Presentation on theme: "Susan Ebbers 20051 English Words from Latin, Greek, and Anglo-Saxon Increase spelling, vocabulary, and reading comprehension Adapted from Susan Ebbers."— Presentation transcript:
Susan Ebbers English Words from Latin, Greek, and Anglo-Saxon Increase spelling, vocabulary, and reading comprehension Adapted from Susan Ebbers
Susan Ebbers Basic Terms root form: inspector, thermal base word: unlikely prefix: re-, un-, dis- suffix: -able, -ive, -ly derivation-a word formed from an existing word, root, or affix: electric, electricity } affixes
Susan Ebbers Three Periods of the English Language Old English ~A.D Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian, (some) Latin Middle English ~A.D French-Norman, Latin, Greek Modern English ~A.D present Greek, Latin, Adopted English
Susan Ebbers 20054
5 wh-what, sh-ship, th-thumb, ch-church, ng-king, nk-thank vowel teams: teeth, foot r-controlled: farm, star, storm, shirt compound words: mankind, blackbird common words: love, child, house, heart (often one syllable) prepositions, articles, conjunctions: with, to, for, and, the, but… words with silent letters: knee, night, comb, wrinkle, could, thought Anglo-Saxon: Indo-European Origins
Susan Ebbers Basic Old English Words Down-to-earth and true-blue, the first learned and the last forgotten. We work and eat and laugh and weep, Sing and play and rise and sleep, Hope and pray with all our might, Shun the wrong and love the right.
Susan Ebbers 20057
8 Latin: Some Common Roots transportable disruption prescription retractor interception projectile destruction conductor dismissal subversive edict to carry to break to write to pull to take to throw to build to lead to send to turn to speak
Susan Ebbers Most Frequent Prefixes in School Texts 1. unable 2. review inedible (impotent, illegal, irresponsible) distrust enlighten (empower) nonsense inside, implant overcome misguidedsubmarineprefixinterruptforewarn derailtransfersupersonicsemicircleantitrust midtermunderfed Analysis: White, Sowell, and Yanagihara 1989
Susan Ebbers Prefixes: Meaning and Connotation Somewhat Positive pro-co-bene- super-com-be- en-, em- ad- Often Negative dis-, de- non-sub- in-un-mis- mal- anti, contra a-
Susan Ebbers Derivational Suffixes Derivational suffixes change the part of speech words ending with –tion are often nouns words ending with –ive are often adjectives words ending with –ish are often adjectives words ending with –ity are often nouns What about -ment, -ous, -ness?
Susan Ebbers English Language Learners PROFICIENCY LEVELS Intermediate Level: Understands roots and affixes Decodes multi-syllabic words Advanced Level: Uses word parts to determine word meanings
Susan Ebbers Cognates Connect English and Spanish through Latin Origins Romance Languages (e.g., Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, etc.) share the same Latin roots Morta: Roman goddess of death Example: The Latin root for the word death is mort. The French spell it morte and the Spanish, muerte. In English, we have a whole network of related words: mortal, immortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary, postmortem, etc. Ebbers, 2004
Susan Ebbers Greek Combining Forms hydrographgeo pyropolisneuro orthoscopephoto thermcratpsych chronphobepseud onymcrypthelio logyspherethe, theo
Susan Ebbers Counting in Greek and Latin monounidi bidu, duotri tetraquadripenta hexaseptoct novedecadeci centmillipoly multisemihemi
Susan Ebbers Developing content-specific, academic vocabulary depends on a basic understanding of Greek and Latin Sixty percent of the words in English texts are of Latin and Greek origin Bear et al., 1996; Henry, 1997
Susan Ebbers Content-Specific Greek Terms Anatomy and Medical Terms esophagus, thyroid, diagnosis, psoriasis, dyslexia Studies and Sciences biology, seismology, morphology, geochronometry Animals and Plants arachnid, amphibian, chlorophyll, dinosaur, nectar Theatre and the Arts charisma, drama, chorus, muse, symphony, acoustics
Susan Ebbers photo graph poly graph mimeo graph phono graph tele graph para graph tele gram mammo gram histo gram ana gram crypto gram mono gram electrocardio gram photo grapher carto grapher geo grapher crypto grapher autobio grapher xylo grapher paleo grapher bio grapher graph ite graph eme graph ologist graph ic graph ically grammar school grammar books rules of grammar gramma tical gramma tically un gramma tical un gramma tically gramma tology graph grammar gram, graph to write, written Greek gram
Susan Ebbers Look Inside—Look Outside pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis 1.Look inside the word for known word parts: prefixes, roots or combining forms, suffixes. 2.Use the analogy strategy—“I don’t know this word, but I know pneumonia and I know volcano, so by analogy, this word might have something to do with lungs and heat.” 3.Look outside the word at context clues, visuals The coal miners, coughing and wheezing, suffered from pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis.
Susan Ebbers SO MANY SYNONYMS ANGLO-SAXON, FRENCH, LATIN, and GREEK Anglo- Saxon FrenchLatin or Greek cooksautéconcoct holysacredconsecrated kinglyroyalregal wrecksabotagesubvert heartenencourageinspire showcinematheater See also Bryson, 1990; Lederer, 1991; King, 2000
Susan Ebbers ENGLISH: A RICH VOCABULARY SO MANY SHADES OF MEANING “A Positive Emotion” GLADPLEASEDDELIGHTED OVERJOYEDHAPPYCAREFREE LIGHTHEARTEDMERRYJOYOUS JOYFULCHEERYCHEERFUL CONTENTBLITHEBLISSFUL SATISFIEDBOUYANTBEATIFIC ECSTATICEUPHORICEUPEPSIC
Susan Ebbers Danke Merci Gratias ευχαριστώ /efharisto/ THANK YOU