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Unit Seven The Virtues of Ambition Contents 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 2. Warming-up questions 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit Seven The Virtues of Ambition Contents 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 2. Warming-up questions 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit Seven The Virtues of Ambition

3 Contents 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 1. About the Author 2. Warming-up questions 2. Warming-up questions 2. Warming-up questions 2. Warming-up questions 3. The structure of the text 3. The structure of the text 3. The structure of the text 3. The structure of the text 4. Detailed explanation of each part 4. Detailed explanation of each part 4. Detailed explanation of each part 4. Detailed explanation of each part 5. Key to exercises 5. Key to exercises 5. Key to exercises 5. Key to exercises

4 About Joseph Epstein (847)

5 Information of the author Joseph Epstein, a noted essayist, short story author and novelist, Joseph Epstein, a noted essayist, short story author and novelist, born in Chicago and grew up in Rogers Park. born in Chicago and grew up in Rogers Park. He then attended the University of Chicago and is now a prominent member of the literature faculty at Northwestern University. He then attended the University of Chicago and is now a prominent member of the literature faculty at Northwestern University. He contributed essays in each issue under the moniker Aristides.. He contributed essays in each issue under the moniker Aristides.. He is a teacher in the acclaimed Creating Writing Program at Northwestern University. He is a teacher in the acclaimed Creating Writing Program at Northwestern University. He won the 1998 Harold Washington Literary Award for the most prominent man or women of letters in Chicago. He won the 1998 Harold Washington Literary Award for the most prominent man or women of letters in Chicago.

6 Warming-up Exercises: 1. What do you think about ambition and ambitious people? 1. What do you think about ambition and ambitious people? 2. What is the author ’ s attitude towards ambition according to the title of the essay the Virtues of Ambition? 2. What is the author ’ s attitude towards ambition according to the title of the essay the Virtues of Ambition? 3. What does virtue mean ? 3. What does virtue mean ? Good quality. Good quality.

7 The Structure of the text Part One ( para.1 to para3): Part One ( para.1 to para3): Part Two (para. 4 to para.5): Part Two (para. 4 to para.5): Part Three (para.6 to para.7): Part Three (para.6 to para.7): Part Four (para.8 to para.11): Part Four (para.8 to para.11): Part Five ( para.12 to para.13): Part Five ( para.12 to para.13):

8 Paragraph 1 Paraphrase and Language Points: Rorschach words: Rorschach inkblot test ( 罗 夏墨迹测验 ) created by Hermann Rorschach ( , 瑞士精神病学家 ); a method of testing a person’s brains and character by making him say what various irregular spots of ink remind him of Rorschach words: Rorschach inkblot test ( 罗 夏墨迹测验 ) created by Hermann Rorschach ( , 瑞士精神病学家 ); a method of testing a person’s brains and character by making him say what various irregular spots of ink remind him of

9 Paragraph 1 Discussion What are the two different interpretations about ambition and ambitious people? What are the two different interpretations about ambition and ambitious people? 1) (Webster ’ s) ambition is an ardent desire for rank, fame and power What does it mean? What does it mean? It means that Ambition is incommensurate (inconsistent) with good sense and stability It means that Ambition is incommensurate (inconsistent) with good sense and stability 2)One can be ambitious for the public good, for the alleviation of suffering and for the enlightenment of mankind

10 Explain: … define it and you instantly reveal a great deal about yourself. … the way you personally define ambition will tell a lot about yourself, your dreams, your desire, your values, your philosophy, etc. … if you define ambition, you will subconsciously betray/reveal your dreams, your desire, your values, your philosophy, etc.

11 Word study give oneself / someone away : to betray oneself /someone; to tell people sth. secret give oneself / someone away : to betray oneself /someone; to tell people sth. secret e.g. The swindler( 欺诈者 ) gave himself away when he was asked to establish his identity. e.g. The swindler( 欺诈者 ) gave himself away when he was asked to establish his identity. She really likes him and thinks no one knows, but the look on her face when mentioned his name gave her away. She really likes him and thinks no one knows, but the look on her face when mentioned his name gave her away.

12 Please explain : Ardent immediately assumes a heat incommensurate with good sense and stability, … Ardent immediately assumes a heat incommensurate with good sense and stability, … Ardent is immediately regarded as a desire disproportionate to/inconsistent with good sense and stability, … Ardent is immediately regarded as a desire disproportionate to/inconsistent with good sense and stability, … (Ardent is immediately thought of as having something to do with bad sense.) (Ardent is immediately thought of as having something to do with bad sense.)

13 please explain: be ambitious for the public good, for the alleviation of suffering, for the enlightenment of mankind, … be ambitious for the public good, for the alleviation of suffering, for the enlightenment of mankind, … strive to be successful, rich, powerful, etc., in order to help the public, to ease human suffering, to enlighten mankind... strive to be successful, rich, powerful, etc., in order to help the public, to ease human suffering, to enlighten mankind...

14 Paraphrase and Language Points: One can, after all, be ambitious for the public good, for the alleviation of suffering, for the enlightenment of mankind. One can, after all, be ambitious for the public good, for the alleviation of suffering, for the enlightenment of mankind. Despite distrust and doubt of ambition and ambitious people, the fact is that one can strive to be successful, rich powerful, etc. in order to help the public, to ease human suffering, to enlighten mankind. Despite distrust and doubt of ambition and ambitious people, the fact is that one can strive to be successful, rich powerful, etc. in order to help the public, to ease human suffering, to enlighten mankind. after all: despite problem and doubt, (the fact is …) / in spite of any indications or expectations to the contrary e.g. Of course I admire her –after all, she is a great politician. after all: despite problem and doubt, (the fact is …) / in spite of any indications or expectations to the contrary e.g. Of course I admire her –after all, she is a great politician.

15 Paragraph 2 Discussion What do dreams of glory, wealth, love, distinction, accomplishment, pleasure, goodness come from? What do dreams of glory, wealth, love, distinction, accomplishment, pleasure, goodness come from? Ambition. No ambition, no dreams and no accomplishment. Ambition. No ambition, no dreams and no accomplishment.

16 paraphrase Surely ambition is behind dreams of glory, … Surely ambition is behind dreams of glory, … Ambition makes possible dreams of glory, … Ambition makes possible dreams of glory, … Ambition underlies dreams of glory, … Ambition underlies dreams of glory, … Ambition is the true reason for dreams of glory, … Ambition is the true reason for dreams of glory, …

17 meaning of behind in the following sentences: I knew what behind her smile was sadness. I knew what behind her smile was sadness. (hidden by) (hidden by) Marie Curie was the woman behind enormous changes in the science of chemistry. Marie Curie was the woman behind enormous changes in the science of chemistry. (responsible for ) (responsible for ) He wondered what was behind his neighbor ’ s sudden friendliness. He wondered what was behind his neighbor ’ s sudden friendliness. (the true reason for) (the true reason for) We ’ re all behind you in this decision We ’ re all behind you in this decision (in support of ) (in support of )

18 Word study distinction distinction 1)quality of excellence; honor, mark of respect 1)quality of excellence; honor, mark of respect 2) classification of two or more; a clear difference between two similar things 2) classification of two or more; a clear difference between two similar things e.g. He is a man of distinction in his own country. e.g. He is a man of distinction in his own country. (quality of excellence) (quality of excellence) I had the great distinction of being invited to speak at the conference. I had the great distinction of being invited to speak at the conference. (honor) (honor) Do other countries have the same distinction between amateur and professional? Do other countries have the same distinction between amateur and professional? (difference) (difference)

19 paraphrase What life does with our dreams and expectations cannot be predicted. What life does with our dreams and expectations cannot be predicted. What will actually happen to our dreams and expectations during our lives cannot be predicted. What will actually happen to our dreams and expectations during our lives cannot be predicted. do with : get on with; have a connection with do with : get on with; have a connection with

20 Paraphrase The un predictability of outcome of dreams is no reason to cease dreaming. The un predictability of outcome of dreams is no reason to cease dreaming. Although the outcome of dreams cannot be predicted, one shouldn ’ t stop dreaming. Although the outcome of dreams cannot be predicted, one shouldn ’ t stop dreaming.

21 Paragraph 3 What gives ambition bad name? What gives ambition bad name? People who are selfish and seek to get what they themselves want give ambition a bad name. People who are selfish and seek to get what they themselves want give ambition a bad name. Ambition, the sheer thing Ambition, the sheer thing Sheer here is used for emphasis, and the sheer thing means the simple, pure thing. Sheer here is used for emphasis, and the sheer thing means the simple, pure thing.

22 Paragraph 3 Please explain: As drunks have done to alcohol, the single- minded have done to ambition---given it a bad name. As drunks have done to alcohol, the single- minded have done to ambition---given it a bad name. Jus as people who have had too much alcohol have given alcohol a bad name, so people who have had only one aim, to get what they themselves want, have given ambition a bad name. Jus as people who have had too much alcohol have given alcohol a bad name, so people who have had only one aim, to get what they themselves want, have given ambition a bad name.

23 please explain Like a taste for alcohol, too, ambition does not always allow for easy satiation. Like a taste for alcohol, too, ambition does not always allow for easy satiation. As with people who enjoy the taste of alcohol, it is very difficult for ambitious people to become satisfied, they usually take more and more into consideration. As with people who enjoy the taste of alcohol, it is very difficult for ambitious people to become satisfied, they usually take more and more into consideration. taste : (here means) preference taste : (here means) preference allow for: take sth. into consideration allow for: take sth. into consideration

24 Some expressions under the counter : secretly; illegally under the counter : secretly; illegally - handle business under the counter - handle business under the counter - The banned book was sold under the counter. - The banned book was sold under the counter. - At least one of my own novels has to be sold under the counter as though it were whisky. - At least one of my own novels has to be sold under the counter as though it were whisky. Paraphrase: Paraphrase: -Still, none of this seems a sufficient cause for driving ambition under the counter -Still, none of this seems a sufficient cause for driving ambition under the counter - Again, none of what mentioned above has enough reason to force ambition to become secret,illegal and hidden. - Again, none of what mentioned above has enough reason to force ambition to become secret,illegal and hidden.

25 Discussion: The four main aspects ambition and ambitious people are attacked on: (para. 1-3 ) 1. Ambition is inconsistent with good sense and stability. 1. Ambition is inconsistent with good sense and stability. 2. Most ambitious people are to be distrusted. 2. Most ambitious people are to be distrusted. 3. The outcome of ambitious dreams is usually unpredictable. 3. The outcome of ambitious dreams is usually unpredictable. 4. Ambition does not always allow for easy satisfaction; single-minded ambitious people give ambition a bad name. 4. Ambition does not always allow for easy satisfaction; single-minded ambitious people give ambition a bad name.

26 Main idea of the first part (para ): Although for a long time ambition has come under heavy attack and has been given a bad name, it is by no means illegal and will exist forever. Although for a long time ambition has come under heavy attack and has been given a bad name, it is by no means illegal and will exist forever.

27 paragraph 4-5 paragraph 4-5 What is mainly discussed in this part ? What is mainly discussed in this part ? The worst that can be said about ambition. The worst that can be said about ambition.

28 Words and phrases related to the worst attributes related to ambition : antisocial antisocial outmoded (out of date) outmoded (out of date) ignore the collectivity ignore the collectivity socially detached socially detached on his own on his own out for his own out for his own far from identifying himself and his fortunes with the group (not making himself associated with the group) far from identifying himself and his fortunes with the group (not making himself associated with the group) wish to rise about the group wish to rise about the group see the world as a battle, rivalrousness see the world as a battle, rivalrousness Jesuitical (cunning) Jesuitical (cunning) a dog-eat-dog world, be the dogs that do the eating a dog-eat-dog world, be the dogs that do the eating

29 details The ambitious individual, far from identifying himself and his fortunes with the group, wishes to rise above it. (lines 7-8, para. 4) The ambitious individual, far from identifying himself and his fortunes with the group, wishes to rise above it. (lines 7-8, para. 4) An ambitious person does not want to be part of a group, but he wishes to progress and outdistance it. An ambitious person does not want to be part of a group, but he wishes to progress and outdistance it. far from : not at all far from : not at all identify with : equate with ; associate oneself with identify with : equate with ; associate oneself with

30 argue those possessed by it into believing... ( line 12, para. 4) persuade those who are obsessed by ambition to believe … persuade those who are obsessed by ambition to believe … argue sb into : persuade sb to do sth argue sb into : persuade sb to do sth They argued him into adoption of the plan. They argued him into adoption of the plan. You want to argue me into agreeing your proposal? You want to argue me into agreeing your proposal?

31 possess vt. control, obsess I ’ m absolutely dreading making the after-dinner speech---I don ’ t know what possessed me to agree to it. I ’ m absolutely dreading making the after-dinner speech---I don ’ t know what possessed me to agree to it. possessed (by) a. obsessed (with) possessed (by) a. obsessed (with) She is possessed by her drive to get into the best college. She is possessed by her drive to get into the best college.

32 … they are distinguished by wanting to be the dogs that do the eating. (lines 15-16, para. 4) … what makes them different is that they want to come out on top in the competition. … what makes them different is that they want to come out on top in the competition.

33 Paraphrase (paragraph 5) From here it is but a short hop to believe that … (line 1, para. 5) From here it is but a short hop to believe that … (line 1, para. 5) From this point (being the dogs that do the eating), it is very easy to think that … From this point (being the dogs that do the eating), it is very easy to think that … Discussion: Discussion: What implied meaning we can easily infer from paragraph 4? What implied meaning we can easily infer from paragraph 4? The common goals of ambition such as money, fame, and power are often achieved by dishonest means. The common goals of ambition such as money, fame, and power are often achieved by dishonest means.

34 Why does the author mention politicians in high positions in paragraph 5 ? According to the worst that can be said about ambitious people in para. 4, one might think that any high-ranking politician must have gone against moral principles in order to climb so high. According to the worst that can be said about ambitious people in para. 4, one might think that any high-ranking politician must have gone against moral principles in order to climb so high. This example shows ambition that ’ s gotten out of control and left moral scruples behind. This example shows ambition that ’ s gotten out of control and left moral scruples behind.

35 paragraph 6-7 From what angle is ambition discussed in this part? From what angle is ambition discussed in this part? The author thinks if ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared and esteemed by people who are themselves admired. But strangely, those who enjoy the rewards of ambition have claimed to have given up on ambition as ideals. The author thinks if ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared and esteemed by people who are themselves admired. But strangely, those who enjoy the rewards of ambition have claimed to have given up on ambition as ideals.

36 Examples supporting the author’s analysis : The revolutionary lawyer The revolutionary lawyer the critic of American materialism the critic of American materialism the publisher of radical books, the publisher of radical books, the journalist the journalist

37 … must be considered worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition’s behalf.(lines 2-3, para. 6) … must be considered worthy of sacrifices made because of ambition … must be considered worthy of sacrifices made because of ambition on someone’s behalf (on behalf of someone ): because of; representing; for the sake of on someone’s behalf (on behalf of someone ): because of; representing; for the sake of Please don ’ t leave on my behalf. Please don ’ t leave on my behalf. On behalf of the company as a whole, I would like to thank you for all your work. On behalf of the company as a whole, I would like to thank you for all your work.

38 There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this. (line 13, para. 6) The situation is filled with hypocrisy. The situation is filled with hypocrisy. a note of: showing someone ’ s thinking and feeling by the way their voice sounds a note of: showing someone ’ s thinking and feeling by the way their voice sounds a note of anger a note of anger a not of jealousy a not of jealousy a note of anxiety a note of anxiety

39 paraphrase Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its accoutrements now than formerly.( lines 1-2, para. 7) Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its accoutrements now than formerly.( lines 1-2, para. 7) Certainly people now seem as much interested in success and the comforts that come with it as before. Certainly people now seem as much interested in success and the comforts that come with it as before.

40 paraphrase Instead we are treated to fine pharisaical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply … (lines 7-9, para. 7) Instead we are treated to fine pharisaical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply … (lines 7-9, para. 7) We see more hypocritical examples now than ever … We see more hypocritical examples now than ever …

41 treat sb to : supply someone with sth special as a friendly act treat sb to : supply someone with sth special as a friendly act I shall treat myself to a good weekend holiday. I shall treat myself to a good weekend holiday. John treated Linda to the theater when they met first time. John treated Linda to the theater when they met first time. treat n.: a special event; sth pleasant treat n.: a special event; sth pleasant Granny took us for tea at Lyons Corner House as a special treat. Granny took us for tea at Lyons Corner House as a special treat.

42 Conclusion of paragraph 6-7 given by the author : “ Succeed at all costs but refrain from appearing ambitious. ” “ Succeed at all costs but refrain from appearing ambitious. ” surface meaning : surface meaning : Try every means to succeed but do not appear ambitious. Try every means to succeed but do not appear ambitious. deep meaning: deep meaning: Nowadays the educated are more hypocritical than before. Nowadays the educated are more hypocritical than before.

43 Paragraphs 8-11 Discussion: Discussion: What is this part mainly about? What is this part mainly about?

44 paragraph 8 …its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive (lines 1-3, para. 8) …its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive (lines 1-3, para. 8) Public defenders of ambition are few and not impressive, but it doesn ’ t mean they do not attract people ’ s attention at all. Public defenders of ambition are few and not impressive, but it doesn ’ t mean they do not attract people ’ s attention at all.

45 where conj. : whereas; but where conj. : whereas; but Where most people saw nothing but a hardened criminal, john saw a lonely and desperate man. Where most people saw nothing but a hardened criminal, john saw a lonely and desperate man. They want a house, where we would rather live in a flat. They want a house, where we would rather live in a flat.

46 paraphrase As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and inculcated in the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States.(lines 3-5, para. 8) As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and inculcated in the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States.(lines 3-5, para. 8) As a result, support for ambition as a respected value to be taught to youth is lower than ever in the US. As a result, support for ambition as a respected value to be taught to youth is lower than ever in the US.

47 …as witness the blatant pratings of its contemporary promoters. (lines10-11, para.8) …as witness the blatant pratings of its contemporary promoters. (lines10-11, para.8) … as shown in the offensive ongoing idle talk of its current sponsors. … as shown in the offensive ongoing idle talk of its current sponsors.

48 paragraph 9 Ambition… is morally a two-sided street.(lines4-5,para.9) Ambition… is morally a two-sided street.(lines4-5,para.9) a two-sided street: a street that one can get to in two directions a two-sided street: a street that one can get to in two directions the meaning of the metaphor used here: the meaning of the metaphor used here: The goals of ambition can be achieved in two ways. The goals of ambition can be achieved in two ways.

49 The two ways implied in the metaphor : sacrificing some moral principles to achieve the goals of ambition sacrificing some moral principles to achieve the goals of ambition achieving the goals of ambition without sacrificing moral principles achieving the goals of ambition without sacrificing moral principles

50 Examples of ignoble actions VS kind and helpful actions in the paragraph : John Dean (Watergate Affairs): ignoble action John Dean (Watergate Affairs): ignoble action Andrew Carnegie (the library of Lord Acton): kind and helpful action Andrew Carnegie (the library of Lord Acton): kind and helpful action

51 Why does the writer give the example of Watergate affair ? Why does the writer give the example of Watergate affair ? To illustrate the idea that many people believe ambition is not easily controlled and why many people are naturally distrustful of ambition. To illustrate the idea that many people believe ambition is not easily controlled and why many people are naturally distrustful of ambition.

52 Paraphrase Many people are naturally distrustful of ambition, feeling that it represents something intractable in human nature. Many people are naturally distrustful of ambition, feeling that it represents something intractable in human nature. Many people are,of course, suspicious about ambition in that they feel that ambition reflects some evil aspects in human characters which are very difficult to deal with. Many people are,of course, suspicious about ambition in that they feel that ambition reflects some evil aspects in human characters which are very difficult to deal with.

53 Paraphrase … as if ambition were to blame for his ignoble actions, and not the constellation of qualities that make up his rather shabby character. … as if ambition were to blame for his ignoble actions, and not the constellation of qualities that make up his rather shabby character. … as if the reason for his shameful actions were ambition, but not a group of bad qualities which are actually responsible for the making-up of his dishonorable character. … as if the reason for his shameful actions were ambition, but not a group of bad qualities which are actually responsible for the making-up of his dishonorable character.

54 Paraphrase Need much more be said on the subject than that, important though ambition is, there are some things that one must not sacrifice to it? Need much more be said on the subject than that, important though ambition is, there are some things that one must not sacrifice to it? Is it necessary to say much more on the subject (ambition and morality) than what has already said, for, though ambition is important, there are some things more important than it, one cannot sacrifice them to ambition? Is it necessary to say much more on the subject (ambition and morality) than what has already said, for, though ambition is important, there are some things more important than it, one cannot sacrifice them to ambition?

55 be to blame for: be responsible for a fault or wrong (blame adj.) Examples: Examples: 1. He was to blame for their death. 1. He was to blame for their death. 2. The hot weather is partly to blame for (= the reason for) the water shortage 2. The hot weather is partly to blame for (= the reason for) the water shortage C.f. blame v. C.f. blame v. Hugh blames his lack of confidence on his mother. Hugh blames his lack of confidence on his mother.

56 what does going at things the other way refer to? It refers to sacrificing ambition in order to avoid its potential excesses (its may-be unacceptable or immoral actions). It refers to sacrificing ambition in order to avoid its potential excesses (its may-be unacceptable or immoral actions).

57 Paragraph 10 Why does the writer think it is wrong to sacrifice ambition in order to avoid potential excesses ? Why does the writer think it is wrong to sacrifice ambition in order to avoid potential excesses ? To discourage ambition is to discourage dreams of greatness. To discourage ambition is to discourage dreams of greatness.

58 What distinguishes people one from another? Two things make people different from one another: Two things make people different from one another: 1. Their dreams (ambitions) 1. Their dreams (ambitions) 2. What they do to make their dreams come about (realized) 2. What they do to make their dreams come about (realized)

59 paraphrase But going at things the other way, sacrificing ambition so as to guard against its potential excesses, is to go at things wrongly. (lines1-2, para.10) But going at things the other way, sacrificing ambition so as to guard against its potential excesses, is to go at things wrongly. (lines1-2, para.10) But it is also wrong to make great efforts to do these things (discussed above) the opposite way, that is to say, sacrificing ambition in order to prevent the potential excesses caused by it. Here potential excesses means potential unacceptable immoral behaviors. But it is also wrong to make great efforts to do these things (discussed above) the opposite way, that is to say, sacrificing ambition in order to prevent the potential excesses caused by it. Here potential excesses means potential unacceptable immoral behaviors.

60 Paragraph 11 Remove ambition and the essential elements of society seem to fly apart. (line3-4, para. 11) Remove ambition and the essential elements of society seem to fly apart. (line3-4, para. 11) If we remove ambition, the essential elements of society seem to disappear suddenly. If we remove ambition, the essential elements of society seem to disappear suddenly.

61 as opposed to: (when two things are contrasted and the emphasis is on the first) 相 反,而不是 There is a need for technical colleges as opposed to universities. There is a need for technical colleges as opposed to universities. I ’ d prefer to go on holiday in May, as opposed to (=rather than) September. I ’ d prefer to go on holiday in May, as opposed to (=rather than) September.

62 run on : be concerned with, have as a subject His talk ran on recent developments in the industry. His talk ran on recent developments in the industry. Bright ’ s mind kept running foolishly on the same theme. Bright ’ s mind kept running foolishly on the same theme.

63 The main idea (para. 8-11): To discourage ambition is to discourage dreams of greatness. To discourage ambition is to discourage dreams of greatness.

64 Paragraph What is the writer’s attitude towards a world without ambition ? What is the writer’s attitude towards a world without ambition ? A world without ambition is unimaginable. If there were no ambition, life in it would be so boring that nobody could endure it. A world without ambition is unimaginable. If there were no ambition, life in it would be so boring that nobody could endure it. Your attitude? Your attitude?

65 Main idea (para ) Ambition will never be eliminated from the world. Ambition will never be eliminated from the world.

66 Topic sentence in each parts : Part 1 (para. 1-3 ) None of this seems a sufficient cause for driving ambition under the counter. Part 1 (para. 1-3 ) None of this seems a sufficient cause for driving ambition under the counter. Part 2(para. 4-5 ) What is the worst that can be said abut ambition? Part 2(para. 4-5 ) What is the worst that can be said abut ambition? Part 3(para.6-7) There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this. Part 3(para.6-7) There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this. Part 4(pars ) To discourage ambition is to discourage dreams of greatness. Part 4(pars ) To discourage ambition is to discourage dreams of greatness. Part 5(para ) Ah, how unrelievedly boring life would be. Part 5(para ) Ah, how unrelievedly boring life would be.

67 Key to Exercises Vocabulary and structure Vocabulary and structure A. 1. distinction 2. sheer 3.commensurate 4. refraining 5. incidentally 6. alleviate 7. deemed 8.are blamed for 9. impulse 10. come across A. 1. distinction 2. sheer 3.commensurate 4. refraining 5. incidentally 6. alleviate 7. deemed 8.are blamed for 9. impulse 10. come across B. 1. give … away 2. going at 3. imbued with 4. identify … with 5. has risen above 6. own up 7. allow for 8. treat … to 9. Dog- eat-dog 10. the counter B. 1. give … away 2. going at 3. imbued with 4. identify … with 5. has risen above 6. own up 7. allow for 8. treat … to 9. Dog- eat-dog 10. the counter

68 C. 1. choice, choose, chosen 2. inextricable 3. shorn 4. definition 5. increasingly 6. social 7. Participatory 8. acquisitive 9. weighing 10. intimacy C. 1. choice, choose, chosen 2. inextricable 3. shorn 4. definition 5. increasingly 6. social 7. Participatory 8. acquisitive 9. weighing 10. intimacy D. 1. D. to pay them 2. A. Much as 3. D. endearing himself 4. C. number of 5. D. ignored 6. D. differently 7. A. respond 8. C. no more 9. B. that 10. C. / D. 1. D. to pay them 2. A. Much as 3. D. endearing himself 4. C. number of 5. D. ignored 6. D. differently 7. A. respond 8. C. no more 9. B. that 10. C. /

69 E. E. 1. holds 2. therefore 3. Does 4. really 5. empty 6. of 7. success 8. nor 1. holds 2. therefore 3. Does 4. really 5. empty 6. of 7. success 8. nor 9. not 10. exists 11. likely 12. in 13. historical 14. upbringing 15. condition 16. choicelessness 17. honorably 18. trivial 19. how 20. ours 9. not 10. exists 11. likely 12. in 13. historical 14. upbringing 15. condition 16. choicelessness 17. honorably 18. trivial 19. how 20. ours

70 Translation 1. In spite of her recent election success, she remains first and foremost a writer, not a politician. 1. In spite of her recent election success, she remains first and foremost a writer, not a politician. 2. Ambition is always identified with rank, fame and power. Therefore many people have been unwilling to talk about their dreams for a long time. 2. Ambition is always identified with rank, fame and power. Therefore many people have been unwilling to talk about their dreams for a long time. 3. Surely, if you want to be famous, it is necessary for you to have ideal, because it is behind the accomplishment, but different from ambition. 3. Surely, if you want to be famous, it is necessary for you to have ideal, because it is behind the accomplishment, but different from ambition.

71 Translation 4. Ambition is often regarded as being commensurate with bad sense because the single-minded have tried to achieve their goals by fair means or foul and often harm others. 4. Ambition is often regarded as being commensurate with bad sense because the single-minded have tried to achieve their goals by fair means or foul and often harm others. 5. Truly ambitious people seem to be modest but actually they are on their own. 5. Truly ambitious people seem to be modest but actually they are on their own. 6. Certainly some people are very interested in their rank and fame. But what has happened is that they do not own up to it. 6. Certainly some people are very interested in their rank and fame. But what has happened is that they do not own up to it.

72 Translation 7. Some people try to go on in life at all costs but refrain from appearing ambitious. We should be aware that there is a note of hypocrisy. 7. Some people try to go on in life at all costs but refrain from appearing ambitious. We should be aware that there is a note of hypocrisy. 8. Although he has come under attacks and has been considered ambitious, none of them are strong enough to make him give up on his dreams. 8. Although he has come under attacks and has been considered ambitious, none of them are strong enough to make him give up on his dreams. 9. It is not difficult to imagine a world shorn of ambition.It would probably be a world with no progress and no development. And, of course, it would be a tedious world. 9. It is not difficult to imagine a world shorn of ambition.It would probably be a world with no progress and no development. And, of course, it would be a tedious world.

73 Translation 10. To develop our society, we need a large number of people who have both ideals and ambition because both of these have the power to inspire people to further efforts. Therefore, both are linchpin of our society. 10. To develop our society, we need a large number of people who have both ideals and ambition because both of these have the power to inspire people to further efforts. Therefore, both are linchpin of our society.

74 Reading practice Reading practice 1. B. 2. C 3. B 4. D 5.A 1. B. 2. C 3. B 4. D 5.A


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