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Inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri INGLESE SCIENTIFICO 15 E 16 SETTEMBRE Master Management Master Geriatria.

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Presentation on theme: "Inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri INGLESE SCIENTIFICO 15 E 16 SETTEMBRE Master Management Master Geriatria."— Presentation transcript:

1 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri INGLESE SCIENTIFICO 15 E 16 SETTEMBRE Master Management Master Geriatria

2 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri obiettivi Sviluppare competenze nella lettura e comprensione di materiale specialistico in inglese Consolidare conoscenze grammaticali e sintattiche della lingua inglese Costruire e memorizzare un glossario dedicato Apprendere le tecniche di comunicazione attiva per comprendere, elaborare, esprimere e memorizzare contenuti scientifici in lingua inglese

3 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Tecniche di comunicazione ComprensioneSintesiParafrasiTraduzione Rielaborazione ed uso

4 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Metodologia del corso Lettura orientata alla ricerca dei significati Individuazione delle aree di contenuto Titolazione delle parti con parafrasi Individuazione delle parole chiave Analisi logica e grammaticale Esercizi di comprensione in italiano e in inglese Traduzione espressiva Traduzione referenziale

5 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Language for Special Purposes …is a variety of language used by specialists to refer to typical realities within a sector …is characterized by the use of “appositely labelled terms bound together by appropriate words from the general vocabulary stock” (Taylor C. 1998)

6 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri materiale –Nursing abstracts and articles –Linee guida per la comprensione testuale –Manuale di grammatica –Glossari specialistici

7 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Let’s start I have deliberately made the choice of dealing only with reading skills in order to develop: Thematic re-search skillsThematic re-search skills Comprehension and active paraphrase skillsComprehension and active paraphrase skills Vocabulary enrichmentVocabulary enrichment Grammar structure buildingGrammar structure building Translation’s techniquesTranslation’s techniques

8 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Motivation Is Necessary being committed to the subject matter wanting to learn the content believing in one's own ability wanting to share understandings from learning.

9 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri What is Reading Comprehension? According to Webster's Dictionary, comprehension is "the capacity for understanding fully; the act or action of grasping with the intellect."

10 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri What is Reading Comprehension? Webster also tells us that reading is –"to receive or take in the sense of (as letters or symbols) by scanning” –to understand the meaning of written or printed matter; to learn from what one has seen or found in writing or printing.

11 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Article reading Step by step guide

12 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri How to proceed 1Read and translate the titles, it will help to identify the topic. 2Recognize the text pattern and organisation: they will signal how the info will be presented.

13 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Recognize the structure of the article ………………….. 1)….…………………….. 2)….…………………….. 2)….…………………….. 3)….…………………….. 3)….…………………….. 4)….…………………….. 4)….…………………….. 5)….…………………….. 5)….……………………..

14 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Recognize the structure of the article 1)….…………………….. 2)….…………………….......………………………. …………………………… …………………………… 3)….…………………….. …………………………... …………………………… …………………………….….……………………….….………………………

15 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Recognize the structure of the article 4)….…………………….......………………………. …………………………… …………………………….….……………………….….……………………… …………………………... …………………………... …………………………… …………………………… 5)….……………………..

16 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Why is visual a powerful tool ?

17 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Converting Words Into Pictures The human brain is divided into two hemispheres; –left and right. Each hemisphere has specialized capabilities and each processes different types of information.

18 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Converting Words Into Pictures The left hemisphere operates in a rational, analytical manner –It processes verbal information. –It is the seat of language and logical thinking. –It organizes and categorizes information.

19 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Converting Words Into Pictures The right hemisphere operates in an intuitive, holistic manner –It processes visual and spatial information –It is the seat of creativity and imagination –It combines separate elements to form coherent wholes

20 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Left-brain skills “words” Note taking lecturingreading analytical thought

21 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Right-brain skills “visual” Recognizing –patterns –configurations –shapes –forms intuitive thought visualization

22 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Verbal and visual skills together Thinking pictorially focusing on the whole instead of on separate parts trusting intuition taking advantage of both of the ways in which the brain makes learning possible

23 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Like a puzzle Every piece has significance and meaning if we keep in mind the complete drawing

24 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Powerful tool if you commit your learning to memory through words only, you are using only half of your brainpower.

25 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Holistic Learning –This cooperation is easy to gain if you make it a habit to convert words into actual pictures or diagrams in your notesto convert words into actual pictures or diagrams in your notes to convert words into mental pictures or images on the blackboard of your mind.to convert words into mental pictures or images on the blackboard of your mind.

26 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Let ’ s read then First the abstract

27 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri How to proceed 3Read and translate the keywords 4Read through the abstract: a. Write a description of it 5Decide whether you need to go on with the reading of the article

28 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Meaning-oriented reading

29 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Reading and comprehension 1.Read through the text underlying the parts you find as interesting in the text 2.Write a title with paraphrases for each part 3.Look up the meaning of the words you do not know in the dictonaries

30 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Remember that Identify words on a page doesn’t make someone a succesfull reader! Only when words are understood and become ideas and thoughts, you are truly reading.

31 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri PARAGRAPH AS BASIC UNIT NOT WORDS !

32 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri The basic unit of thought Perhaps one of the best ways to improve your reading ability is to learn to read paragraphs effectively

33 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri The basic unit of thought If one can quickly grasp the meaning of each of these thought units while reading, then comprehension will be heightened

34 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Organizational Patterns of Paragraphs It is important to identify with the author's perspective by discovering the way the message is being sent. Every writer has a purpose for writing and some plan of action for getting a message across.

35 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri When do I need to translate ?

36 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Article reading and comprension When you meet some parts which are difficult to understand while reading even if every word is clear, then…. YOU NEED TO TRANSLATE THAT PART

37 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Why translate ? 1.It is the best way to use grammar 2.It is the best way to verify your comprehension 3.It is a precious help for the memorization of contents 4.It is reading and understanding out loud

38 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Translation techniques Look up and check the meaning of the words you need in the dictionary Detect which parts of the sentence is: Parte soggetto Parte soggetto NounsNouns adjectivesadjectives

39 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Translation techniques Predicato verbale Predicato verbale AuxiliaryAuxiliary VerbsVerbs Modo e tempo Modo e tempo attivo/passivo,transitivo/intransitivo /riflessivo) attivo/passivo,transitivo/intransitivo /riflessivo) adverbsadverbs

40 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Translation techniques Parte complemento Parte complemento Frasi relative /secondarie Frasi relative /secondarie ThatThat WhoWho whichwhich

41 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Now write your translation 1.Write a word for word translation 2.Re-write your literal translation with the proper language IT IS IMPORTANT TO DECIDE THE USE OF YOUR TRANSLATION ALWAYS TRANSLATE WHILE PICTURING AN IDEAL READER

42 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri information is the scope of specific texts The reader is the most important element to be considered A translation has many layers: –translation at the level of word –translation at the level of sentence –Conceptual translation –Addressee translation: reader-oriented translation

43 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri VOCABULARY STORAGE

44 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri vocabulary storage While reading, underlying and working with dictionaries and meanings, it’s important to write a list of terms with their translations and examples which belong to the text itself At the end you will have a glossary which is specific and theme-centred.

45 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Active Reading

46 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri What is active reading? A strategy that gets reader involved with material. –Helps reader understand the author’s opinion about the topic –Helps reader form judgments. –Best suited for reading that emphasizes the author’s concepts and opinions based on facts gathered through research and observation. Process that develops critical thinking skills –Analysis –Synthesis –Evaluation

47 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Active reading questions Active readers must answer eight questions. –What is the author’s main idea? –What main points support the main idea? –Is the support adequate and convincing? –Is the author expressing facts, opinions or both? –What is the author’s tone/attitude? –What is the author’s purpose? –Who is the author’s intended audience? –What is the source of the author’s detail?

48 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Active reading questions What is the author’s main idea? –What is the topic of the article? –What is the author’s opinion of that topic? What main points support the main idea? –What reasons or examples does the author give that help to explain his/her opinion about the topic.

49 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Active reading questions Is the support adequate and convincing? –Does the author give reasons that make sense? –Does the author give more than one reason? Is the author expressing facts, opinions or both? –Facts are exact details. –Facts are specific information. –Facts can be proven to be true.

50 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Active reading questions What is the author’s tone/attitude? –Serious? –Sarcastic? –Preachy? –Humorous? –Angry –Insulting?

51 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Active reading questions What is the author’s purpose? –To share –To inform –To entertain –To persuade Who is the author’s intended audience? –Is the author writing to the general public? –Is the author writing to a special audience? What is the source of the author’s detail? –Observation –Personal experience –Research –Reasoning

52 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Answering active reader questions Students should complete four steps to find the answers to the eight active reader questions. –Surveying –Uninterrupted reading –Studied reading –Review

53 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri First step of active reading Surveying –Check the title What does title tell you about what you will be reading? Who is the author? –Look through the material Headings Boldface type Italics Lists

54 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri First step of active reading Surveying –Read the opening and closing paragraphs. What clues do these provide about content and writer’s purpose? –Read first sentence of each paragraph. What clues these provide about the content? –Once readers have surveyed material they will have a sense of what to expect when the material is read in detail.

55 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Second step of active reading Uninterrupted reading –Read material quickly, but attentively without stopping. Underline points you find interesting Circle words in the passage you don’t understand to check later. Place question mark next to material you don’t understand. –Keep going Try to determine the writer’s main point. –After completing this step, write as many answers to active reader questions that you can. Look up every word that you have circled and write meaning in the margin near the circled word.

56 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Third step of active reading Studied reading –Underline author’s thesis (main point) if it is stated. Identify the sentences that express the author’s opinion about the topic. –Also underline the main points that support the thesis. Identify the sentences that explain the reason for the author’s opinion. –As you read, record your observations Personal comments Note your agreement or disagreement –After this reading, answer remaining active reader questions.

57 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Fourth step of active reading Review –try to answer each of the eight active reader questions.

58 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Let’s start Active reading exercise

59 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri articolo RESEARCH IN BRIEF Care plans as the main focus of nursing handover: information exchange model Ruth Clemow MA HP Education, BSc (Hons) Nursing, Dip Nursing (London), RGN Quality Manager/Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health & Social Work, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK Submitted for publication: 26 October 2005 Accepted for publication: 11 November 2005

60 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri AIM To report on nurse’s experience and practice development through change in style of nursing handover from office based to using care plans and related documentation as the main source of information exchange.

61 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri The nurses’ day traditionally starts with the ritual of a nursing handover or report, often in an office space (Walsh & Ford 1989). In one acute medical ward for older people, of a Health Care Trust in the UK, office-based handover drew all the incoming team and a large number of the outgoing team away from the ward area at least three times each day. This was time consuming thereby having a negative impact on the continuity of patient care. Patient documentation was rarely referenced at handover despite significant efforts to complete it. To make improvements to the practice, a project plan was prepared that anticipated the change phases from traditional to new handover style, setting short-and long-term goals and an evaluation strategy. The risk reduction strategy included concordance to the process of information exchange (Fig. 1). Background

62 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Methods Ethical governance was addressed within the Health Care Trusts’ clinical audit policy. A series of audits undertaken after one, three, and six months through self-report questionnaires identified staff perceptions of their experience of the new handover process. The team of 24 staff voluntarily completed structured perception questionnaires. Furthermore, an independent audit of care plans was carried out across the Trust. This involved comparative analysis of a 10% sample of all patient’s documentation in 12 other wards (acute medical, palliative care, rehabilitation, and continuing care) with the ward in focus in this report.

63 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Methods The aim was to identify whether the new form of handover had affected the completeness of patient documentation or generated any additional risks. All documentation audited was of patients admitted more than two days prior to the audit and randomly selected by the ward staff on request at the time of the audit. Quantitative data was gathered through a structured questionnaire. The focus of the audit was in identifying whether there was alignment of all identified patient problems with the care plan through analysis of the medical admission notes, admission assessment, care plans and daily summary. To avoid bias, no prior notice was given and two auditors gathered and cross-checked the data.

64 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Results The first audit results from the staff perception questionnaires identified both advantages and disadvantages in the new handover process. The reported advantages identified that the process challenged their usual practice and encouraged reflective practice. It prevented office dwelling and therefore improved priority and time management. This also led to increased nurse/patient contact time leading to a more seamless service; and improved care plans and patient documentation overall.

65 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Results They reported to having increased time released for their professional development opportunities. Two disadvantages included; the uncertainty of their role in the process was especially perceived by health-care assistants; and the new process did not directly address all the traditional functions of handover, especially those relating to socialization. The second audit results from the patient-care plans and associated documentation found that of the total number of patient’ problems identified from the sample, a variable percentage of contemporary care plans were available. The ward in focus had care plans present for all patient problems identified to 88% completeness.

66 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Results This was compared with five other similar acute wards where they were identified to 10% and 72% completeness. Whilst 88% completeness compared favourably to other similar areas as well as all other associated areas in the Department, the success of the new handover relied on complete and contemporary documentation, leaving more room for improvement. The risk of an absence of documentation was addressed through the process of the Information Exchange Model (Fig. 1), no other risks were identified. A number of variables might have influenced the findings including the staffing levels and the number of patients admitted into an area in the two days preceding the audit.

67 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Conclusions The change from the traditional office-based nursing handover to utilizing documentation at the patient bedside significantly improved not only the accessibility of nurses for patients but also the nurse’s satisfaction and the improvement in documentation. The importance of considering the context of nursing and best practice of handover from a range of options appeared to be significant in this study.

68 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Relevance to clinical practice The confidence in the change in handover was sustained through staff thinking beyond the traditions of handover, to draw on principles and accountability for professional practice (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) 2004). Traditional handover provided mainly retrospective information and health-care assistant tasks for care of a group of patients were often assumed and/or delegated by the nurse in charge as the shift progressed, depending on their seniority and experience.

69 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Relevance to clinical practice The new handover style required analysis and interpretation of planned care and evaluation documentation, which required facilitation from the nurse in charge of each team as well as positive action in setting out roles and responsibilities for the period of duty. The ‘up-skill’ of nurses for a change in handover style and process was important. The professional socialization needs of the staff were not felt to be addressed in this information exchange model of handover; therefore, a rest and resource area was created.

70 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri Relevance to clinical practice Whilst this paper reports on the outcome of the style of nursing handover in context of one acute ward, the wider implementation, impact on patient satisfaction and sustainability within the Health Care Trust are yet to be measured.

71 inglese scientificoLoredana Pancheri


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