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Imperialism Chapter 26 McKay 873-879, Palmer 16.78, 16.81, 16.82.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism Chapter 26 McKay 873-879, Palmer 16.78, 16.81, 16.82."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism Chapter 26 McKay , Palmer 16.78, 16.81, 16.82

2 Imperialism “The colonialism of the late nineteenth century”
“New Imperialism” defined: Economic, political, military, domination of one nation over a territory, people, &/or nation Europeans made permanent settlements in Asia and Africa Heyday = “Old Imperialism” Age of Exploration ( ) Usually set up trading posts but did not exert political, cultural control of native peoples Exceptions= Spanish Empire, 13 Colonies

3 Reasons for Imperialism
Economic New Markets Industrial Rev. created huge supply of surplus goods Rise of US, Germany led to intense competition for markets Raw Material Industrial Revolution caused high demand for rubber, oil Cheap Labor Maintain high standard of living Nationalism & International Prestige Every virile people has established colonial power (Heinrich von Treitschke, a German nationalist) Means of distracting population from social/economic issues at home National Security Alfred Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, (1890) American Naval Officers Said that in order to maintain power, nations needed navies, and navies need coaling stations around the world Cecil Rhodes Colossus: Cartoon illustrates the Cape-Cairo railway project. Founded the De Beers Mining Company & owned the British South Africa Company. He liked to "paint the map British red," and declared: "all of these stars ... these vast worlds that remain out of reach. If I could, I would annex other planets."


5 Reasons for Imperialism
Technical and Military Superiority Maxim gun (machine gun) Medicine Quinine for malaria Steam ship & telegraph Quick concentration of soldiers Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer justified domination of superior races over weaker “inferior” races Missionary/Civilizing Religious revival among bourgeoisie Motivated to bring civilization & morality to the world Rudyard Kipling (Jungle Book) White Man’s Burden Poem which calls upon the civilized world to accept its responsibility as a power and enlighten the savage world The White Man's Burden (1899) Rudyard Kipling Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek another's profit, And work another's gain.

6 Types of Imperial Territory
Colonies India directly governed by white Euros after 1857 Protectorates Egypt rajah, prince maintained territory and guaranteed to suppress upheaval instructed what to do by a European “resident” or commissioner IE. Puppet regime Spheres of Influence China Maintained its political independence Economically divided territory where a Power would have exclusive trading rights

7 Marxist Critique of Imperialism
Vladimir Lenin Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) Claimed that imperialism was the natural final stage of capitalism Developed industrial nations attempt to delay the inevitable proletariat revolution by exploiting less developed nations for their resources and labor Predicted that communist revolution would begin in less developed (agrarian-based) nations and spread to the urban proletariat in developed nations J.A. Hobson English socialist argued that imperialism is unnecessary and immoral result of the misdistribution of wealth If more of the wealth was given to the workers their would not be capital for export It the workers had more purchasing power there would be less need for external markets (Ford and the Model T) Classic Liberals disliked Imperialism Gladstone- “ The lust and love of territory have been among the greatest curses of mankind.” Led to conflict and disrupted free trade Libs loved ‘freedom’, economic and personal

8 New Imperialism Impact on the Dark Continent

9 New Imperialism Impact on the Dark Continent
Berlin Conference begins Ethiopians repel Italian conquest, at the Battle of Adwa (1896)  France conquers Algeria Great Trek" of Boers begins Belgian Congo Free State (1885)   Suez Canal (1869) The Long Depression ( “Dr. Livingstone I presume?” Egypt becomes protectorate state (1882) Fashoda Crisis Boer War Begins

10 Pre Imperialism Africa
The Dark Continent Europeans knew little of sub Saharan called it Dark Continent Sahara is almost as large as the who N. America Centuries Euros only knew the coast (Gold, Ivory, Slave), Nile, Niger, Congo Rivers People black but very diverse physically, culturally (over thousand languages) Craftsmanship in arts, bronze sculpture, gold, weaving North was Islam, other areas were traditional religions Lived mainly in villages, agricultural or cattle raising Timbuktu was one great city Ancient kingdoms were weakened by intertribal wars, slave trade Like Ottomans Africa came under European assault when in was in weakened state Before 1750 were no whites settlements in sub Sahara mil whites lived with 5 mil blacks

11 Dr. Livingstone David Livingstone
Explored central Africa in 1840s and 1850s Mapped and charted unexplored territory Explored & mapped Zambezi River 1st white to look at Victoria Falls Performed medical, missionary, & humanitarian work for London Missionary Society no economic, political aims Disappeared in 1865 Found by Henry Stanley 11/10/1871 New York Herald (Yellow Journalism) went looking for him Found him and uttered: Dr. Livingstone I presume? Sensationalistic articles created great interest in Africa throughout the world

12 Opening of Africa Stanley saw vast economic possibilities in Africa and got the King of Belgium (King Leopold II) to back him Belgian Congo International Congo Association founded in 1878 (a private enterprise of Leopold II) Stanley settled treaties with 500 chiefs for trinkets, yards of cloth Other Europeans started to become interested (felt that they may miss out) The Scramble Stanley’s exploits set off a mad rush to claim African territory among major European powers German Karl Peters concluded treaties in East Africa French Brazza claimed the Congo River Portuguese hoped to join Angola and Mozambique

13 Berlin Conference of 1885 Bismarck had little interest in African colonies ‘like a nobleman wearing a fur coat who can’t afford underwear’ Recognized it as potential for conflict Wanted to keep on good side GB & other nations he had humbled & maintain Bal of Power “my map of Africa lies in Europe. Here is Russia and here is France with Germany in the middle; that is my map of Africa.” Berlin Conference (1885-6) Bismarck hosted conference (as honest broker) to set up ground rules for The Scramble (rush for African colonies) Powers must physically occupy territory to claim it Gave façade of humanitarian goals Prohibited sale of alcohol and firearms End slave trade Congo Free State (1885) created Recognized territory as personal property of Leopold Said that Congo should not be a colony but gave administration to Leo Congo River was internationalized, no tariff on imports, slave trade eliminated

14 Congo Free State Slavery was eliminated but Leo’s desire to make Congo profitable let to horrible abuses Europe and America demanded rubber & Congo was few places that could supply Congolese were forced to meet quotas of sap from rubber trees or face possible death Enforcers had to return with 1 hand for every bullet they used “each time a corporal goes out to get rubber, cartridges are given to him. He must bring back all not used; and for every not used, he must bring back a right hand…in six months, they had used 6, 000 cartridges… Rubber trees were destroyed with no provision to replace them Leo amassed personal fortune but still needed $ borrowed from his own gov in 1889 and 95 Press revealed Draconian methods and Belgian gov took over in 1908 (year Leo died) Congo Free State became colony (Belgian Congo)1908 Worst atrocities were eliminated

15 Egypt Technically autonomous within Ottoman Empire Suez Canal
Built by Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps (French Engineer) Construction ( ) Connected Red Sea with Mediterranean Financed as a joint stock company increasingly important to Britain Khedive Ismail Borrowed heavily to built an Opera House in Cairo Lavish lifestyle led Egypt to financial straights Sold canal shares to Disraeli (PM) 1879 repudiated Egypt’s foreign debt GB and France forced the abdication of Ismail Egyptian nationals protested against British influence Arab riots caused British and other foreigners to flee British bombed Alexandria, sent in troops and put new Kalif Tewfik under protection Egypt became a protectorate of G.B

16 The Fashoda Crisis France
Still bitter about loses of Franco-Prussian War Bismarck encouraged them to be imperialists Suez Canal vitally important to Brits Over 3 thousand ships passed thru in 1882 Linked GB with India Sudanese Mahdi (Guided One) Led holy war against British Charles “Chinese” Gordon killed in battle just before reinforcements arrived (1885) General Kitchener with Winston Churchill under his command started southward up the Nile and defeated local Muslims in 1898 at Omdurman kept going south until he reached Fashoda Fashoda Crisis showdown between Britain and France French finally backed down (nervous about Germany & dealing with Dreyfus Affair) and recalled General Marchand But led to increased tensions between GB & France

17 Cape to Cairo Cecil Rhodes Quintessential British imperialist
Dreamed of building a RR through Africa Cape to Cairo Cape Town S. Africa to Cairo Egypt 1890, prime minister of Cape Colony, ran into independent Transvaal and Orange Free State (Boers or Afrikaners) Afrikaners descendants of Dutch of 1600s had made a “great trek” to escape British rule (started 1830) Diamonds were then discovered in Transvaal Transvaal refused to pass legislation needed for mining

18 The South African War 1895 Rhodes sent armed irregulars to start a revolution but were stopped Kruger Telegram William II, German emperor, congratulated president Paul Kruger of Transvaal, for defeating the bully British Greatly inflamed tensions between Germany and GB 1899 British went to war S. African (Boer) War lasted until 1902 300 thousand Brits found elusive enemy They resorted to ravaging the country, concentrations camps where 20 thousand died Once fighting stopped British, 2 states were united as Union of S. Africa and given semi independent status War left British very unpopular in Europe I express to you my sincere congratulations that you and your people, without appealing to the help of friendly powers, have succeeded, by your own energetic action against the armed bands which invaded your country as disturbers of the peace, in restoring peace and in maintaining the independence of the country against attack from without.[1]

19 Imperialism in India and China
Palmer & McKay Ch 26 pgs

20 Roots of British Imperialism in India
Queen Elizabeth I granted English East India Company (later the British East India Company), a monopoly of trade from the Cape of Good Hope eastward to the Strait of Magellan in 1600. In 1639 it acquired Madras on the east coast of India Became principal European trading center Through bribes, diplomacy, and manipulation of weak native rulers, the company became the dominant political force English and French trading companies fought one another for supremacy

21 Roots of British Imperialism in India
Seven Years' War ( ) marked the end of the French stake in the subcontinent Until 1858, however, most of India was still officially the dominion of the Mughal emperor Anger seething under the governor-generalship of James Dalhousie ( ), upset cultural sensibilities by banning Hindu practices such as Sati

22 Seapoy Rebellion Was a dangerous rebellion in 1857
Led by seapoys (native Indian mercenaries employed by the British) Sepoys made up 5/6th of British army there (Brits were busy with Crimean War and action in China) Many Indian natives saw the British as dangerous Banned widow burning, called sati (suttee) Hindu widow threw herself on the funeral pyre of her deceased husband Suppressed the Thugs Small band of holy assassins Threatened to ban caste British officer shot his mouth off about this Displacement of land owners The Attack of Mutineers, July 30, 1857 "One of their leaders waving his sword, shouted 'Come on my braves!"

23 Indian Mutiny Continued
Muslim population was also agitated Wahhabi fundamentalism, popular reform movement that sought to purify and defend religious practices of Islam Propaganda circulated to Muslim sepoys that cartridges were greased with fat of a pig or to Hindus a cow This put them over the top and they rebelled Rebellion was brutally put down Execution by British cannon of Indian soldiers who participated in the Indian rebellion of 1857

24 British Rule in India British re-examine their policies
British East India Company and the Mogul empire were replaced with direct rule from Britain Allowed the local political structure to exist Rajahs and maharajahs (Indian Upper Class) would rule with the British crown Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India in 1877 India’s supply of raw materials supported Britain’s position as the world’s workshop But they did very little trading with the impoverished 315 mil Suppressed native industries “India can never again be a great manufacturing country…” John Tenniel, Disraeli and Queen Victoria Exchanging Gifts (Punch Magazine, 1876) (Queen Victoria granted Disraeli the title Lord Beaconsfield

25 British Rule in India British favored education in English (1835)
Historian T.B. Macaulay said Indian languages were vehicles to barbarous and unenlightened ideas Class of westernized Indians grew to speak perfect English and were educated in England Demanded more of a role in the affairs of their country 1885 Hindu Indian National Congress 1906 All-India Muslim League Nationalism spread as British were targeted with criticism Targets were capitalists Nationalism took on a socialist tone Tone of independence was established before WWI

26 Imperialism in Asia: China and the West

27 China before Western Penetration
The biggest bone of imperialism China was a point of conflict between western, imperial nations Qing (aka Manchu) dynasty ( ) loosely ruled over all that was Chinese China considered the west to be barbaric and remained isolationistic China was the Middle Kingdom and everyone else were losers Qing dynasty was failing and unable to preserve order White Lotus Society revolted in 1800 but was suppressed Heavenly Reason Society tried to seize Peking (Beijing) in 1813

28 Taiping Rebellion of 1850 20 million perished (population of GB)
Leader claimed to be brother of Jesus Otherwise due to Chinese causes Rebels attacked the Manchus (from Manchuria 2 centuries before) as corrupt foreigners They didn’t like poverty, extortion, rack-renting, and absentee landlords Taiping and Manchu leadership broke down Chaos and banditry erupted Warlords appeared Manchu put down the Taiping rebels with European help (after 14 years) IE. British General Gordon- Chinese Gordon who was later killed in Africa Europeans began to extort concessions from the Manchu and maintain the Qing dynasty at the same time Effect was to sustain instability within China and increase European access Major-General Charles George Gordon ( )

29 The Opening of China to the West
Opium Wars 1839 – 1857 Trade with China was difficult China desired few European goods British East India Company solved problem by getting Chinese Tea by trading it for Indian grown opium China resisted and in 1857 France and Britain (17 thousand) burned the Emperor’s summer palace Stole vases, tapestries, enamels, jades

30 The Treaty System Treaties of Nanking (1842) and Tientsin (1857)
Complex interlocking agreements Treaty system led to: Hong Kong ceded to Britain Opened cities to Europeans as ports of entry “Treaty ports” including Shanghai and Canton (Guangzhou) gave European “rights” Europeans were immune to Chinese law and subject only to their own laws American and European gunboats policed Yangtze River Settlements were established War indemnities were charged to the Chinese! No import duty over 5 percent (nearly free trade) Money from duties went to Europeans to pay the indemnities Some money went to the Qing government

31 Annexations and Concessions
Russians moved down the Amur River , established their Maritime province and founded Vladivostok in 1860 Japanese recognized the independence of Korea British annexed Burma French annexed the Indo-Chinese peninsula (Vietnam, Cambodia)

32 Japanese Imperialism Japan show imperialistic tendencies
Revealed their imperialist tendencies in 1894 when they used modern weapons, training, organization to defeat the Chinese Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) Annexes Formosa and Liaotung peninsula (which reached into Manchuria) Recognizes Korea’s independence Had designs on Manchuria which Russia was also interested in (Trans Siberian RR) Japan relented under pressure from Russia, Germany, France and gave peninsula back to China

33 Japanese Imperialism China borrowed heavily to westernize (revenge against the Japanese) Loans open China further to western influence Partition of China seemed inevitable Germany obtained a 99 year lease on Kiaochow Bay and exclusive right in Shantung More territories are ceded Russians obtained Port Arthur (on Liatong Peninsula) and the right to build railroads in Manchuria

34 Open Door U.S. demanded all nations have open trade rights with China
China should remain territorially intact Powers will have spheres of influence The condition of China is humiliating to Chinese Imagine if foreign warships patrolled Mississippi and foreigners were not subject to our law, NY had settlements were banking concentrated, foreigners determined the tariff, the Camp David was torched, Long Island and California annexed, New England being eyed by Canada and others (Manchuria) Imperialism is leading to agitation

35 Boxers Uprising (western name) 1899 (the Order of Literary Patriotic Harmonious Fists) broke into insurrection Pulled up railway tracks, killed Chinese Christians, and killed 300 foreigners Revolutionary movement in China aimed at expulsion of Manchus and foreigners grew under Sun Yat-sen Joined Euro, Jap, US forces put down boxers Charged an indemnity of 330 mil to Chinese (US got 24)


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