2Imperialism “The colonialism of the late nineteenth century” “New Imperialism” defined:Economic, political, military, domination of one nation over a territory, people, &/or nationEuropeans made permanent settlements in Asia and AfricaHeyday =“Old Imperialism”Age of Exploration ( )Usually set up trading posts but did not exert political, cultural control of native peoplesExceptions= Spanish Empire, 13 Colonies
3Reasons for Imperialism EconomicNew MarketsIndustrial Rev. created huge supply of surplus goodsRise of US, Germany led to intense competition for marketsRaw MaterialIndustrial Revolution caused high demand for rubber, oilCheap LaborMaintain high standard of livingNationalism & International PrestigeEvery virile people has established colonial power (Heinrich von Treitschke, a German nationalist)Means of distracting population from social/economic issues at homeNational SecurityAlfred Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, (1890)American Naval OfficersSaid that in order to maintain power, nations needed navies, and navies need coaling stations around the worldCecil Rhodes Colossus: Cartoon illustrates the Cape-Cairo railway project. Founded the De Beers Mining Company & owned the British South Africa Company. He liked to "paint the map British red," and declared: "all of these stars ... these vast worlds that remain out of reach. If I could, I would annex other planets."
5Reasons for Imperialism Technical and Military SuperiorityMaxim gun (machine gun)MedicineQuinine for malariaSteam ship & telegraphQuick concentration of soldiersSocial DarwinismHerbert Spencer justified domination of superior races over weaker “inferior” racesMissionary/CivilizingReligious revival among bourgeoisieMotivated to bring civilization & morality to the worldRudyard Kipling (Jungle Book)White Man’s BurdenPoem which calls upon the civilized world to accept its responsibility as a power and enlighten the savage worldThe White Man's Burden (1899) Rudyard KiplingTake up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek another's profit, And work another's gain.
6Types of Imperial Territory ColoniesIndiadirectly governed by white Euros after 1857ProtectoratesEgyptrajah, prince maintained territory and guaranteed to suppress upheavalinstructed what to do by a European “resident” or commissionerIE. Puppet regimeSpheres of InfluenceChinaMaintained its political independenceEconomically divided territory where a Power would have exclusive trading rights
7Marxist Critique of Imperialism Vladimir LeninImperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916)Claimed that imperialism was the natural final stage of capitalismDeveloped industrial nations attempt to delay the inevitable proletariat revolution by exploiting less developed nations for their resources and laborPredicted that communist revolution would begin in less developed (agrarian-based) nations and spread to the urban proletariat in developed nationsJ.A. HobsonEnglish socialistargued that imperialism is unnecessary and immoralresult of the misdistribution of wealthIf more of the wealth was given to the workers their would not be capital for exportIt the workers had more purchasing power there would be less need for external markets (Ford and the Model T)Classic Liberals disliked ImperialismGladstone- “ The lust and love of territory have been among the greatest curses of mankind.”Led to conflict and disrupted free tradeLibs loved ‘freedom’, economic and personal
9New Imperialism Impact on the Dark Continent Berlin Conference beginsEthiopians repel Italian conquest, at the Battle of Adwa (1896) France conquers AlgeriaGreat Trek" of Boers beginsBelgian Congo Free State (1885) Suez Canal (1869)The Long Depression (“Dr. Livingstone I presume?”Egypt becomes protectorate state (1882)Fashoda CrisisBoer War Begins
10Pre Imperialism Africa The Dark ContinentEuropeans knew little of sub Saharancalled it Dark ContinentSahara is almost as large as the who N. AmericaCenturies Euros only knew the coast (Gold, Ivory, Slave), Nile, Niger, Congo RiversPeople black but very diverse physically, culturally (over thousand languages)Craftsmanship in arts, bronze sculpture, gold, weavingNorth was Islam, other areas were traditional religionsLived mainly in villages, agricultural or cattle raisingTimbuktu was one great cityAncient kingdoms were weakened by intertribal wars, slave tradeLike Ottomans Africa came under European assault when in was in weakened stateBefore 1750 were no whites settlements in sub Saharamil whites lived with 5 mil blacks
11Dr. Livingstone David Livingstone Explored central Africa in 1840s and 1850sMapped and charted unexplored territoryExplored & mapped Zambezi River1st white to look at Victoria FallsPerformed medical, missionary, & humanitarian work for London Missionary Societyno economic, political aimsDisappeared in 1865Found by Henry Stanley 11/10/1871New York Herald (Yellow Journalism) went looking for himFound him and uttered: Dr. Livingstone I presume?Sensationalistic articles created great interest in Africa throughout the world
12Opening of AfricaStanley saw vast economic possibilities in Africa and got the King of Belgium (King Leopold II) to back himBelgian CongoInternational Congo Association founded in 1878 (a private enterprise of Leopold II)Stanley settled treaties with 500 chiefsfor trinkets, yards of clothOther Europeans started to become interested (felt that they may miss out)The ScrambleStanley’s exploits set off a mad rush to claim African territory among major European powersGerman Karl Peters concluded treaties in East AfricaFrench Brazza claimed the Congo RiverPortuguese hoped to join Angola and Mozambique
13Berlin Conference of 1885Bismarck had little interest in African colonies‘like a nobleman wearing a fur coat who can’t afford underwear’Recognized it as potential for conflictWanted to keep on good side GB & other nations he had humbled & maintain Bal of Power“my map of Africa lies in Europe. Here is Russia and here is France with Germany in the middle; that is my map of Africa.”Berlin Conference (1885-6)Bismarck hosted conference (as honest broker) to set up ground rules for The Scramble (rush for African colonies)Powers must physically occupy territory to claim itGave façade of humanitarian goalsProhibited sale of alcohol and firearmsEnd slave tradeCongo Free State (1885) createdRecognized territory as personal property of LeopoldSaid that Congo should not be a colony but gave administration to LeoCongo River was internationalized, no tariff on imports, slave trade eliminated
14Congo Free StateSlavery was eliminated but Leo’s desire to make Congo profitable let to horrible abusesEurope and America demanded rubber & Congo was few places that could supplyCongolese were forced to meet quotas of sap from rubber trees or face possible deathEnforcers had to return with 1 hand for every bullet they used“each time a corporal goes out to get rubber, cartridges are given to him. He must bring back all not used; and for every not used, he must bring back a right hand…in six months, they had used 6, 000 cartridges…Rubber trees were destroyed with no provision to replace themLeo amassed personal fortune but still needed $borrowed from his own gov in 1889 and 95Press revealed Draconian methods and Belgian gov took over in 1908 (year Leo died)Congo Free State became colony (Belgian Congo)1908Worst atrocities were eliminated
15Egypt Technically autonomous within Ottoman Empire Suez Canal Built by Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps (French Engineer)Construction ( )Connected Red Sea with MediterraneanFinanced as a joint stock companyincreasingly important to BritainKhedive IsmailBorrowed heavily to built an Opera House in CairoLavish lifestyle led Egypt to financial straightsSold canal shares to Disraeli (PM)1879 repudiated Egypt’s foreign debtGB and France forced the abdication of IsmailEgyptian nationals protested against British influenceArab riots caused British and other foreigners to fleeBritish bombed Alexandria, sent in troops and put new Kalif Tewfik under protectionEgypt became a protectorate of G.B
16The Fashoda Crisis France Still bitter about loses of Franco-Prussian WarBismarck encouraged them to be imperialistsSuez Canal vitally important to BritsOver 3 thousand ships passed thru in 1882Linked GB with IndiaSudanese Mahdi (Guided One)Led holy war against BritishCharles “Chinese” Gordon killed in battle just before reinforcements arrived (1885)General Kitchener with Winston Churchill under his command started southward up the Nile and defeated local Muslims in 1898 at Omdurmankept going south until he reached FashodaFashoda Crisisshowdown between Britain and FranceFrench finally backed down (nervous about Germany & dealing with Dreyfus Affair) and recalled General MarchandBut led to increased tensions between GB & France
17Cape to Cairo Cecil Rhodes Quintessential British imperialist Dreamed of building a RR through AfricaCape to CairoCape Town S. Africa to Cairo Egypt1890, prime minister of Cape Colony,ran into independent Transvaal and Orange Free State (Boers or Afrikaners)Afrikanersdescendants of Dutch of 1600s had made a “great trek” to escape British rule (started 1830)Diamonds were then discovered in TransvaalTransvaal refused to pass legislation needed for mining
18The South African War1895 Rhodes sent armed irregulars to start a revolution but were stoppedKruger TelegramWilliam II, German emperor, congratulated president Paul Kruger of Transvaal, for defeating the bully BritishGreatly inflamed tensions between Germany and GB1899 British went to warS. African (Boer) War lasted until 1902300 thousand Brits found elusive enemyThey resorted to ravaging the country, concentrations camps where 20 thousand diedOnce fighting stopped British, 2 states were united as Union of S. Africa and given semi independent statusWar left British very unpopular in EuropeI express to you my sincere congratulations that you and your people, without appealing to the help of friendly powers, have succeeded, by your own energetic action against the armed bands which invaded your country as disturbers of the peace, in restoring peace and in maintaining the independence of the country against attack from without.
19Imperialism in India and China Palmer & McKay Ch 26 pgs
20Roots of British Imperialism in India Queen Elizabeth Igranted English East India Company (later the British East India Company), a monopoly of trade from the Cape of Good Hope eastward to the Strait of Magellan in 1600.In 1639 it acquired Madras on the east coast of IndiaBecame principal European trading centerThrough bribes, diplomacy, and manipulation of weak native rulers, the company became the dominant political forceEnglish and French trading companies fought one another for supremacy
21Roots of British Imperialism in India Seven Years' War ( ) marked the end of the French stake in the subcontinentUntil 1858, however, most of India was still officially the dominion of the Mughal emperorAnger seething under the governor-generalship of James Dalhousie ( ), upset cultural sensibilities by banning Hindu practices such as Sati
22Seapoy Rebellion Was a dangerous rebellion in 1857 Led by seapoys (native Indian mercenaries employed by the British)Sepoys made up 5/6th of British army there (Brits were busy with Crimean War and action in China)Many Indian natives saw the British as dangerousBanned widow burning, called sati (suttee)Hindu widow threw herself on the funeral pyre of her deceased husbandSuppressed the ThugsSmall band of holy assassinsThreatened to ban casteBritish officer shot his mouth off about thisDisplacement of land ownersThe Attack of Mutineers, July 30, 1857 "One of their leaders waving his sword, shouted 'Come on my braves!"
23Indian Mutiny Continued Muslim population was also agitatedWahhabi fundamentalism, popular reform movement that sought to purify and defend religious practices of IslamPropaganda circulated to Muslim sepoys that cartridges were greased with fat of a pig or to Hindus a cowThis put them over the top and they rebelledRebellion was brutally put downExecution by British cannon of Indian soldiers who participated in the Indian rebellion of 1857
24British Rule in India British re-examine their policies British East India Company and the Mogul empire were replaced with direct rule from BritainAllowed the local political structure to existRajahs and maharajahs (Indian Upper Class) would rule with the British crownQueen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India in 1877India’s supply of raw materials supported Britain’s position as the world’s workshopBut they did very little trading with the impoverished 315 milSuppressed native industries“India can never again be a great manufacturing country…”John Tenniel, Disraeli and Queen Victoria Exchanging Gifts (Punch Magazine, 1876)(Queen Victoria granted Disraeli the title Lord Beaconsfield
25British Rule in India British favored education in English (1835) Historian T.B. Macaulay said Indian languages were vehicles to barbarous and unenlightened ideasClass of westernized Indians grew to speak perfect English and were educated in EnglandDemanded more of a role in the affairs of their country1885 Hindu Indian National Congress1906 All-India Muslim LeagueNationalism spread as British were targeted with criticismTargets were capitalistsNationalism took on a socialist toneTone of independence was established before WWI
27China before Western Penetration The biggest bone of imperialismChina was a point of conflict between western, imperial nationsQing (aka Manchu) dynasty ( ) loosely ruled over all that was ChineseChina considered the west to be barbaric and remained isolationisticChina was the Middle Kingdom and everyone else were losersQing dynasty was failing and unable to preserve orderWhite Lotus Society revolted in 1800 but was suppressedHeavenly Reason Society tried to seize Peking (Beijing) in 1813
28Taiping Rebellion of 1850 20 million perished (population of GB) Leader claimed to be brother of JesusOtherwise due to Chinese causesRebels attacked the Manchus (from Manchuria 2 centuries before) as corrupt foreignersThey didn’t like poverty, extortion, rack-renting, and absentee landlordsTaiping and Manchu leadership broke downChaos and banditry eruptedWarlords appearedManchu put down the Taiping rebels with European help (after 14 years)IE. British General Gordon- Chinese Gordon who was later killed in AfricaEuropeans began to extort concessions from the Manchu and maintain the Qing dynasty at the same timeEffect was to sustain instability within China and increase European accessMajor-General Charles George Gordon ( )
29The Opening of China to the West Opium Wars 1839 – 1857Trade with China was difficultChina desired few European goodsBritish East India Company solved problem by getting Chinese Tea by trading it for Indian grown opiumChina resisted and in 1857 France and Britain (17 thousand) burned the Emperor’s summer palaceStole vases, tapestries, enamels, jades
30The Treaty System Treaties of Nanking (1842) and Tientsin (1857) Complex interlocking agreementsTreaty system led to:Hong Kong ceded to BritainOpened cities to Europeans as ports of entry“Treaty ports” including Shanghai and Canton (Guangzhou) gave European “rights”Europeans were immune to Chinese law and subject only to their own lawsAmerican and European gunboats policed Yangtze RiverSettlements were establishedWar indemnities were charged to the Chinese!No import duty over 5 percent (nearly free trade)Money from duties went to Europeans to pay the indemnitiesSome money went to the Qing government
31Annexations and Concessions Russians moved down the Amur River , established their Maritime province and founded Vladivostok in 1860Japanese recognized the independence of KoreaBritish annexed BurmaFrench annexed the Indo-Chinese peninsula (Vietnam, Cambodia)
32Japanese Imperialism Japan show imperialistic tendencies Revealed their imperialist tendencies in 1894 when they used modern weapons, training, organization to defeat the ChineseTreaty of Shimonoseki (1895)Annexes Formosa and Liaotung peninsula (which reached into Manchuria)Recognizes Korea’s independenceHad designs on Manchuria which Russia was also interested in (Trans Siberian RR)Japan relented under pressure from Russia, Germany, France and gave peninsula back to China
33Japanese ImperialismChina borrowed heavily to westernize (revenge against the Japanese)Loans open China further to western influencePartition of China seemed inevitableGermany obtained a 99 year lease on Kiaochow Bay and exclusive right in ShantungMore territories are cededRussians obtained Port Arthur (on Liatong Peninsula) and the right to build railroads in Manchuria
34Open Door U.S. demanded all nations have open trade rights with China China should remain territorially intactPowers will have spheres of influenceThe condition of China is humiliating to ChineseImagine if foreign warships patrolled Mississippi and foreigners were not subject to our law, NY had settlements were banking concentrated, foreigners determined the tariff, the Camp David was torched, Long Island and California annexed, New England being eyed by Canada and others (Manchuria)Imperialism is leading to agitation
35Boxers Uprising(western name) 1899 (the Order of Literary Patriotic Harmonious Fists) broke into insurrectionPulled up railway tracks, killed Chinese Christians, and killed 300 foreignersRevolutionary movement in China aimed at expulsion of Manchus and foreigners grew under Sun Yat-senJoined Euro, Jap, US forces put down boxersCharged an indemnity of 330 mil to Chinese (US got 24)