Presentation on theme: "WARM UP: 1/15/2013 Happy Tuesday! Video tomorrow Get to listen to some music…classical music! Looking at the spread of the enlgihtenment In your warm-up."— Presentation transcript:
WARM UP: 1/15/2013 Happy Tuesday! Video tomorrow Get to listen to some music…classical music! Looking at the spread of the enlgihtenment In your warm-up write: Where was the center of the Enlightenment? Name two basic beliefs of the philosophes. What were two accomplishments of women?
GOALS Identify how the Enlightenment spread Analyze the new architecture of the 17 th century Listen to the classical music of the age
THE SPREAD OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
PARIS In the 1700s, Paris was the intellectual capital of Europe. People flocked there to study, philosophize, and enjoy fine culture. The brightest minds of this era gathered there. From their circles spread the ideas of the Enlightenment.
THE PARIS SALONS Several wealthy women in Paris held regular social gatherings in their mansions. These gatherings were called ‘salons’. Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and intellectuals met to discuss ideas and enjoy artistic performances.
MARIE THERESE GEOFFRIN Madame Geoffrin was the most influential salon hostess.
MADAME GEOFFRIN’S SALON 1755
ENCYCLOPEDIA Madame Geoffrin financed the first encyclopedia to be made. Denis Diderot brought together all the most current and enlightened thinking. Science Technology Art government It was published in The modern day WIKIPEDIA!
IDEAS CIRCULATE The salons and the encyclopedias Diderot published helped spread the Enlightenment ideas to educated people all over Europe. Intellectuals shared their ideas through books, letters, visits, and magazines. “Never have new ideas had such rapid circulation at such long distance.”
IDEAS REACH MIDDLE CLASS Newspapers, pamphlets, and political songs. Enlightenment ideas of government and equality attracted the literate middle class. They had money, but not any political power. They bought a lot of books about Enlightenment ideas, which helped push the movement forward.
ART AND LITERATURE The Enlightenment is also known as the “Age of Reason”. The ideals of order and reason were reflected in the arts. Music Literature Painting Architecture
BAROQUE Grand ornate style from the 1600s and early 1700s. Monarchs built grand, elaborate palaces. Under the influence of the Enlightenment, the style changed to Neoclassical.
NEOCLASSICAL ( NEW CLASSIC ) Emphasis on order and balance. Artists and architects worked in a simple, elegant style that borrowed ideas from classical Greece and Rome. In music, this period is called classical.
CLASSICAL MUSIC Franz Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Ludwig Van Beethoven Haydn MozartBeethoven
HAYDN Developed new musical forms. Sonata Symphony
MOZART Gifted child who began composing music at age 5. At age 12, he wrote his first opera. His operas set a new standard of elegance and originality. The Marriage of Figaro Don Giovanni The Magic Flute
BEETHOVEN Wrote piano music, string quartets, and stirring symphonies Early works were in the same classical style as Mozart. Later works carried his music into the Age of Romanticism. Became deaf after publishing 32 sonatas
ROYALTY The Enlightenment also swept through palaces and royal courts. Many philosophers, including Voltaire, believed that the best form of government was a monarchy in which the ruler respected the people’s rights.
Some monarchs embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected Enlightenment beliefs. They were called Enlightened Despots. Despots means ‘Absolute Ruler’
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS Supported the new ideas, but they had no intention of giving up any power. They only had two desires. Make their country stronger Rule more effectively The foremost of Europe's Enlightened despots Frederick II of Prussia Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria Catherine the Great of Russia
FREDERICK II King of Prussia “I must enlighten my people, cultivate their manners and morals, and make them as happy as human beings can be, or as happy as the means at my disposal permits.” He committed himself to making important reforms for Prussia.
FREDERICK’S REFORMS Religious freedoms Reduced censorship Improved education Abolished torture He did not end serfdom because he still needed support of the wealthy landowners. Did not try to change the social order
JOSEPH II OF AUSTRIA Ruled Austria from Legal reforms Freedom of the press Freedom of worship Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews Abolished serfdom Ordered peasants be paid for their labor with cash.
JOSEPH II Nobles resisted the changes After his death, all reforms were undone.
CATHERINE THE GREAT Ruled Russia from Formed a commission to make some reforms towards religions toleration and abolishment of torture, however, the commission never accomplished their goals. Peasant uprising in 1773 convinced Catherine that she needed support of her nobles, so she granted them full power over serfs. Serfs lost all freedom.