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The Enlightened Monarchs

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightened Monarchs"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightened Monarchs
Prussia…Frederick the Great Austria…Maria Theresa …Joseph II Russia….Catherine the Great

2 The Enlightened Despots / Absolutists:
Philosophes don’t agree on politics Many thinkers concerned with political reform and some politicians concerned with thinking Most “Enlightened” (outside US) think reform better from above than below Praise “benevolent absolutism” “Enlighten” the monarch!

3 Elbe-Trieste Line

4 Prussia: Frederick (II) the Great 1740-1786
Son of Frederick William I Rejects “military” for culture, poetry… Rejects Calvinism --- tries atheism Imprisoned at 18 for trying to run away So….maybe life as a leader isn’t so bad… 1740 invades Austria (War of Austrian Succession: breaks Austria’s Pragmatic Sanction!) Maria Theresa no match for Prussian army

5 Prussia: Frederick the Great – Warfare recap
War of Austrian Succession – others join = European War 1742 Austria cedes Silesia to Prussia Prussian population doubles But…MT won’t give up so easily… Seven Years’ War MT allies with France / Russia – vs. Prussia! Great Prussian army survives Peter III (Russia) gains throne and stops war b/c he admires Frederick!! 1772 1st Partition of Poland – receives territory between Prussia and Brandenburg - partitioning continues in 1793, 1795

6 Prussia: Frederick the Great – Enlightened???
“Of all states, from the smallest to the biggest, one can safely say that the fundamental rule of government is the principle of extending their territories…The passions of rulers have no other curb but the limits of their power. Those are the fixed laws of European politics to which every politician submits.” “I must enlighten my people, cultivate their manners and morals, and make them as happy as human beings can be…”

7 Prussia: Frederick the Great –
“The first servant of the state” Promotes education (Realschule/universal primary schools)) / Promotes free press = very little / no censorship!! Legal Reform Abolishes torture (except for treason & murder) – Judges impartial (single code of law established after his death) Officials noted for honesty / hard work / efficiency Prussian Civil Service Commission values merit over birthright Religious toleration (even for Catholics and Jews) Reconstruction of agriculture / industry But….then again…serfdom continues, privileges of nobility / Junkers still strong

8 Austria: Maria Theresa (b. 1717) 1740-1780
Charlie VI’s daughter *Pragmatic Sanction MT’s husband Francis Stephen I [of Lorraine ( )] – Holy Roman Emperor Son, Joseph II ( ): co-regent with mother in Austria But MT = “The Power” over 40 years (16 children – culture, morals, prayer) Joseph II, Leopold II, and Marie Antoinette! Motto: “Clemency and justice’


10 Austria: Maria Theresa, 1740-1780
Austria is immediately invaded War of Austrian Succession Loss of Silesia Reforms Church / State relations govt. controlled Devout Catholic – BUT limits Pope’s power in Austria Administrative reforms – tax all (even nobles!) Improve agriculture – reduce lords / begins to free serfs!!! (but she proceeds cautiously) Compulsory education! state supported public primary education for all male peasants, secondary education for selected students, and teacher training institutions Years’ War – no win

11 Austria: Maria Theresa, 1740-1780
Finally, Prussia & Austria unite with Russia against POLAND!!! (1770) 3 Partitions of Poland: 1772, 1793, & 1795 MT supports this???? “violation of every standard of sanctity and justice” But will be done, with or without her…so she joins Poland disappears by 1795!!! (Poland gone until WWI!!!)

12 Austria: Joseph II 1780-1790 1765--- co-regent with MT
1780 – MT dies – leaves Joseph II a powerful empire = classic enlightenment & utilitarianism “the greatest good for the greatest number” institutes freedom of the press! But…impatient radical, anticlerical “Josephinism” = state vs. Church / nobility; Church ind. from Rome (modeled after Gallicanism) Edict of Tolerance, 1781 reformed legal system – more uniform laws; easier for peasants to own land 1781 grants personal liberty to serfs Military reorganized and laid foundation for national army Economic reforms: abolished many internal tariffs; encouraged road building; improved river transport; inspected farms & industrial areas; 1789 taxation of ALL properties

13 Leopold II ( ) Grand duke of Tuscany ( ); Holy Roman Emperor ( ) – enlightened ruler Repealed Joseph’s taxation laws & gave nobility back political and administrative power Retained Joseph’s religious policies, and concern for peasant class Reached peace agreements with Prussia (1790) and Ottoman Empire (1791) Issued Declaration of Pillnitz, 1791 along w/ Prussia against the republican revolutionaries in France

14 RUSSIA: Remember Peter the Great ( ) --- who loved England and opened up Russia to Westernization --- who made all men shave and wear “German clothes” when he returned from England? Then there were the others… Catherine I: (Peter’s 2nd wife – he sent the 1st to a convent) Peter II: (grandson of Peter) Anna: (dominated by advisors) Ivan VI: (overthrown) Elizabeth: (youngest daughter of Peter the Great – golden age of aristocracy) Peter III: (mentally unfit: deposed and killed-- -by his wife???) But finally…an “enlightened” monarch appears…his wife…


16 Catherine II “the Great??” 1762-1796
Sophia Augusta Fredericka – a German princess Did she kill Peter?????? Unlike PG: love for West not merely pragmatic An “enlightened despot” – cultured, learned Russian, corresponded w/ Voltaire and Diderot The philosophes loved her! BUT was she hoodwinking them? Art, architecture, literature, music, education Like PG: strong – ambitious – rebuilt roads and schools – aggressive foreign policy of expansion War with Ottomans, 1769 = 1771, access to Danube river and Crimea; 1774 Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, 1783 annexation of Crimea = Warm Water PORT on BALTIC!! Partitioning of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795


18 But then what happens??? Legislative Commission (summer 1767)– consultation… Catherine realizes “Enlightenment philosophy” not practical – especially in Russia! peasant class = completely bound/unfree class Pugachev’s Rebellion 1773: peasant (Cossack) insurrection – Pugachev claims to be Tsar & declares peasants freed from military and tax obligations, comes with 100,000 men, rebellion over by 1774 1775 made “convenient friends with her nobles” Charter of Nobility, 1785 = gentry accepts government and government gives full authority over rural masses to gentry Economic reform: limit internal tariffs; expand urban middle class; increase agricultural exports

19 Limitations of Enlightened Despotism
authoritative action from above state more completely sovereign old, established systems and rights questioned BUT... Joseph II incites revolt Catherine the Great & Frederick still repress the masses Frederick abandons religion personally Helps to trigger growing religious revival Aristocratic resurgence in all 3 countries

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