Presentation on theme: "Final Chemistry 125: Lecture 5 Sept. 11, 2009 X-Ray Diffraction SPM techniques are not quite good enough yet to study how electrons are distributed in."— Presentation transcript:
final Chemistry 125: Lecture 5 Sept. 11, 2009 X-Ray Diffraction SPM techniques are not quite good enough yet to study how electrons are distributed in bonds. Because light is scattered by charged particles of small mass, the electron distribution in molecules can be determined by x-ray diffraction. The roles of molecular pattern and crystal lattice repetition can be illustrated by shining a visible laser through diffraction masks to generate scattering patterns reminiscent of those encountered in X-ray studies of ordered solids. For copyright notice see final page of this file
Motivation for the Trajectory of Coulomb’s Work with his Torsion Balance: Devises an improved suspension for a compass needle. Studies wire torsion “in order to determine the laws of cohesion and elasticity in metals and in all solid bodies.” (Engineering; Newton’s “Business of Experimental Philosophy”) Confirms Hooke’s Law for torsion Determines 1/r 2 Laws for E&M.
Despite Earnshaw, might there still be shared-pair bonds and lone pairs?
Cu Pentacene on Cu Scanned with a Single-Atom Tip at 5K L. Gross, et al., Science, Aug. 28, v10 10 v/m!
Scanning Probe Microscopies (AFM, STM, SNOM) are really powerful. Sharp points can resolve individual molecules and individual atoms and even bonds (almost)
A lonely architectural curiosity on Sterling Chemistry Laboratory at Yale University (1923)
Micrographia Robert Hooke (1665) “But Nature is not to be limited by our narrow comprehension; future improvements of glasses may yet further enlighten our understanding, and ocular inspection may demonstrate that which as yet we may think too extravagant either to feign or suppose.”
Water Oil “Thickness” ~ 200 nm Path Difference = 400 nm = 0.5 Strong 400 nm Scattering No 800 nm Scattering = 1 Interference upon Scattering
Hooke: Observ. IX. Of the Colours observable in Muscovy Glass, and other thin Bodies. Confus’d Pulses of Light
Chris Incarvito’s New Toys
User Operated - CCD Detector X-Ray Tube ~$200K
Image Plate ~$350K
"Seeing" Individual Molecules, Atoms, and Bonds? Problem:
What IS light?
In What Way is Light a Wave? Force on Charge at One Position Up Down 0 Time Charged Particle
Charged Particle In What Way is Light a Wave? Force at Different Positions - OneTime Up Down 0 Position
Accelerated Electrons “Scatter” Light Why don’t protons or other nuclei scatter light? Too heavy! direct beam
Interference of Ripples Angular Intensity Distribution at great distance depends on Scatterer Distribution at the origin
By refocussing, a lens can reassemble the information from the scattered wave into an image of the scatterers. But a lens for x-rays is hard to come by. Be sure to read the webpage on x-ray diffraction.
"Seeing" Molecules, Atoms, Bonds Collectively by X-Ray Crystallography SPM “feels” them Individually
Blurring Problem Blurring Problem from Motion and Defects Time Averaging Space Averaging in Diffraction (Cooperative Scattering) Advantage for SPM (Operates in Real Space)
In 1895 Röntgen Discovers X-Rays Shadow of Frau R ö entgen ’ s hand (1896) In 1912 Laue Invents X-Ray Diffraction CuSO 4 Diffraction (1912)
Wm. Lawrence Bragg ( ) Determined structure of ZnS from Laue's X-ray diffraction pattern (1912) Youngest Nobel Laureate (1915) Courtesy Dr. Stephen Bragg
B-DNA R. Franklin (1952)
Science, 11 August 2000
25 nm (250 Å) >100,000 atoms + hydrogens!
What can X-ray diffraction show? How does diffraction work? Like all light, X-rays are waves. Atoms?Molecules?Bonds?
by permission, Konstantin Lukin Bragg Machine Breaks? in & out same phase
Direct Two Scattering Directions are Always Exactly in Phase “scattering vector” Specular perpendicular to scattering vector All electrons on a plane perpendicular to the scattering vector scatter in-phase at the specular angle ! Specular