Presentation on theme: "1 "Kebutuhan Informasi Berdasarkan Pengamatan Terhadap CAP di Dalam Negeri dan Luar Negeri” The Implementation of Plan Of Actions of WSIS Focusing on."— Presentation transcript:
1 "Kebutuhan Informasi Berdasarkan Pengamatan Terhadap CAP di Dalam Negeri dan Luar Negeri” The Implementation of Plan Of Actions of WSIS Focusing on The role of CAP in Empowering Human Kind and Building Civil Society ; Moral, Ethics, Value, Cooperation & Team Work Workshop Community Access Point (CAP) Jakarta, 14 September 2004 Dr. Naswil Idris (firstname.lastname@example.org) Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo Beragama (UPDMB); Pasca Sarjana Universitas Negeri Jakarta (UNJ); TKTI (The Indonesian ICT Coordinating Team), Ministry of Communication & Information Republic of Indonesia
2 Background n The different between the poor and the rich countries is not in the age of the country. This can be shown by countries like India and Egypt, that are more than 2000 years old and are still poor. On the other hand, Singapore, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are all countries with less than 150 years development. Today they are part of the First World and its citizens are no longer poor. n The available natural resources doe not make it rich or poor. Japan has a limited territory. Its lands are 80 % mountainous, inadeqaute for agriculture and cattle raising, but has the second most powerful economy in the world. Japan is like an immense flooting factory, importing raw material from the whole world and exporting manufactured products. Source : F.B. Moerwanto
3 Background … Con’t 2 n Switzerland does not plant cocoa but makes the best chocolate in the world. The country is small, with only 11 % arable land. And yet they can produce dairy products of the best quality (Nestle is the world’s largest food company). Switzerland also has an unequalled reputation for security, integrity and order, and today it is the preferred bank in the world n Executives from rich countries who communicate with their counterparts in poor countries will agree that there is no significant difference in intelligence. Race or skin colour are also not important. Immigrants who are called lazy in their countries of origin are a productive power in rich European countries Source : F.B. Moerwanto
4 Background … Con’t 3 n What is the difference then ? The difference is in the attitude of the people, formed throughout the years by culture and education. n Upon analyzing the behaviour of the people in developed countries, it is clear that the great majority follow the following basic principles in their daily lives. Ethics as a basic principle of daily living Honesty and integrity Responsibility and accountability Respect for the rules and laws of society Respects of the rights of other citizens Work loving Strive for saving and investment Will of super action Punctuality Source : F.B. Moerwanto
5 Background … Con’t 4 n In poor countries only a minority follow these basic principles in theirdaily life. n We are not poor because we lack the natural resources, or because nature was cruel to us. We are poor because of our poor attitude. We lack the will to comply with and teach the fundamental principles of the daily living that will enable our people to properly develop the society, the economy and the country. Source : F.B. Moerwanto
6 Introduction n Indonesia’s population of almost 200 million is spread over 17,000 islands, which if transferred to the Northern Hemisphere would stretch from London to almost the northwest frontier of China, from Stockholm to Rome or from Washington D.C. to Seattle Washington. n The number of inhabitance per square kilometers is 3 in Irian Jaya and nearly 1000 in Yogyakarta. Java and Madura, with 700 person per square kilometer, rank with the most densely populated areas in the world  n Almost 400 ethnic groups and languages and more than 17,000 islands provide numerous grounds for disunity and division in Indonesia. n Literacy and education become more universal and information is disseminated by various media sources, so that all people begin to discover what a better life could be. n There is a variety of divisive forces working in geographic, economic and socio cultural process and history that make nation building in Indonesia very difficult.
7 Education Can Speed Up Indonesian Development Development is “ a widely participatory process of social change in a society, intended to bring about both social and material advancement, including greater equality, freedom, and other valued qualities, for the majority of people through their gaining greater control over environment ” n Information and communication technologies of the Internet become a different kind of development tool in that the design, manufacturing, and sale of computer software and hardware for Internet-related e-commerce and other applications represents an important type of economic growth within Indonesia
8 Information n Information and communication determine the very characteristics of the societies n The importance of information technology to society is even more obvious, when we examine how to support the various elements of a society. Society is a collection of people who share a common culture (which they transmit to succeeding generations), a common territory, and a common identity, and who interact in a socially structured relationship. n All of these can be developed only by human interaction, by communication and the exchange of information as we see in the Community Access Points/Centers. n These Centers, the lowest locus of information reception and transmission, also serve as the points of basic interaction among members of the community. They contribute much to community development and quality of life for the group. n Community Access Points pilot projects will reach the objective of our national desire to improve village living standards, to promote individual equal opportunities for access to information, and to enhance work opportunities in areas remote from large cities.
9 Information n In Education the Centers pilot projects accommodate student access to the schools, universities and learning centers. They are the information sources and place to interact for students, among themselves and with instructors; they also serve as entertainment sources to attract them to visit the Centers as many times as possible, for both personal and online contacts. n In matters of Health Community Access Points pilot Projects will enable new users, especially in remote areas, to learn about nutrition, general health matters, diagnosis of disease and issues of sanitation and to carry out preventive, curative and rehabilitative activities of a wide variety of health programs in local areas not easily reached by regular services. n In Telecommunications the Centers pilot projects will expand electronic information transfer and create new business in telephones, facsimile transfer, computers, modem, Radio set, TV set, and photocopy machine.
10 Broadening Access n The Decision of the Indonesian Parliament Extraordinary Meeting of 13 November, 1998 No. 17/MPR/1998 in Jakarta regarding the High Level Policies on Communication reads as follows: Everyone has the right to communicate and to provide the information for his / her personal and social environmental development. Everyone has the right to search, to get, to have, to store, to process and to convey information by using all means of available channels. The right of each citizen to communicate and to provide information will be guaranteed and protected by the State. Every one has right to express his/her thoughts and opinions in accordance with his/her heart of hearts. Every one has the freedom to choose education and learning. Every one has the freedom to choose to seek a professional job. Every one has the freedom to choose citizenship. Every one has the freedom to stay anywhere in the country, to leave the country and retain the right to return back to his/her respective country, Indonesia. Every one have the right to freedom to joint organization, to gather and to express (convey) his/her opinion / point of view
11 Broadening Access n Universal Service Obligation (USO) in Indonesia includes basic services : telephone in rural and remote areas, enhanced services, remote health care and education information, with access of public entities, welfare services for the disabled, the bereaved, and low-income families, emergency services, security and safety networks and public services of access to an operator, directory services, public phone and telegraph. Because the national teledensity (fixed phone) quotient is very low in Indonesia (around 4 telephone lines for 100 population) we must find the solution to providing accessibility through “ sharing telecommunication facilities ” and places for public services for people in rural and remote areas, the ‘ grass roots ’ level.
12 Development of the Community Access Points n Informatization often results in greater socioeconomic inequality in society because of the differential in access to computers and other information technologies. This digital divide may be moderated, in the long run by public access computers provided by Community Access Point and/or cyber cafes. n A Community Access Point offers public access to computers and other telecommunication technologies, provides training, and may supply certain business services. A Community Access Point may be commercial or non- profit. It may be a private business or be provided by local or national government as a public service, or be some combination of private and public initiatives. Community Access Point may or may not be networked. Several national governments are actively promoting Community Access Points, as are international organizations.
13 Development of the Community Access Points n A Community Access Point often consists of a several rooms, equipped with one or more computers, and a long-distance or wireless telephone. A single individual may staff the Community Access Point, and charge a modest fee per hour for use of the computer, around one dollar US for Internet Access, fax, photocopying, or long-distance telephone. The national Ministry of Telecommunication may provide this equipment and its use at a discounted rate to the operator, who often earns enough income from managing the facility and helping users to support his/her family. n A Community Access Point’s telecommunications equipment may be privately owned and operated. These micro-businesses are commonly called “Cyber Cafes” and may also sell coffee, tea, and snacks, along with Internet access and other telecommunications services. Such cyber cafes are everywhere in India and Telephone Lady in Bangladesh, and moving telecenter in Mali and telecenter in Pacific island today, for examples, having diffused widely in the past several years.
14 The Layout of an ITU Community Access Point (CAP) Source ITU Equipment & Storage room Business Office or Telemedicine Applications Room Shared business Office Room Training / Meeting Room Toilet Shower Recreation Room Manager’s Office Room Telephone Booths Billing Administration Computers for public, email, fax, internet, printers Other service and Support
15 Some Alternative Models n International development goals in the Millenium Declaration are premised on international co-operation and set out targets as global references for improving connectivity and access in the use of ICTs to be achieved by 2015 (WSIS) Geneva December 2003. These goals will be taken into account in the establishment of Indonesian targets, considering our national circumstances: to connect villages with ICTs and establish CAP (Community Access Points); to connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs; to connect scientific and research centers with ICTs; to connect public libraries, cultural centers, museums, post offices and archives with ICTs; to connect health centers and hospitals with ICTs; to connect all local and central government departments and establish a plan for consistent, searchable websites and email addresses; to adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the information society, taking into account national circumstances; to ensure that all of the world’s population have access to television and radio services to encourage the development of content and to put in place technical conditions in order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the internet; to ensure that more than half of the world’s inhabitants have access to ICTs within their reach. Source ITU
16 Some Alternative Models n Later developments of CAP services in Indonesia include : KIM (Kelompencapir + Internet), Wartel (Telephone Kiosks), Warnet (Internet Café), SIBM (Sentra Informasi Bisnis Masyarakat – Information Center for Business Society), WARINTEK from the Research & Technology Office, JEIMI from National Information Agency, BIM (Balai Informasi Masyarakat – ICT) from the Indonesian ICT society/MASTEL, Learning (Schools, Universities, Non Formal education) Centers, Health Centers and Information Centers (Puspenmas)
17 Digital Divide n Asymmetric access to infocom results in the digital divide (within and among nations) n Asymmetric access to information (which is empowering / enabling tool) n Disparity in (individual and communities’) capacities and competencies n Disparity in (sector) growth n Disparity in growth disturbs resources allocations, but favoring the high growth n Results in enforcing the divide within and among nations
18 Digital Divide n Polarization and Stratification of the Community: With the divide, the community becomes polarized and stratified into two poles of the rich and the poor, the educated and the uneducated, government and private, elite and commons. Alienation by the higher strata in stratified communities results in the enforcement of the divide, leaving no way to catch up Universal access to ICT is not only social or political strategy, but also a moral obligation n Imperatives: Universal access to information, including education Easier access to technologies and research findings in all sectors (see Maitland Commission’s recommendation in the Missing Link (1984) Telecenters is one example to reach all people
19 1. Empowering Human Kind E (electronic) after F (face to face = human touch); High touch High Tech E - Learning n E-learning is a process of the transfer of information as learning, culture, science, and ethical and moral values. Infocom (ICT) allows such transfers at long distances, worldwide, at any time, instantly. Experience in other countries indicates that this will be a mighty tool for education, supporting almost all activities, for study, work and play, but especially for learning. Interconnectivity among individuals and communities, even where they are geographically distributed, with worldwide coverage, across many disciplines, is a huge advantage. Our various education groups will explore Infocom (ICT) capabilities to create "distributed but coordinated activities" for educational purposes. n The learner will be able to choose: when he or she wants to learn, where he or she wants to learn, which sources of learning material around the world suites him or her, how he or she wants to learn. These choices imply that the future learner will become increasingly active leaner in the learning process. n Old media, such as books and printed matter, radio and television are still used in E-Learning activities. Gradually, High Level ICT, or New Media, as a result of convergence among Telecommunication modes, computer and Broadcasting, like internet, mobile technology and satellite technology, will merge and combine techniques to allow for easy, inexpensive exhanges of knowledge and instruction. Old media require direct contacts for their effectiveness. Face to face interactions usually occur in class room meetings in real time. These are expensive and have a small audience, the class. They can be almost impossible to obtain for remote and isolated areas.
20 1. Empowering Human Kind E (electronic) after F (face to face = human touch) ; High touch High Tech E - Learning n New media have several immediate advantages: Interactivity of instructors and students all helping each other Availability to all users with internet access Asynchronous so they can be used as needed by many learners Unlimited information sources (globalization) n Therefore by using new media, face to face meetings in real time can be reduced substantially and the cost can also be applied to more ICT services. n Students who do not have telecommunication equipment at their home can go to Access Point Telecenters, or Internet Cafes for both face to face meetings and for interactivity with other students and tutors. They also use new media or High Tech ICT to communicate to the rest of the world to get educational information. n Our efforts should be directed to serve rural and remote areas so that they can also get access to educational information. Government policies on USO (Universal Service Obligation) to eliminate the Digital Divide have been created via Ministerial Decrees. Telecommunication, Internet, mobile technology and other ICT operations have been regulated by the Indonesia government to give more opportunities for rural and remote users to get better access to educational information.
21 2. Building Civil Society n Basic principles in building Civil Society Ethics as a basic principle of daily living Honesty and integrity Responsibility and accountability Respect for the rules and laws of society Respects of the rights of other citizens Work loving Strive for saving and investment Will of super action Punctuality
22 Experiences ; Embryos of The Role of Community Access Point (CAP) or Multipurpose Community Center n Single Side Band Radio (SSB): Riau Island (Tanjung Pinang) and Luwuk (South Sulawesi) 1988 - 1990 n Point to Point Links (Audio Conferencing): Tarakan (Close to Sabah, Malaysia) and Luwuk (Close to The Philliphines) n Distance Education Satellite System (SISDIKSAT) with PT Telkom. USAID Rural Satellite Project, 1982 - 1992.12 Locations (Universities) in Eastern Islands of Indonesia n Project share (Project Satellite for Health and Rural Education) with CIDA (COSY) with PT Indosat (SIKO), 1988-1991. 7 Other Public Universities in Indonesia and Canadian Universities in Toronto, Van Couver and Guelph University. n Tourism, Posts and Telecommunication Kiosks (Warparpostel) 1,000 Locations n Virtual Campus in Internet Café (Post Offices) using Wasantara.Net in Jakarta, Padang, Bandung and Purwokerto n Experiences In India, Bangladesh, Mali and Pacific Islands
23 Experiences ; Embryos of The Role of Community Access Point (CAP) or Multipurpose Community Center n Initial findings from the first Project Site service points that might contribute to the Telecenters development are : Indonesian people need their own peer groups to discuss many topics including very personal ones. They learned a lot from this discussion in the Project Site; Very effective feedback systems appeared not in the formal meeting but in the informal meeting in the project Site; Communication interactivity took place very effectively in informal meetings on the Project Site; Indonesian people are not frank to express their point of views in public meetings or official ceremonies. They will be more frank in Project Site discussions; Indonesian learners need support and company and feel lonely when they must work as individuals. Users need neighbors to talk to. n The Project Site provides an alternative answer; Culturally Indonesian people are a very open society, willing to share and to offer their help to other people in informal meetings and in talks with each other.
24 Conclusion n Electricity, telephone lines, ICT infrastructures, ICT facilities and ICT equipment are needed to serve CAP and E-learning programs in rural area as part of USO (Universal Service Obligation) activities to close the digital divide. n Telecenters in each village, operated by public ownership, sponsored perhaps by NGOs, in collaboration with local government and current CAP and Elearning institutions, will be sustainable from public participation; These efforts will give a healthy environment to the small and medium enterprises to become the start for self-help among the rural poor. We must encourage government officials at all levels to coordinate and to plan the ICT component as an engine of developmental change for the country, to build civil sociery and to close the digital divide. n Lesson Learned from Others : “Easy” access to education in advanced countries are “bridged” by the “compulsory education policy, resulting in competent human resources. Access to technologies – including ICT’s – is in many cases restricted intentionally. IPR implications will be an agenda in WSIS 2005 in Tunisia Can diffusion of ICTs use the lesson of compulsory education? Using “New Media” / high tech and high touch media (with special characteristics: interactivity, de-massified, a-synchronous, and unlimited information sources) like Internet and coupling with “old media” can contribute to E learning effective and effisienlly
25 National Optical Fiber Ring (CSO-N) Isolation Breaktrhough, Business Opportunity National Telecommunication Network PT.Tiara Titian Telekomunikasi (TT-Tel) 12-9-2004 Appendix
26 TARGET of CSO-N n Very Strategic: Enhance National Resilience Improve Community Living Standards, nationally and particularly in Regions n Backbone for ICT Circling Indonesia with Fiber Optic Submarine Cable of High-Capicity (300-1,000 Gbps) Connecting all Regencies (Kabupaten) with Broadband Access n Central-Regional Government cooperate with Private Investors for operation in 2009
28 CSO-N Breakthrough n Broadband Ring accessing Regencies (30,000 km, capacity 300 – 1,000 Gbps) Regencies become New Powerful Nodes Access Guarantee to Small-Medium Service Providers, ISPs, Internet and Telephone Kiosks, Private Networks for Government + Companies n All Applications are IP-based: Voice Over IP (VoIP), Internet; Tele-Education, Tele-Medicine); Remote Monitoring; Others.