2 Group PollOn a scale of 1 – 5 (1-very uncomfortable, 5- very comfortable), how would you rate yourself in coaching your staff to help them grow professionally?Slide used to spark conversation about coaching with participants.Poll will give facilitator a chance to see level of the group and vary instruction as needed.
3 Reflective Coaching Reflective Coaching Encourages reflection through questioningReciprocal learningNon-judgmental approach to guide a person to self-directed learningFocus on a teacher’s thinking, perceptions, beliefs, and assumptionsObservation is seen opportunity to collect dataAdapted from Costa and Garmston (1985) Cognitive Coaching Framework
4 Reflective Coaching is not… Reflective coaching has nothing to do with evaluation. Observations are not evaluations…they are single points in time.The evaluation is the Summary Rating Form completed at the end of the evaluation process.MentoringThe principal must create a culture that encourages change and growth. It should be clear that evaluation happens at the end. Observations should be seen as tools that help to facilitate growth and change. It is not a mentoring relationship where there is an expert supplying a solution to a problem. It is a reciprocal learning process.
5 Research Based Benefits Coaching is linked with higher test scoresTeachers who are coached report higher teacher efficacyTeachers who are coached demonstrate more reflective, complex thinking about their practice4. Coached teachers report higher job satisfaction5. Coaching schools have higher self-ratings for professionalism6. Coaching schools have more collaboration7. Coached teachers report feeling more supported professional and personallyUse slide to make a connection to Principal Evaluation Rubric Standard 4: Human Resource Leadership:Recruiting, Hiring, Placing, and Mentoring of Staff: The principal creates processes and procedures to ensure a high-quality, high-performing staff.Teacher and Staff Evaluation: The principal completes evaluations in a fair and consistent manner. The administrator uses the results of evaluations to improve performance and student achievement.
6 Requirements for Reflective Coaching TrustCommunication AwarenessAppropriate ResponsesKnowledgeStructureQuestioningCosta, A. & Garmston, R.(2002). Cognitive Coaching: a Foundation for Renaissance Schools. Norwood, Massachusetts: Christopher-Gordon, Inc.,Each requirement is explained in following slides. Developing trust, building rapport, and probing techniques are critical for process.Knowledge and structure are specific to teacher evaluation process.
7 Components of Trust Being present Being aware of oneself, others and the environmentBeing openListen without judgment and with empathySeek to understandView learning as mutualHonor the personHonor the processPose a question for discussion: Ex. What do you do to create a culture of trust within your school?
8 “Your words and what you say must be congruent with your body language “Your words and what you say must be congruent with your body language.“ ~Unknown An example may be given: Ex. A newscaster smiling when describing a catastrophe.
9 Communication Awareness 65% Non Verbal Components35% VerbalComponentsPitchVolumeInflectionPaceWordsPostureGestureProximityMuscle TensionFacial ExpressionThe principal’s verbal and non-verbal cues must remain non-judgmental throughout the coaching process so that people can think without fear of being judged. When people feel judged, their thinking shuts down.
10 Appropriate Responses SilenceAcknowledgingParaphrasingClarifyingQuestioningProbingProviding Data & ResourcesThese are counseling techniques that usually aren’t natural in conversation.Paraphrasing communicates that I am attempting to understand you, therefore I value you. Because it conveys such powerful empathy, its use permits deep and tenacious probing.Silence or giving wait time helps lead to reflection. Silence is uncomfortable but the purpose is for the teacher to be led to discovery.Acknowledging helps validate teacher and professional. It establishes trust and rapport.Clarifying helps to clear any misunderstandings and gives teachers a chance to hear their ideas and thoughts aloud.Questioning is an art that we will begin to look at. You want to ask questions and help teacher arrive at answers.Probing examines what the teacher says to help eliminate misconceptionsProviding data helps the coach and teacher examine the data in literal and non-judgmental way which can lead to the suggestion of different resources.
11 Deep understanding of Professional Teaching Standards KnowledgeDeep understanding of Professional Teaching StandardsSlides makes a connection with implementing the evaluation process as a growth tool with fidelity. It should be stressed that it is the principal’s responsibility to understand standards, ratings, and expectations for a 21st century classroom.
12 North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards STANDARD I: Teachers demonstrate leadership.STANDARD II: Teachers establish a respectful environment for a diverse population of students.STANDARD III: Teachers know the content they teach.STANDARD IV: Teacher facilitate learning for their students.STANDARD V: Teachers reflect on their practice.STANDARD VI: Teachers facilitate academic growth.St. 1 - Leadership in and beyond the classroom. Teachers take responsibility for all students’ learning and use data to drive instruction. They establish a safe learning environment. They strive to lead the profession and serve as an advocate for students.St. 2 - Teachers provide an environment in which each child has a positive, nurturing relationship with caring adults. They embrace diversity, treat students as individuals, adapt their teaching, and work collaboratively.St. 3 - Teachers align their instruction w the NCSCOS, know their content, and teach relevant, connected lessons.St. 4 - Teachers understand learning, and they know the appropriate levels of intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of their students.St. 5 - Teachers analyze student learning and think critically about learning in their classrooms. They seek appropriate pd that matches their professional goals, and they are active learners.When you are finished sharing the posters, you can talk about standard 6. Use this if you would like:This is the newest standard, and there is much more work underway to determine how this standard will be measured.While principals should, of course, always be looking for evidence of student learning, there will be no “observation-based” component to Standard Six. Some are concerned that the sixth standard means more work for principals. It really doesn’t since the rating will be based squarely on data that are collected and aggregated by the state.Here is some help for responding if there are questions: (Tread carefully here…and remind principals not to shoot the messenger!)This info was on the Superintendent's update from Dr. Atkinson and I think it provides a good "blurb" to include somewhere in our training. Teacher Effectiveness: Sixth Standard Update - Effective this school year, the State Board of Education has added a sixth standard to the Teacher Evaluation Instrument. A teacher’s rating on the sixth standard will be based on whether a teacher’s students meet growth expectations, exceed growth expectations, or fail to meet growth expectations. An average of three years of student growth information will be used to determine the teacher’s rating. Only teachers with three or more years of data will receive a formal rating on the sixth standard, although principals are encouraged to discuss any student growth information with teachers. For the school year, there will be no state-mandated consequences for teachers based on their sixth standard rating. The sixth standard requires no change to the evaluation process during the school year. The standard will be automatically populated through the use of three years of data points on student growth. Principals and other classroom observers do not need to take additional action during the year to ensure that data is included. Detailed webinar information will be included in the next communication. For additional information please contact Jenn Preston, Race to the Top Project Coordinator for Teacher Effectiveness, at
13 Distinguished Accomplished Proficient Developing Consistently and significantly exceeded basic competenceAccomplishedExceeded basic competence most of the timeProficientDemonstrated basic competenceDevelopingDemonstrated adequate growth toward achieving standards, but did not demonstrate basic competenceSometimes analogies help us better understand the ratings. Some of you have been in our regional training sessions where we discussed growing levels of competency with using a smart phone or the gadgets on a new car.Today, let’s think about how the ratings would apply to baking cakes.As a developing cake baker, you follow the recipe, but your cooking techniques aren’t always successful. Your cake might be dry, the layers may fall apart, or the icing isn’t the right consistency. You demonstrate growth by practicing and your cakes become better, although still not quite right. Look at the picture. This is a cake, and perhaps it is a better cake than the baker’s many previous attempts. However, this cake would still be unacceptable from a professional baker. This reminds us educationally of a teacher who, despite making growth, has not yet reached proficiency.As a proficient cake baker, you follow the recipe and you’ve mastered the basic cooking techniques. You are able to produce a basic layer cake with frosting that tastes good and looks nice. The cake pictured is acceptable by all measures, which reminds us educationally of basic competence with such important matters as instructional strategies or communication. In other words, this cake is acceptable and yet still has room to grow. Let’s look at the next cake from the accomplished baker.As an accomplished cake baker, you have a greater understanding of baking and on most occasions you are able to successfully incorporate additional ingredients and/or flavorings that improve the taste, appearance, and overall quality of your cakes. You’ll note that the cake pictured has multiple flavors, which reminds us educationally of differentiation and multiple instructional strategies.As a distinguished cake baker, you have an in-depth understanding of baking cakes. As such, you know the essential ingredients that must be included in all cakes. Using your knowledge, you are able to begin with the recipe, combining the essential ingredients and other add-ins to tailor your cakes to meet the tastes of the person for which you are making the cake. In other words, you understand the recipe well enough to enhance it. Your talent and skill as a distinguished baker may lead you to decorate exquisitely or even assist others in developing their baking skills. Distinguished truly is the “icing on the cake” so-to-speak.What resources do you have to help you and your teachers better understand the differences between the ratings for teachers and school executives? Your best resources are the rubrics for evaluating teachers and principals/assistant principals. The performance descriptors provided for each element of the performance standards will help you determine the expectation for each rating level. Engage in conversations with colleagues about the differences between the descriptors on the rubrics. It’s also helpful to have a firm understanding of the Standards for Teachers and School Executives. If you need a refresher on the professional standards, consider completing the N.C. Professional Teaching Standards Module and the soon-to-be-released School Executive Standards Module. Cake imagesImage Credits:
14 Knowledge Deep understanding of Professional Teaching Standards Ability to identify skilled 21st century teacher behaviors
15 Implementation with Fidelity Deep understanding of Professional Teaching StandardsAbility to identify skilled 21st century teacher behaviorsCapacity for providing thoughtful feedback on individual performance.Reflective coaching is the last piece to implementing standards-based evaluation. It is essential for the evaluation process to be considered one that promotes professional growth. This should be stressed.
16 StructuringEstablishing a common understanding of the purposes for the coachingCommunicating expectations about the use of resources and materialsEstablishing a common understanding of teaching standards and ratingsStructuring is the principal setting clear expectations about evaluation process, classroom procedures, and student achievement.
17 “It’s not the answers that enlighten us, but the questions.” Questioning“It’s not the answers that enlighten us, but the questions.”Questions are intentionally designed to engage and transform thinking and perspective.Questions must meet three criteria:Invitational in formEngage complex cognitive processesIntentionalQuestions should probe for specificity, clarity, elaboration, and precision: Which students specifically? or What criteria will you be using to assess the accuracy of student responses? or What else were you considering when you reorganized the assignment?. Probing invites and promotes deeper, more detailed thinking that results in greater consciousness and more analytical, productive decision making.Cognitive Processes include:PredictionsApplicationsCausalitySequenceRelevance, etc.
18 Judgmental vs. Non-Judgmental Questioning Example:Why did you do it that way?What would you do differently next time if you could?Question: How will responses be different? Why?
19 Probing PracticeScenario: Imagine a teacher says the following: "My third period class is so rowdy, I just cannot do anything with them!” Formulate questions to influence this teacher’s thinking. Think-Pair-ShareWhen explaining help them work through the formulation of questions.Possible Questions:Are there any individuals in the group that you can work with well?Have there been any times when they have been successful as a group?Why do you think they were successful then?Scenario can be role-played if time is sufficient.
20 Teacher Evaluation Process Reflective CoachingduringTeacher Evaluation ProcessSTEP 1:Training and OrientationSTEP 2:Self-Assessment, Goal Setting and Pre-ConferencePRE-CONFERENCE COACHINGWhat are the teachers goals? (before lesson or PDP)What actions are planned?What are the Indicators of success?What new learning might occur? (for the teacher).STEP 4:Summary Evaluation and Goal SettingSTEP 3:Observation Cycle(Administrative andPeer)GOAL SETTINGAssess growth and revise plan orbegin new inquiryOBSERVATIONObserve teacher’s actions/activities; Observe students for indicators of successThe connection should made here showing that reflective coaching is innate to teacher evaluation process.The cyclical process should also be emphasized.Each box related to a step in the evaluation process will appear individually to help facilitator draw comparisons.CONTINUOUS REFLECTIONWhat were the teacher’s feelings and impressions through the process?Continue to synthesize/construct new knowledge.Plan to transfer that knowledge and build upon it.Reflect on the coaching process and explore refinements.POST-CONFERENCE CONFERENCESummarize impressions and recall supporting informationAnalyze causal factors: compare, analyze, infer, and determine cause-and-effect relationships.Construct new learning and applicationsCommit to applications.
21 The Observation: More than meets the eye You are observing the teacher’s decision- making process concerning:Planning (prior to instruction)Interacting (instruction)Reflecting (after instruction)Principal/coach should include all aspects of observation in developing questions to assist teacher in creating new understanding.
22 Post-Conference Coaching Begins with open-ended questionTeacher does most of the talkingCoaches comments are grounded in factsParaphrasing shows that you value what you are hearingThe post-conference is frequently begun with an open-ended question such as, How do you feel the lesson went?. the dialogue should be individualized based on needs and goals of teacher. An open invitation allows the teacher to decide how he or she will enter this conversation and begin self-assessment. The next question may be something like, What are you recalling from the lesson that’s leading you to those inferences?. the ultimate goal of Cognitive Coaching is self-modification, teachers need to develop the ability to monitor their own and their students’ behaviors and to recall what happened in the lesson. Data collection is fundamental to their self-analysis and self-coaching. Processing the data from the lesson enables teachers to reconstruct and analyze what went on while they were teaching to make the teaching experience intelligible.
23 Relevance/Justification Stems + CognitionA reflective coach collects data and learns to pose questions to engage the teacher in reflective thinking.Cognitive OperationQuestion StemsRelevance/JustificationHow is this important to…?MetacognitionWhat were you thinking when…?EvidenceHow will you know if…?What evidence supports…?PredictionsIf you were to…what do you predict would happen?Data UseOf what use will you make of these data?What would that information tell you?AlternativesHow else might you…?PerspectiveHow would you feel if…?CausalityWhat did you do to cause….?
24 Tips for Successful Coaching Provide Positive FeedbackSpecific and genuineIntegrity Builds TrustBe honestStick to the facts – DOCUMENT!!Use student dataCollaborateSet goalsPlan the next meeting and/or observation
25 Tips for Successful Coaching Build In SupportProvide resourcesAlways Focus on School Vision and Student GrowthCelebrate Success!!
27 ReferencesCognitive Coaching: What is it? (2011). UTEACH. The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved from: UofTexas.pdf Costa, A. & Garmston, R. (1985, February) "Supervision for Intelligent Teaching." Educational Leadership, 42 (5), Costa, A. & Garmston, R. (1992) Cognitive Coaching: A Strategy For Reflective Teaching Teacher support specialist instructional handbook. Winterville, GA: Northeast Georgia RESA, pp Costa, A. & Garmston, R.(2002). Cognitive Coaching: a Foundation for Renaissance Schools. Norwood, Massachusetts: Christopher-Gordon, Inc.,