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© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 1 Alternate Graph Slides Refresh Questions
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 2 Alternate Graph Slides
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 3 Market Demand and Supply for Piercings Fig. 4.1
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 4 Increase in Demand Fig. 4.2
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 5 Decrease in Demand Fig. 4.3
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 6 Increase in Supply Fig. 4.4
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 7 Decrease in Supply Fig. 4.5
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 8 d) Decrease in Demand and Increase in Supplyc) Increase in Demand and Decrease in Supply a) Increase in Both Demand and Supplyb) Decrease in Both Demand and Supply Fig. 4.6 The Effects of Combined Changes in Demand and Supply
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 9 Measuring the Miracle of Markets Fig. 4.10 b)Inefficiency When MB Not Equal to MC a)Maximum Total Surplus for an Efficient Market
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 10 Refresh Questions
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 11 1.In your own words, define what a market is. 2.You are negotiating over the price of a new car with a car dealer. Explain how this process contains both cooperation and competition. Refresh 4.1
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 12 3.The Recording Industry Association of America’s (RIAA) mission is “to foster a business and legal climate that supports and promotes our members’... intellectual property rights worldwide.” Have you ever downloaded music? Write a short argument (three or four sentences) defending people’s right to download music for free. Now, write a short argument against that position, including the concept of property rights. Which do you agree with? Explain why. Refresh 4.1
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 13 1. In your own words, define what a shortage is. Explain who competes and what happens to prices when there is a shortage. 2. Old Navy decides to price a new line of jeans at $95, which covers all marginal opportunity costs as well as a healthy profit margin. If Old Navy has priced the jeans too high, what signals will the company receive? Based on those signals, what actions might Old Navy take next? Refresh 4.2
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 14 3. Most provincial parks charge a fixed price for a camping permit, and allow you to reserve specific campsites in advance. By the time the summer holiday weekends arrive, all the permits are usually taken. There is excess demand but no price adjustment. Suggest a pricing system for provincial parks that allows them to take advantage of the higher demand for campsites on holiday weekends. Your system should explain who is competing and who is cooperating. Refresh 4.2
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 15 1. List and define the two other names for “prices that sit still.” 2. In an attempt to promote the social good of energy conservation, Toronto Hydro introduced the Peaksaver Program. Participating households received a $25 reward for allowing a “peaksaver” switch to be installed on their central air conditioners, which briefly turns off the air conditioner during peak demand times on hot summer days. Do you think the program would work without the $25 reward? Why or why not? Refresh 4.3
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 16 3. Explain the idea of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand.” Your explanation should illustrate the balance between the forces of competition and cooperation at “prices that sit still.” Refresh 4.3
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 17 1. What happens to the market-clearing price and quantity of a product or service when demand increases? When demand decreases? When supply increases? When supply decreases? Refresh 4.4
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 18 2. Predicting changes in market-clearing prices and quantities is harder when both demand and supply change at the same time. You run a halal butcher shop in Ottawa. There is expected to be an increase in the number of practicing Muslims in Ottawa who prefer halal meat. Rents for retail space are also falling all over town. Predict what will happen to the market-clearing price for halal meat. Predict what will happen to the market-clearing quantity. Explain your predictions. Refresh 4.4
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 19 3. In response to the business boom in Alberta, the city of Edmonton offered $200-per-month rent subsidies to low-income families so they could afford to live and work in the city. If you were asked to advise the city on this policy, what would you tell them about the impact it will have on rents? Will the rents go up or down? Explain your reasoning to the city officials. Refresh 4.4
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 20 1.“At the quantity of an efficient market outcome, marginal benefit equals marginal cost.” Explain this statement in your own words. 2.In the market for e-readers, at the prices of $40, $60, $80, $100, and $120, the following quantities are demanded: 2000, 1600, 1200, 800, and 600 units. The quantities supplied at those prices are 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 units. Draw a graph of this market. For the 800th unit, what is the consumer surplus? What is the producer surplus ? Refresh 4.5
© 2015 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Ch 4 - 21 3. For the e-reader market above, explain the reduction in total surplus that happens if the quantity of output increases beyond the efficient market outcome. Refresh 4.5
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