Presentation on theme: "Estrutura “ had ” + past participle exemplos: The train had gone. I had had lunch. He had been a waiter."— Presentation transcript:
Estrutura “ had ” + past participle exemplos: The train had gone. I had had lunch. He had been a waiter.
Uso Usamos o PAST PERFECT para descrever Acontecendo antes Outra ação no Uma ação no
Uso Exemplo 1: The train had gone when I arrived at the station. a. Ambas e são ações no passado. b. aconteceu antes.
Uso Diagrama de tempo do exemplo 1: The train had gone when I arrived at the station. The train had gone I arrived PASSADO AGORA FUTURO Não sabemos exatamente quando o trem havia partido (Ação 1) mas ele partiu em algum ponto no tempo antes do momento que eu cheguei. (Ação 2).
Obs.: a.Nós usamos o past perfect quando é necessário indicar a sequência de duas ações no passado. Exemplo: She had gone out when I got home.
Obs.: b.Se a sequência for clara, o past perfect não é necessário. Exemplo: She went out before I got home.
Obs.: c.Porém é muito usado para que haja clareza. Exemplo: She had gone out before I got home.
Obs.: d.Nós frequentemente o usamos quando a segunda ação é subentendida mas não mencionada. Exemplo: I hadn’t realised (until you told me).
Obs.: Compare as frases (a) e (b) a. When I had had dinner, I watched TV. b. I had dinner before I watched TV. Em ambas as frases, qual ação aconteceu primeiro? Como que a sequência das ações é indicada em cada uma das frases?
Obs.: Nas frases (a) & (b), a ação de ter jantado aconteceu primeiro. Na (a), a sequência das ações é indicada pelo uso do past perfect. Na (b), a sequência das ações é indicada pelo uso do before.
Estrutura (Negativa & Interrogativa) Negativa: She hadn’t (had not) finished the homework by the time Mum came back. Afirmativa:She had finished the homework by the time Mum came back. Interrogativa: Had she finished the homework by the time Mum came back?
Exercise A Situation:Susan and Terry returned home from holiday yesterday to find a broken window and several valuable items missing. Later, they tell the police what happened.
Exercise A (Cont’d) Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. (Write down the answers on a piece of paper)
Exercise A (Cont’d) P:When did you first realize someone (1) [break] into your house? T:Well, when we opened the front door we noticed that someone (2) [walk] through the hall in muddy shoes and (3) [break] the lock on the living-room door. and then, when we went into the kitchen, we saw that the thief, or thieves, (4) [come] in through the kitchen window; they (5) [smash] the glass and (6) [open] the window from the inside. P:Anything missing from the kitchen? S:As far as we can tell, there’s nothing missing from the kitchen. But it was an awful mess.
Exercise A (Cont’d) P:And what about the living room? T:We couldn’t believe our eyes when we first went in. they (7) [throw] all the books on the floor; they (8) [search] through every drawer in the desk; they (9) [tear] open all the cushions; they (10) [pull] the carpet up; and they even (11) [smash] all the pictures. P:And what was missing? S:Well, that’s strange. They (12) [take] some cash and smaller pieces of silver, but they (13) [leave] a lot of valuable items. They even (14) [leave] the cheque books. I don’t understand it. P:Something or someone probably (15) [disturb] them. It often happens. Well, we’ll do our best, but there’s not much chance of recovering your possessions, I’m afraid.
Exercise A (Key) 1.had broken 2.had walked 3.had broken 4.had come 5.had smashed 6.had opened 7.had thrown 8.had searched 9.had torn 10.had pulled 11.had even smashed 12.had taken 13.had left 14.had left 15.had probably disturbed
Exercise B Situation:Phil had his first flying lesson yesterday. He’s now telling Richard what it was like.
Exercise B (Cont’d) Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. (Write down the answers on a piece of paper)
Exercise B (Cont’d) R:You ever (16) [be] in a small plane before? P:No, and I not (17) [expect] it to be so noisy. I (18) [fly] in several different jets before, but I never even (19) [see] a small plane before yesterday. R:The instructor (20) [realise] you were a complete beginner? P:Oh yes. He (21) [spend] 30 minutes asking me questions before we went out of the plane. I told him I always (22) [want] to learn how to fly, but I never (23) [have] the opportunity and I not (24) [be] able to afford it before.
Exercise B (Cont’d) R:Was the lesson as exciting as you (25) [expect]? P:Oh yes. I (26) [imagine] all sorts of things before I actually flew the plane. I (27) [think] I would get airsick; I (28) [dream] I would crash; I (29) [be] worried I would be too nervous to control the plane; I (30) [imagine] the plane would catch fire. But after the lesson, I suddenly realized that I not (31) [be] sick, that we not (32) [crash], that I (33) [control] the plane well, that the plane not (34) [catch] fire and that I actually (35) [fly] a plane for the first time in my life. It was fantastic!
Exercise B (Key) 16.had you ever been 17.hadn’t expected 18.I’d flown 19.I’d never even seen 20.had the instructor realised 21.he’d spent 22.I’d always wanted 23.I’d never had 24.hadn’t been 25.you’d expected 26.I’d imagined 27.I’d thought 28.I’d dreamt 29.I’d been 30.I’d imagined 31.hadn’t been 32.hadn’t crashed 33.I’d controlled 34.hadn’t caught 35.I’d actually flown