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UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 1 TI 3252 Perancangan Organisasi 3 SKS - Wajib Minggu ke 12: LIMA ELEMEN STRUKTUR Minggu ke 12: LIMA ELEMEN STRUKTUR.

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Presentation on theme: "UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 1 TI 3252 Perancangan Organisasi 3 SKS - Wajib Minggu ke 12: LIMA ELEMEN STRUKTUR Minggu ke 12: LIMA ELEMEN STRUKTUR."— Presentation transcript:

1 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 1 TI 3252 Perancangan Organisasi 3 SKS - Wajib Minggu ke 12: LIMA ELEMEN STRUKTUR Minggu ke 12: LIMA ELEMEN STRUKTUR

2 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 2 STRUKTUR ORGANISASI l Organizations are structured to capture & direct systems of flows and to define inter-relationships among different parts (Mintzberg, 1993). l 5 parts of organization: u Operating Core u Strategic Apex u Middle Line u Technostructure u Support staff

3 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 3 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (1)

4 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 4 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (OPERATING CORE) l The operators who perform the basic work related directly to the production of products & services l 4 fungsi: u Secure the inputs for production u Transform the inputs into outputs u Distribute the outputs (selling & physically distributing) u Provide direct support to the input, transformation & output function (performing mantenance on the operating machnines & inventorying the raw materials) l Operating core  the heart of every organization, the part that produces the essential outputs that keep it alive

5 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 5 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (STRATEGIC APEX) l People who charged with overall responsibility: chief executive officer, executive committee l Charged with ensuring the organization: u serve its mission in an effective way u serve the needs of those who control or otherwise have power over the organization l 3 duties: u Direct supervision  mechanism of coordination, allocate resources, issue work orders, authorize majors decisions, resolve conflits, design & staff the organization, monitor employee performance, motive & reward employees

6 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 6 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (STRATEGIC APEX) l The management of organization’s boundary  relations with its environment u Informing influential people in the environment about the organization’s activities u Developing high level contacts for the organization u Negociating major agreements with outside parties u Serving as figureheads u Carrying out ceremonial duties l The development of the organization’s strategy  mediating force between the organization and its environment

7 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 7 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (MIDDLE LINE) l Senior managers to the first line supervisors who have direct authority over the operators l Taks: u Collects feedback information on the performance of his own unit, often aggregating information in the process u Flowing up are distubances in the unit u Proposals for changes; decisions requiring authorization u Flowing down are resources that he must allocate in his unit, rules & plans that he must elaborate & projects that he must inplement; boundary conditions to manage u Maintain liaison contacts with other managers, analysts, supports staffers and outsiders whose work is interdependent with; concerned with formulating the strategy for his unit

8 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 8 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (TECHNOSTRUCTURE) l The analysts: u Serve the organization by affecting the work of others u Concerned with adaptation; changing the organization to meet environmental change; control; stabilizing & standardizing patterns of activitivy in the organization l 3 types of control analysts: u Work study analysts: standardize work processes u Planning & control analysts: standardize outputs (long range planners, quality control engineers, production schedulers & accountants) u Personnels analysts: standardize skills (trainers &recruiters)

9 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 9 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (SUPPORT STAFF) l Exits to provide suppport to the organization outside its operating work flow l Many support units are self contained : mini organizations l Support unies can be found at various level of the hierarchy: u Top level: Public relations, legal counsel u Middle level: Industrial relations, pricing and R&D u Lower level: Standardized work, cafetaria, mailroom, reception, payroll

10 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 10 FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION

11 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 11 KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI (1) l A system of formal authority: Flow of formal power down the hierarchy u Organigram: position, group into units, formal authority flows, informal relationships l A network of regulated flows: u Production work through the operating core, u Commands & instruction down the administrative hierarchy to control the operating core, u Feedback information on results u Staff information & advice feeding into decision making

12 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 12 KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI (2)

13 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 13 KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI (3) l A system of informal communication: mutual adjustment in coordination  Sociogram: map of who actually communicated l A system of work constellations: u People in the organization cluster into groups (not related with hierarchy or five parts) u Each cluster deals with distinct decisions appropriate u Manufacturing: fabrication, assembly & distribution u Administrative production: production scheduling, general plant administration u New product:analysts, line managers & support staffers (reserachers) l A system of adhoc decision processes: flow of one strategic decision, from beginning to end

14 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 14 KOMPLESITAS KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI

15 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 15 TIPE ORGANISASI (1) l Simple Structure : u Based on direct supervison, pull to centralize u The strategic apex l Machine Bureaucracy : u Based on standardization of work processes, pull to standardize u Tehnostructure, design of the standards is raison d’etre l Professional Bureaucracy : u Based on standardization of skills, pull to professionalize u The operating core seek to minimize the influence of the administrators, managers

16 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 16 TIPE ORGANISASI (2) l Divisionalized Form: u Based on standardization of outputs u Middle line (seek autonomy) but must achieve in different way, by drawing power down from the strategic apex u Pull to balkainize: split into market based unit, control own decision l Adhocracy: u Based on mutual adjustment u The support staff gains the most influence in the organization u Members are autonomous for decision maling, owing to their expertise

17 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 17 TIPE ORGANISASI (3)

18 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 18 TIPE ORGANISASI (4)

19 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 19 SIMPLE STRUCTURE (1) KARAKTERISTIK l Coordinating Mechanism: Direct Supervision l Key Part of Organization: Strategic Apex  no technostructure, few support staffers l Main Design Parameters: u Centralization u Organic Structure operating core, non-structure, avoids using all the formal devices of structure

20 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 20 SIMPLE STRUCTURE (2) KARAKTERISTIK l Situational Factors: u Young, small, new organization  no have the time to elaborate administrative structure u Enterpreneurial firm: l aggresive & innovative l seraching for the risky environments where the bureaucracies fear to tread u Non-spohisticated technical system u Simple, dynamic environment u Possible extreme hoslitily or strong power needs of top manager u Not fashionable

21 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 21 SIMPLE STRUCTURE (3) KARAKTERISTIK l Small managerial hierarchy  minimal use of planning l Minimal differentiation among units  coordination (direct supervision) l Process  to be highly intuitive & non-analytical, oriented to the aggresive search for opportunities l Chief executive tends to have a wide span of control

22 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 22 SIMPLE STRUCTURE (4) KARAKTERISTIK l Formal aspects of managerial work are of less significance l Informal communication is convenient & effective  between the chief executive & everyone l Decision making is likewise flexible, with centralization of power allowing for rapid response l Handling disturbances & innovating in an entrepreneurial way

23 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 23 SIMPLE STRUCTURE

24 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 24 MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (1) KARAKTERISTIK l Coordinating Mechanism: Standardization of work processes  for coordination, little mutual adjustment in the operating core l Key Part of Organization: Technostructure l Main Design Parameters: u Behavior formalization u Vertical & horizontal job specialization u Usually functional grouping u Large operating unit size u Vertical centralization & limited horizontal decentralization, action planning

25 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 25 MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (2) KARAKTERISTIK l Situational Factors: u Old (mature organization), large enough to have the volume of operating work needed for repetition and standardization u Regulating, nonautomated technical system, routinize work u Simple, stable environment  extremely simple & almost perfectly stable work u External control u Not fasionable

26 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 26 MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (3) KARAKTERISTIK l Operating tasks are simple & repetitive  a minimum of skill & little training l The use of direct supervison by first line managers is limited by the fact standardization handles most of the coordination l Tight regulation of the operating work l Mass production firm, white collar bureaucracies

27 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 27 MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (4) KARAKTERISTIK l Tasks of middle line managers: u To handle the disturbances that arise among the highly specialized workers of the operating core u To work in a liaison role with the analysts of the technostructure to incorporate their standards down into operating units u To support the vertical flows in the structure  the aggregation of the feedback information up the hierarchy and the elaboration of the action plans that come back down

28 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 28 MACHINE BUREAUCRACY

29 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 29 MACHINE BUREAUCRACY CONTOH ORGANIGRAM

30 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 30 PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY (1) KARAKTERISTIK l Coordinating Mechanism: Standardization of skills l Key Part of Organization: Operating core l Main Design Parameters: u Training u Horizontal job specialization u Vertical & horizontal decentralization

31 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 31 PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY (2) KARAKTERISTIK l Situational Factors: u Complex u Stable environment u Non-regulating, non-sophisticated technical system u Fashionable

32 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 32 PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY

33 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 33 PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY

34 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 34 PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY

35 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 35 DIVISIONALIZED FORM (1) KARAKTERISTIK l Coordinating Mechanism: Standardization of outputs l Key Part of Organization: Middle line l Main Design Parameters: u Market grouping u Performance control system u Limited vertical decentralization

36 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 36 DIVISIONALIZED FORM (2) KARAKTERISTIK l Situational Factors: u Diversified markets (particulary products or services) u Old, large u Power needs of middle managers u Fashionable

37 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 37 DIVISIONALIZED FORM

38 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 38 DIVISIONALIZED FORM

39 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 39 DIVISIONALIZED FORM

40 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 40 DIVISIONALIZED FORM

41 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 41 DIVISIONALIZED FORM

42 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 42 ADHOCRACY (1) KARAKTERISTIK l Coordinating Mechanism: Mutual adjustment l Key Part of Organization: u Support staff (in the Administrative Adhocracy, together with the Operating Core in the Operating Adhocracy) l Main Design Parameters: u Liaison devices u Organic structure u Selective decentralization u Horizontal job specialization, training u Functional & market grouping concurrently

43 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 43 ADHOCRACY (2) KARAKTERISTIK l Situational Factors: u Complex u Dynamics (sometimes disparate) environment u Young (especially Operating Adhocracy) u Sophisticated & often automated technical system (in the Administrative Adhocracy) u Fashionable

44 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 44 ADHOCRACYADHOCRACY

45 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 45 ADHOCRACYADHOCRACY

46 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 46 ADHOCRACYADHOCRACY

47 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 47 DIMENSI ORGANISASI

48 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 48 DIMENSI ORGANISASI

49 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 49

50 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 50

51 UBH,IIW,HL Studio Manajemen Minggu ke12 51 Latihan l Pilih satu oragnisasi sebarang l Tentukan unit mana saja yang menjadi elemen dari lima elemen dasar dalam organisasi l Tunjukkan fungsi pokok dari salah satu unit di masing-masing kelima elemenm dasar di atas


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