Interaction Rules Interaction Rules Etiquette rules of acceptable personal behavior and courtesy e.g. proper dress, answering the phone, language, talking about others Laws a system of rules and punishments clearly defined e.g. legal driving age
Morals personal rules of right and wrong behavior e.g. derived from a person’s upbringing, religious beliefs Ethics a code or system of rules defining moral behavior for a particular society
Professional Engineers Code of Ethics Paraphrasing: “Engineers do not lie, cheat or steal and always have safety in mind.”
Case Study: Murder Legal? Legal? Moral? Moral? Ethical? Ethical? Good Etiquette? Good Etiquette? Answers: Answers: Illegal Immoral Unethical Bad etiquette!
Case Study: Driving over the speed limit when you are late for class Legal? Legal? Moral? Moral? Ethical? Ethical? Good Etiquette? Good Etiquette? Get Clicker Ready
Case Study: Driving over the speed limit when you are late for class Legal? Legal? Moral? Moral? Ethical? Ethical? Good Etiquette? Good Etiquette? Answers: Answers: Illegal Moral to some, immoral to others Unethical Bad etiquette if it effects other drivers
Case Study: Driving over the speed limit when you are having a baby. Legal? Legal? Moral? Moral? Ethical? Ethical? Good Etiquette? Good Etiquette?
Case Study: Driving over the speed limit when you are having a baby. Legal? Legal? Moral? Moral? Ethical? Ethical? Good Etiquette? Good Etiquette? Answers: Answers: Illegal Moral Ethical Etiquette does not apply
Example A chemical company develops a new process that has a waste by product. Their internal studies show this by-product is carcinogenic. However, the by-product is not on a government list of banned chemicals because it is new. Legal? Moral? Legal? Moral?
Answers: Legal but immoral
Example Government self-regulations require that all purchases be made through purchasing agents. An engineer wishes to purchase an old alternator from a junkyard and does so with his own money. He reimburses himself with computer disks of equivalent value. Legal? Moral? Legal? Moral?
Answers: Moral but illegal
Moral Theories Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoism A moral theory stating that an act is moral provided you act in your enlighten self-interest Utilitarianism Utilitarianism Moral activities are those that create the most good for the most people Rights Analysis Rights Analysis Golden Rule: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
Settling Conflicts A conflict is a result of a… Moral Issue if it can only be resolved by appealing to moral principle. Conceptual Issue if the morality of an action is agreed upon, but there is no written definition of the company rule or law Application Issue if it is unclear if a act violates a written rule or law. Factual Issue if more data is needed.
Noise Complaint Example Source of SoundLoudness (db) Threshold of Hearing0 Conversation60 Ear Damage Begins85 Amplified Music110 Jet Airplane at 30 meters140
City Ordinance: No sounds above 90 decibels after 10:00 PM. You have a problem with your neighbor making loud noises. Identify the type of issue for these conflicts. Background Information
Case 1: You are angry about some loud music coming from your neighbor’s party. You both measured the loudness at 1:30AM. You measured 100db and she measured 85 db. This leads to a heated discussion. What type of issue lead to this conflict? A. Moral Issue B. Conceptual Issue C. Application Issue D. Factual Issue
Case 2: You and your neighbor Sam both complain to the apartment manager about a car alarms sounding too often in the apartment complex. Every Saturday afternoon you take a nap around noon after working out in the gym. One Saturday Sam’s car alarm wakes you up. You are upset by this and go next door to discuss it with Sam. A. Moral Issue B. Conceptual Issue C. Application Issue D. Factual Issue
Case 3: Your neighbor plays music on Halloween night at 11:30pm with a loudness of 70 db. You are worried about that the children in the neighborhood will be “emotionally scarred” by the strange music and call the police. A. Moral Issue B. Conceptual Issue C. Application Issue D. Factual Issue
Case 4: You live near a company that cleans glass with ultrasound starting at midnight when the workers are at home sleeping. The ultrasound is 110db but is not audible. You are bothered because it shakes the picture frames in your home and go to the company to complain. A. Moral Issue B. Conceptual Issue C. Application Issue D. Factual Issue
Case 5: You awake at 2:30 AM to find that your neighbor has started a heavy metal band. The music is 115db at your doorstep. You go ask the band if they can play in the daytime instead but the band refuses. What type of issue lead to this conflict? A. Moral Issue B. Conceptual Issue C. Application Issue D. Factual Issue
Final Thoughts Consider the Golden Rule Get a Second Opinion Keep a “Cool Head” Be a Professional Settling Conflicts in Business
Engineering Case Studies
Case Study 1 The fuselage of the DC – 10 Jumbo jet of which the cargo door is a part was developed by Convair, a subcontractor for McDonnell Douglas. Convair’s senior engineer directing the project, Dan Applegate had written to the Vice president of the company: “The Cargo door could burst open, leading to crash of the plane. Hence the door has to be redesigned and the cabin floor has to strengthened”.
Top Management at Convair neither disputed the technical facts or the predictions made by Applegate. The liabilities and the cost of redesign were to high. Two years went by. In 1974 the cargo door of DC – 10 Jumbo burst open and the jet crashed near Paris killing 346.
What issues are involved in this example? As an engineer, what would you do? Would you choice be legal, moral and ethical and still make money?
Case Study 2 Tom was named the department manager of a large new chemical process unit which was to be designed and then constructed. Tom's responsibilities included forming the process unit staff, looking over the designers' shoulders to assure the plant was designed to be safe, operable and maintainable, and then starting the plant up after construction.
During his previous experience Tom had noted that a new type of valve and valve operator could often be used in place of more common gate valves and their operators. In every case the new valve was less expensive and often gave a tighter shutoff than the gate valve. Tom convinced the project designer to add even more of these valves and operators to the design. This improved safety, because more flows could be shutoff more quickly in an emergency.
After a large number of values have been specified and purchased, the salesman for the valves (Jim) visits Tom and gives him a plastic pen with the name of Jim's company stamped in gold. The pen is worth about $5. Should Tom accept the pen?
After a large number of valves had been specified and purchased, Jim invites Tom to play golf with him at the local country club. Tom is an avid golfer and has wanted to play golf at the country club for some time since it is the best course in town. Should Tom accept the invitation?
After a large number of valves have been specified and purchased, Jim offers to sponsor Tom for membership in the local country club. Tom is an avid golfer and has wanted to be a member of the club for some time, but has not found a sponsor. Should Tom accept Jim's offer?
After a large number of valves have been specified and purchased, Jim invites Tom to a seminar on valves to be held in South America. there will also be opportunities for fishing and recreation. Tom's company would have to pay for transportation, but Jim's company will cover all the expenses in South America. Tom is sure his manager will authorize the trip if asked, but other managers in the firm, when placed in an equivalent situation, feel uneasy about these types of offers. Should Tom ask his manager for the authorization to take this trip?
After a large number of valves have been specified and purchased, Jim invites Tom on a very nice fishing trip to South America. Jim's company will cover all the expenses. Tom is sure his manager will authorize the trip if asked, but other managers in the firm, when placed in an equivalent situation, feel uneasy about these types of offers. Should Tom ask his manager for authorization to take the trip ?
Before Tom's decision to recommend any type of valve, Jim visits and offers Tom a very nice fishing trip to South America if Tom will recommend Jim's company's valves. Jim's valves are the safest and least expensive. What should Tom do?
The Philip Morris Companies has been testing a microelectronic cigarette holder that eliminates all smoke except that exhaled by the smoker. Battery powered, it is expected to cost about $50. The result of years of research, it cost approximately $200 to develop. Tentatively called the Accord, the device uses cigarettes that are 62 millimeters long (compared with the standard 85 millimeters). Users will have to remember to recharge the Accord’s battery (a 30 minute process, but extra batteries can be purchased). A cigarette is inserted into the 4-inch long, 1 ½- inch wide device. A microchip senses when the cigarette is puffed and transmits powers to eight heating blades. A display shows the remaining battery charge and indicates how many puffs are left in the eight-puff cigarette. The device also contains a catalytic converter that burns off residues.
Supporters of this product say it will be welcomed by smokers who currently refrain from smoking in their homes or cars for the sake of non-smoking family members, guests, and passengers. Although smokers will inhale the same amount of tar and nicotine as from conventional "ultralight" cigarettes, 90 percent of second-hand smoke will be eliminated. Furthermore, the same smoking restriction rules in public places will apply to the device. Critics claim that the Accord will simply reinforce addition to cigarettes. Richard A. Daynard, chair of the Tobacco Products Liability Project at Boston’s Northeastern University School of Law, an anti-tobacco organization, asks: "Who would use an expensive and cumbersome thing like this if they weren’t hooked? There is something grim and desperate about it. This is hardly the Marlboro Man, getting on his horse and checking the battery." He also expresses concern that children might be encouraged to smoke, since the Accord would enable them to hide smoking from their parents. However, Philip Morris replies that the device has a locking device for parents.
1. Imagine that it is several years ago and you have just received your engineering degree. You are in search of your first job. You are invited to interview with a research division of Philip Morris that is about to begin research to develop the Accord. Would you have any reservations about accepting such a position? Discuss.
2. If you would have some reservations, would the fact that this job pays $10,000 more a year than any other offer you have convince you to take the Philip Morris offer?
3. Assuming you took the job, what kinds of ethical concerns might you have about how the device should be designed? (E.g., would you agree that it should have a locking device?)
(Hammurabi’s Code) If a builder has built a house for a man and has not made his work sound, and the house which he has built has fallen down and so caused the death of the house-holder, the builder should be put to death ……………