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Building Rigor into Every Lesson in Every Classroom Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and School Leadership August 21, 2007 District-Wide Professional.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Rigor into Every Lesson in Every Classroom Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and School Leadership August 21, 2007 District-Wide Professional."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Rigor into Every Lesson in Every Classroom Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and School Leadership August 21, 2007 District-Wide Professional Development Johnny E. Brown, Ph.D. Superintendent

2 Training Outline Purpose of the Training Purpose of the Training Desired Outcome of the Training Desired Outcome of the Training Review of Bloom’s Taxonomy Review of Bloom’s Taxonomy Defining Rigor and What it Looks Like Defining Rigor and What it Looks Like Instructional Level Rubrics Instructional Level Rubrics High Order Questioning and Responses High Order Questioning and Responses Authentic Problem Solving Authentic Problem Solving Campus-Wide Implementation Activities Campus-Wide Implementation Activities District-Wide Monitoring Expectations District-Wide Monitoring Expectations

3 Purpose The purpose of this presentation is to enlighten teachers about ways to build academic rigor into every lesson, in every classroom.

4 Outcomes Clear expectations define what students should know and be able to do. Clear expectations define what students should know and be able to do. Higher test scores Higher test scores Improved writing skills Improved writing skills Attaining the benchmarks at each grade level Attaining the benchmarks at each grade level Utilizing higher ordered thinking skills Utilizing higher ordered thinking skills

5 Bloom’s Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation.

6 Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Skills Demonstrated: Skills Demonstrated: observation and recall of information observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter mastery of subject matter Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc. Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.

7 Comprehension Skills Demonstrated: Skills Demonstrated: understand information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend

8 Application Skills Demonstrated: Skills Demonstrated: use information use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations use methods, concepts, theories in new situations solve problems using required skills or knowledge solve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover

9 Analysis Skills Demonstrated: Skills Demonstrated: seeing patterns organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer

10 Synthesis Skills Demonstrated: Skills Demonstrated: use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict, draw conclusions Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite

11 Evaluation Skills Demonstrated: Skills Demonstrated: compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories, presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize Question Cues: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize

12 Academic Rigor Activity #1 Graphing Exercise Activity #1 Graphing Exercise Use the information to make a circle graph. Answer the questions below. Use the information to make a circle graph. Answer the questions below. 1. One half of the students preferred chocolate 1. One half of the students preferred chocolate ice cream. ice cream. 2. One fourth of the students preferred vanilla 2. One fourth of the students preferred vanilla ice cream. ice cream. 3. One eighth of the students preferred strawberry ice 3. One eighth of the students preferred strawberry ice cream. cream. 4. One eighth of the students were undecided. 4. One eighth of the students were undecided. Questions Questions 1. What percentage of the students preferred chocolate ice cream _____ ? 1. What percentage of the students preferred chocolate ice cream _____ ? 2. What percentage of the students preferred vanilla ice cream _____? 2. What percentage of the students preferred vanilla ice cream _____? 3. If half of the undecided students chose vanilla ice cream as their favorite, would more 3. If half of the undecided students chose vanilla ice cream as their favorite, would more prefer vanilla than chocolate? _____ ? prefer vanilla than chocolate? _____ ? 4. If half of the undecided students chose banana ice cream as their favorite, what would be 4. If half of the undecided students chose banana ice cream as their favorite, what would be that fraction of students ______? that fraction of students ______?

13 Activity Discussion Give examples of how this lesson would look like at each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Knowledge Knowledge Comprehension Comprehension Application Application Analysis Analysis Synthesis Synthesis Evaluation Evaluation

14 Defining Rigor and What it Looks Like Academic rigor can be defined as the set of standards we set for our students and the expectations we have for our students and ourselves. Academic rigor can be defined as the set of standards we set for our students and the expectations we have for our students and ourselves. Rigor is much more than assuring that the course content is of sufficient difficulty to differentiate it from K-12 level work. Rigor is much more than assuring that the course content is of sufficient difficulty to differentiate it from K-12 level work. Rigor includes our basic philosophy of learning – we expect our students to demonstrate not only content mastery, but applied skills and critical thinking about the disciplines being taught. Rigor includes our basic philosophy of learning – we expect our students to demonstrate not only content mastery, but applied skills and critical thinking about the disciplines being taught. Rigor also means that we expect much from ourselves, our colleagues, and our institutions of learning. Rigor also means that we expect much from ourselves, our colleagues, and our institutions of learning.

15 Rigor in the classroom Develop a set of best management practices for promoting academic excellence through rigor in the classroom Develop a set of best management practices for promoting academic excellence through rigor in the classroom Develop strategies for establishing instructional goals for academic excellence and for documenting progress toward these goals Develop strategies for establishing instructional goals for academic excellence and for documenting progress toward these goals Assess our current understanding of rigor in the classroom Assess our current understanding of rigor in the classroom

16 Components of Rigor Assists students in fulfilling predetermined outcomes and competencies by challenging them with high expectations. Essential components of rigor in the classroom: Content acquisition Content acquisition Critical thinking Critical thinking Relevance Relevance Integration Integration Application of concepts Application of concepts Long term retention Long term retention Responsibility Responsibility

17 Rigor - Faculty Demanding Demanding Relevant Relevant Engaging Engaging Addressing different learning styles Addressing different learning styles Self-challenging Self-challenging Adaptive Adaptive

18 Campus – Wide Implementation Teacher Activities Curriculum Mapping Curriculum maps document the topics and skills that have been planned, taught and learned, helping teachers determine interventions and next steps. Curriculum maps document the topics and skills that have been planned, taught and learned, helping teachers determine interventions and next steps. Curriculum maps help groups of teachers compare what has been covered in other grades, revealing repetition and gaps in the curriculum across disciplines, and highlighting strengths and weaknesses in aligning curriculum with district and state standards. Curriculum maps help groups of teachers compare what has been covered in other grades, revealing repetition and gaps in the curriculum across disciplines, and highlighting strengths and weaknesses in aligning curriculum with district and state standards. Curriculum mapping fosters and supports collaboration among teachers, and promotes more effective instruction. Curriculum mapping fosters and supports collaboration among teachers, and promotes more effective instruction.

19 Campus-Wide Implementation Teacher Activities Conduct directed study (with faculty) Conduct directed study (with faculty) Utilize the Socratic method (questioning strategy)/interactive discussion Utilize the Socratic method (questioning strategy)/interactive discussion Know your students (contact, interaction, praise, showing interest, meeting w/students) Know your students (contact, interaction, praise, showing interest, meeting w/students) Balanced diversity of methods Balanced diversity of methods Assign research (quantitative and qualitative data collection, analysis, data report, and literature review) Assign research (quantitative and qualitative data collection, analysis, data report, and literature review)

20 Campus-Wide Implementation Student Activities Writing (journals, varied levels of writing, writing across the curriculum, etc.) Writing (journals, varied levels of writing, writing across the curriculum, etc.) Problem-solving (case studies, group activities, essay exams, etc.) Problem-solving (case studies, group activities, essay exams, etc.) Oral communication (debates w/expert judges, summary presentations, role playing) Oral communication (debates w/expert judges, summary presentations, role playing) Reading/comprehension (reading and analyzing – ie. in-class discussions, quizzes, summaries, etc.) Reading/comprehension (reading and analyzing – ie. in-class discussions, quizzes, summaries, etc.) Collaborative group projects Collaborative group projects

21 Instructional Review and Depth of Understanding Rubrics Instruction That Produces High-Achieving Schools

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29 Authentic Problem Solving When instruction is academically rigorous, students actively explore, research and solve complex problems to develop a deep understanding of core academic concepts. When instruction is academically rigorous, students actively explore, research and solve complex problems to develop a deep understanding of core academic concepts. Increasing rigor does not mean more and longer homework assignments, rather, it means time and opportunity for students to develop and apply habits of mind as they navigate sophisticated and reflective learning experiences. Increasing rigor does not mean more and longer homework assignments, rather, it means time and opportunity for students to develop and apply habits of mind as they navigate sophisticated and reflective learning experiences. Students weigh evidence, consider varying viewpoints, see connections, identify patterns, evaluate outcomes, speculate on possibilities and assess value. Students weigh evidence, consider varying viewpoints, see connections, identify patterns, evaluate outcomes, speculate on possibilities and assess value.

30 Authentic Problem Solving Rubrics, exhibitions and portfolios are examples of authentic assessments that allow students to demonstrate what they know and can do. Rubrics, exhibitions and portfolios are examples of authentic assessments that allow students to demonstrate what they know and can do.

31 Campus-Wide Implementation Activities (Disciplines for Strengthening Instruction) The district creates an understanding and a sense of urgency among teachers and in the community for the necessity of improving all students’ learning, and it regularly reports on progress. Data are disaggregated and are transparent to everyone. The district creates an understanding and a sense of urgency among teachers and in the community for the necessity of improving all students’ learning, and it regularly reports on progress. Data are disaggregated and are transparent to everyone. There is a widely shared vision of what good teaching is, which is focused on rigorous expectations, the quality of student engagement, and effective strategies for personalizing learning for all students. There is a widely shared vision of what good teaching is, which is focused on rigorous expectations, the quality of student engagement, and effective strategies for personalizing learning for all students.

32 Implementation All professional learning communities meetings are about instruction and are models of good teaching. All professional learning communities meetings are about instruction and are models of good teaching. There are well-defined standards and performance assessments for student work at all grade levels. Both teachers and students understand what quality work looks like, and there is consistency in standards of assessment. There are well-defined standards and performance assessments for student work at all grade levels. Both teachers and students understand what quality work looks like, and there is consistency in standards of assessment.

33 Implementation Frequent and rigorous supervision focused on the improvement of instruction. It is done by people who know what good instruction looks like. Frequent and rigorous supervision focused on the improvement of instruction. It is done by people who know what good instruction looks like. Professional development is primarily on-site, intensive, collaborative, and job-embedded, and is designed and led by educators who model the best teaching and learning practice. Professional development is primarily on-site, intensive, collaborative, and job-embedded, and is designed and led by educators who model the best teaching and learning practice. Data are used diagnostically at frequent intervals by teams of teachers, schools, and districts to assess each student’s learning and to identify the most effective teaching practices. There is time built into schedules for this shared work. Data are used diagnostically at frequent intervals by teams of teachers, schools, and districts to assess each student’s learning and to identify the most effective teaching practices. There is time built into schedules for this shared work.

34 Implementation Assess our current understanding of rigor in the classroom. Assess our current understanding of rigor in the classroom. Develop a set of best management practices for promoting academic excellence through rigor in the classrooms. Develop a set of best management practices for promoting academic excellence through rigor in the classrooms. Develop strategies for establishing institutional goals for academic excellence and for documenting progress toward these goals. Develop strategies for establishing institutional goals for academic excellence and for documenting progress toward these goals.

35 Monitor Measuring outcomes Measuring outcomes Tracking students – # of students taking test and their performance, TAKS, end-of course exams & CBA’s Tracking students – # of students taking test and their performance, TAKS, end-of course exams & CBA’s % of graduates accepted into undergraduate school % of graduates accepted into undergraduate school Peer evaluation of teaching Peer evaluation of teaching +/- grading system +/- grading system Daily quizzes Daily quizzes Low stakes evaluation Low stakes evaluation Relevant evaluation Relevant evaluation Evaluation of assigned material Evaluation of assigned material Feedback – rapid Feedback – rapid More Technical support More Technical support

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