Chapter 23: Informative Speaking What is an informative speech? Informative speeches provide listeners with new information, new ideas, or new ways of thinking about a topic. Focus is to enlighten rather than advocate. Build understanding Deliver knowledge
Preparing Your Informative Speech Identify listeners’ informational needs. What is the benefit? Investigate listeners’ base knowledge to see what is not known. Determine speech type. Objects, events, people, phenomena, processes, concepts, or issues. Type will determine organizational pattern.
Types of Informative Speeches About objects Service dogs titanium About processes How U.S. currency is made How hurricanes develop About events SXSW Olympic games About concepts Nutritional theories Confucianism
Guidelines Don’t overestimate what the audience knows Relate the subject directly to the audience Don’t be too technical Avoid abstractions Personalize your ideas Be creative
Choosing a Strategy for Presenting Speech of definition Operational definition (define) Definition by negation (what it is not) Definition by example (provide example) Definition by synonym (similar words) Definition by origin (Latin meaning) Speech of description Speech of demonstration Speech of explanation
Parts of the Informative Speech Intro Attention-getter Shocking statement that gets the audience’s attention Establishment of ethos (credibility) Why should the audience listen to you about this topic? E.g. your profession, personal experience, or global need Thesis or thematic statement One sentence about main topic Preview each point First… Second… Third…
Body Main Idea 1 (e.g. short haired breeds of dogs) Subpoint and supporting material (general description of short haired dogs) Sub-subpoint (Border terrier) Sub-subpoint (Chihuahua) (Transition; In addition to short haired breeds, there are also long hair breeds of dogs)) Main Idea 2 (e.g. long haired breeds of dogs) Subpoint and supporting material Sub-subpoint (Maltese) Sub-subpoint (dachshund) (Transition; Although it is important to discuss long haired breeds, it is also important to talk about hypoallergenic breeds of dogs) Main Idea 3 (e.g. hypoallergenic breeds of dogs) Subpoint and supporting material Sub-subpoint (poodle) Sub-subpoint (Corgie) (Transition to conclusion; )
Conclusion Summarize General theme that you discussed Review Each main point (2-3 points) Tie to the introduction Connect back to your start E.g. personal story, quote, etc. Creative concluding thought Drop the microphone moment
Helping Listeners Preview main point in intro Use clear transitions Use vivid and concise language Repeat most significant ideas Present new and interesting info
Think of an Object On a scratch sheet of paper, think of an object and describe it as many ways as possible. Be prepared to share aloud to the class.
Reducing Confusion Hard for audience members to grasp: Difficult concept or term Difficult-to-envision process Counterintuitive idea Use analogies Offer misconceptions and then the fact when explaining a process Observe audience’s nonverbal cues Invite questions
Arranging Main Points in a Pattern Helps listeners understand the speech Informative speeches can be organized in any pattern including: Topical Chronological Spatial Problem solution Cause-effect Circle Narrative patterns
Summary Questions What is the general goal of informative speaking? What four strategies or approaches for presenting information are available to the informative speaker? How can a speaker help the audience comprehend the message? What are some key points to keep in mind while creating an informative speech?