 68.4% of the elements as Quite Important (6) to Extremely Important(7)
Survey Results - Successful and Unsuccessful Grant Elements Successful Commonalities Unsuccessful Commonalities Grant work should always begin with planning Include the appropriate background and preliminary data Create an evaluation strategy and build the method into the project from the start Clearly defining the needs of the organization Detailed budgets that match the proposed program or project Not being clear and concise with the proposal idea The grant proposal not matching the grant funders concept Not beginning grant work with a plan Failure to use an evaluation strategy Expenditure and/or cost estimating that is not thoroughly detailed
Survey Results - Self Reported Answers Self Reported Answers for Questions 22, 24, and 25: Q. 22 "reporting back to show accountability and desired results were met”, "be sure your project falls within the realm of the grantors guidelines”, “make sure the request falls within the giving guidelines of the grant maker" Q. 24 "how many grants are submitted, they may like the project but it could be the wrong time to submit" Q. 25 "collaboration with individuals that have been successful and or familiar with the grant offering group" "grantors like to see background facts"
Grant Writing Projects with Horse Time Grant Inventory Summary Three projects, grants identified for each The first project is a brick and mortar initiative, as the organization needs a multi- use building The second project is a program initiative, to provide a social skills group for boys at the Sharp Learning Center, an alternative school located in Covington, Georgia The last project as being a staffing initiative, to provide funds for a Volunteer Coordinator/Recruiter at Horse Time Commonalities in Grant Inventory Development Process Finding grants for operating expenses such as the staffing initiative was the most difficult portion of the process the government database was extremely difficult to navigate and understand the qualifications necessary to apply and the application process Grant funders had different formats and applications required for their grant proposals, no trend in requirements was evident, providing minor direction in a successful grant submission.
Grant Writing Projects with Horse Time Grant Application Robert W. Woodruff Foundation (Preliminary Planning Construction Grant – Brick and Mortar Initiative) Commonalities in Grant Application Development The funding focus area of human services, particularly for children and youth, was heavily emphasized in the grant proposal to ensure linking the funders initiatives to the project The majority of the information for the organizational history and program overview included in the grant was available on Horse Time's website or within the clinical training manual The grant proposal aspects of writing including: relevant statistics, program information, quotes, concise and clear writing were most prevalent.
Thesis Limitations Limitations of Survey Research Low number of Participants Survey as a word document compared to an online survey The best individual within the organization to approach regarding grant writing survey research was unknown Questionnaire design Limitations of Grant Writing Projects Lack of an evaluation of the chosen grants appropriateness for each of the three projects Lack of an evaluation of successful and unsuccessful tendencies in the developed proposal
Thesis Recommendations The first recommendation is the movement in the field towards research specific to EAAT grant writing The second recommendation specific to the application of grant writing skills by nonprofit organizations, is the increased devotion of staff to utilizing more knowledge and resources to grant writing Future grant writing research should consider assessing grant funders beliefs of successful commonalities in grant writing specific to EAAT nonprofit organizations
Thesis Conclusion The non experimental design was utilized to determine what individuals are involved in EAAT nonprofit programs are thinking and doing in regards to successful commonalities in grant writing. The survey research demonstrated a lack of significant results regarding successful elements in grant writing. There were strong similarities in participants' ranking of successful and unsuccessful elements surrounding planning, budgets, and evaluation strategies in grant writing. A policy change in grant funders providing clear criteria for evaluation of grant applications is needed.
Grant Writing Conclusions in Nonprofit EAAT Programs A large factor in business success is the ability to maintain a consistent cash flow, nonprofit organizations offering EAAT programs benefit from traditional business knowledge of diversifying funding. Sources of funding need to reliably support an organization through consistent funds respectively to maintain income to strengthen an organization within the current economy. Nonprofit organizations seeking grant funding are attempting to make a lasting and profound impression on grant reviewers, in hopes of receiving grant funding. The success of EAAT nonprofit organizations receiving and utilizing grant funds for their businesses is dependent first on the decision and devotion to integrating grant writing policies and procedures as one of many sources of diversified funding within the nonprofit organization.