Motivating Instruction James Marshall December 2, 1999
Another Example: Gagne’s 9 Events n Summer is rapidly approaching, which means students in your high school will be applying for summer jobs in the coming months. n For some, this will be their first experience seeking a job. All lack experience in such endeavors. n You’ve already presented “Finding Summer Job Opportunities.” n Today’s topic: The Job Application
Would this session be motivating? n Think back on a class that was very, very motivating. What was it like? n Now think back on a class that was anything but motivating. What was it like? Why did it turn you off? n What does a motivated learner look like? What words would you use to describe one?
Origins of Motivational Theory n Behaviorists u Reinforcement theory of Skinner u Natural incentives. When satisfied, we receive pleasurable effect (neurohormones).
Origins of Motivational Theory n Cognitivists u To achieve more desirable conditions of the self. u Aware of possible selves (self- schemas). u Expectations serve as press for action. The way we look at ourselves is key.
Keller's ARCS Model n Attention n Relevance n Confidence n Satisfaction
Attention n Perceptual Arousal n Inquiry Arousal n Variability
Relevance n Goal Orientation u career opportunities n Motive Matching u personal value: achievement, power, affiliation n Familiarity u content and teaching Style
Confidence n Learning requirements u objectives and evaluation n Success opportunities u easy, then harder n Feedback u immediately after, just prior n Personal control over success u balance between efforts and results
Satisfaction n Knowledge of results n Natural consequences n Positive, systematic planned consequences n Equity
Try this one... n Your small instructional technology company is hoping to get the contract to build CBT to help pharmaceutical sales people use their laptop computers in sales to physicians. In order to get the larger contract, you've been asked to create a prototype of introductory CBT that will really "turn on" the pretty reluctant sales folks. n What's it going to look like? Use Keller's ARCS, especially attention and relevance, to enlighten your prototype.
Try this one... n Your ID firm is up against another one. A large military contractor has decided to beef up the ethics portion of their orientation program. They want to go from a 10 minute exhortative speech to 90 minutes that will really make a difference. Your company gets a small but nice contract to create the session. n What's it going to look like? Use Keller's ARCS to enlighten the design of your session.