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Michael Ross, MD, FACEP The Management of ED TIA Patients: Michael A. Ross MD FACEP Associate Professor Emergency Medicine Department of Emergency Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Michael Ross, MD, FACEP The Management of ED TIA Patients: Michael A. Ross MD FACEP Associate Professor Emergency Medicine Department of Emergency Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP The Management of ED TIA Patients: Michael A. Ross MD FACEP Associate Professor Emergency Medicine Department of Emergency Medicine William Beaumont Hospital Wayne State University School of Medicine

2 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Case presentation A 58 year old female presents to the emergency department after developing dysarthria, diploplia, numbness, and pronounced weakness of the right face and hand that lasted roughly 12 minutes. The patient feels completely normal and only came in at her families insistence. –Review of systems - mild headache with event. No palpitations, chest pain, or SOB. –Past medical history - Positive for hypertension and hyperlipidemia. No prior stroke or TIA. –Family history positive for premature coronary disease. –Meds - Beta-blocker for HTN. Not on aspirin. –Social - She does not smoke.

3 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Case presentation Phyisical Exam: On examination the patient was normotensive, and comfortable. HEENT exam showed no facial or oral asymmetry or numbness. No scalp tenderness. CHEST exam showed no murmurs and a regular rhythm, ABDOMINAL and EXTREMITY exam was normal, NEUROLOGICAL exam showed normal mentation, CN II- XII normal as tested, motor / sensory exam normal, symmetrical normal reflexes, and normal cerebellar exam.

4 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Case presentation ED course: –ECG showed a normal sinus rhythm with mild LVH. –Non-contrast head CT scan was normal. –Blood-work (CBC with differential, electrolytes, BUN/Cr, and glucose) was normal. ESR was normal. –Monitor showed no dysrhythmias –Normal subsequent neurological symptoms. –The patient feels fine and is wondering if she can go home. What do you think?

5 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Background 300,000 TIAs occur annually - Johnstons’ data Within 90 days: 10.5% will suffer a stroke _ 21% will be fatal _ 64% will be disabling _ Half of these will occur within days of ED visit 2.6% will die 2.6% will suffer adverse cardiovascular events 12.7% will have additional TIAs

6 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Stroke Risk After TIA Year N Stroke Risk Johnston, et al (Kaiser ED) % /90d Eliasew, et al (NASCET) % /90d Lovett, et al (Oxfordshire) % /30d Gladstone, et al (Toronto) %/30d Daffertshofer, et al (Grmy) %/180d Hill, et al (Alberta) %/90d Lisabeth, et al (Texas) %/90d Kleindorfer, et al (Cinc) %/90d Whitehead, et al (Scotland) %/30d Correia, et al (Portugal) %/7d Tsivgoulis, et al (Greece) %/30d AVERAGE~12% stroke risk in 90 days after TIA 5% in first 2 days

7 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Stroke Risk After Stroke IST3.3 %/ 3m CAST1.6%/ 3m TOAST5.7%/ 3m NASCET 2.3%/3m AVERAGE ~4% stroke risk in 90 days after stroke

8 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Pathophysiology Short-term risk of stroke: –After TIA (11%) > after stroke (4%) Possible explanation –Tissue still at risk: unstable situation More thrombo-embolic events Johnston, NEJM 2002; 347:1687

9 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Possible Explanation: Instability

10 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Possible Explanation: Instability

11 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Outside the “head”: Cardio-embolic sources

12 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Background Stroke is preceded by TIA in 15% of pts Stroke is the THIRD leading cause of death –National cost of stroke = $51 billion annually! –Many consider stroke to be worse than death.

13 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP TIA STROKE

14 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Topics to be covered 1. Appropriate history, physical, and labs 2. ECG, monitor, HCT 3. Carotid dopplers - why, when, how? 4. Further clinical testing 5. Therapy – starting with aspirin

15 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP TIA Definition Traditional –Neurological deficit lasting less than 24 hours due to focal ischemia in the brain or retina. Newly Proposed –A brief episode of neurologic dysfunction –caused by focal brain or retinal ischemia, –with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than 1hr, –and without evidence of acute infarction”. If TIA symptoms last >1hr, then >85% have a stroke –NINDs tPA study data - Albers et al.

16 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 1. History and physical: The History Duration - 60 min Evidence to suggest non-vascular cause? –Focal vs. non-focal symptoms –Abrupt vs. gradual symptom onset Vascular risk factors? –DM, prior “CVA-TIA-MI-PVD” Symptoms to suggest potential causes? –Neck pain - dissection –Palpitations - atrial fibrillation

17 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Evaluation: Physical examination Neurologic deficits? Carotid bruits (note limitations)? Cardiac abnormalities? –Arrhythmia –Murmur –Signs of heart failure Symptoms reproducible with provocative maneuvers? –Cervical stretch test –Carpal tunnel positioning tests

18 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Neurological Exam Six major areas –MS, CN II-IX, Motor, Sensory, Reflex, Coordination NIH stroke score –Structured neurological exam –Validated tool for detection of significant deficits –Value as an educational tool –Thrombolytic screening tool –Google - “NIHSS training”: –Google - “FERNE” website:

19 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Evaluation: Laboratory testing Complete blood count –anemia, polycythemia, thrombocytosis/thrombocytopenia Chemistry panel –hypoglycemia, diabetes, renal failure Sedimentation rate –temporal arteritis, endocarditis EKG –prior MI, atrial fibrillation

20 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Unstable plaque with intense staining for PAPP-A within spindle shaped smooth muscle cells and in extracellular matrix of eroded plaque Stable plaque with absence of PAPP-A staining Unstable plaque ; Lp-PLA2 Candidate Blood Markers??? Unstable Plaque: Lp-PLA2, PAPP-A, MMP-9, CRP, S-TF Coagulation Activation: D-dimer, F 1.2, TAT Cardioembolism: BNP (CHF), D-dimer

21 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP TIA: Differential Diagnosis “Mimics” Epilepsy Complicated migraine Subdural hematoma Mass lesions, AVMs Arterial dissection Cervical disc disease Carpal tunnel syndrome Metabolic derangement (ex, hypoglycemia) Inner ear disease/BPV Transient global amnesia Cranial arteritis Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project found that 62% of patients referred by GP with a diagnosis of TIA were found to have some other explanation for symptoms (Dennis M, Stroke 1989)

22 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Is a “TIA” a TIA? Little agreement, even among neurologists (kappa ) Generally, neurologists are not the ones making the diagnosis –May even be less reproducibility Risk factors for stroke may identify true TIAs Johnston et al, Neurology 2003; 60:280

23 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Utility of the H/P? TIA risk stratification –Johnston criteria –Rothwell criteria - “ABCD” –Combination of the above = “ABCD2”

24 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP TIA risk stratification - California Model Johnston et al. Short-term prognosis after emergency department diagnosis of TIA. JAMA. 2000;284: Independent risk factors for stroke: Age > 60yr (OR = 1.8) Diabetes (OR = 2.0) TIA > 10 min. (OR = 2.3) Weakness with TIA (OR = 1.9) Speech impairment (OR = 1.5) Risk factors were additive

25 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Our patient’s Johnston score? Independent risk factors for stroke: Age > 60yr 0 Diabetes 0 TIA > 10 min. 1 Weakness with TIA 1 Speech impairment 1 stroke risk score of 3: ~5% at one week ~8% at 3 months

26 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP TIA risk stratification - British model? Rothwell,et al. TIA risk stratification - British model? Rothwell,et al. Lancet 2005; 366: 29–36 A = Age >60 years = 1pt B = BP: SBP >140 or DBP >90 = 1pt C = Clinical: –Unilateral weakness= 2pt –Speech disturbance= 1pt D = Duration –>60 min= 2pt –10 – 59 min= 1pt –<10 min= 0pt

27 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP

28 Our patients ABCD score? A = Age >60 years = 0 B = BP: SBP >140 or DBP >90 = 0 C = Clinical: –Unilateral weakness= 2pt –Speech disturbance= 1pt D = Duration –>60 min= 0 –10 – 59 min= 1pt –<10 min= 0 TOTAL SCORE = 4 (5% risk of stroke at one week)

29 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP ABCD 2 Score

30 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP ABCD 2 Score Score points for each of the following: –Age >60 (1) –Blood pressure >140/90 on initial evaluation (1) –Clinical: Focal weakness (2) Speech impairment without weakness (1) –Duration >60 min (2) min (1) –Diabetes (1) Final Score 0-7

31 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP ABCD 2 Score Validation: Meta-analysis

32 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP ABCD 2 Score and Stroke Risks

33 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Prognosis Conclusions The ABCD 2 Score stratifies short-term risk of stroke after TIA –2-day risks Low Risk (34%):Score 0-3  1% Moderate Risk (45%): Score 4-5  4% Very High Risk (21%): Score 6-7  8% “This rule is ready for clinical use” –C. Johnston

34 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP What is our patients’ ABCD2 score? –Age >60 = 0 –Blood pressure >140/90 (initial) (1)= 0 –Clinical: Focal weakness (2) = 2 Speech impairment without weakness (1)= 0 –Duration >60 min (2)= min (1)= 1 –Diabetes (1)= 0 Total = 3 –Stroke at 2 days = 1% –Stroke at 7 days = 2% (?!)

35 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Limitations of Prediction Rules Discriminatory value sub-optimal –What about the patient with 90% carotid stenosis and a low score??? Generalizability seems poor (though exact reasons for this unclear) Are these rules really just selecting patients with “real” TIAs?

36 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 2. HCT, ECG HCT - tumor, SDH, NPH, etc –Minor stroke and TIA associated with a 10% incidence of stroke on MRI.

37 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Infarction in TIA Approximately 50% of those with TIA have DWI changes on MRI Kidwell et al Stroke 1999

38 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP When is a “TIA” a TIA? What about when a clinically silent acute infarct is present? –New infarct on CT as a predictor of stroke: 38% with new infarct had a stroke within 90 days vs. 10% without (p=0.008). OR 4.1 after adjustment for clinical factors. –Recently, new infarct on MRI also shown to be a predictor. 5-fold increase in risk with new lesion on baseline MRI Also, greater risk of in-hospital stroke in a second cohort. VC Douglas et al, Stroke 2003; 34:2894 SB Coutts et al, Neurology 2005; 65:513 H Ay et al, Ann Neurol 2005; 57:679

39 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Time Neurologic Deficit Recovery Stroke TIA Stroke?

40 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 90-day risk of stroke in patients with a small stroke vs TIA? Lancet Neurol 2006; 5: 323–31

41 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP TIA Stroke Minor stroke Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND) Cerebral infarction with transient signs Reversible ischemia Infarction DWI+ TIA

42 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 2. HCT, ECG ECG – ATRIAL FIBRILLATION!!! –Stroke risk – cardio-embolic risk 4.6% at 1 month 11.9% at 3 months –61% reduction in annual risk of stroke (both ischemic or hemorrhagic) with coumadin

43 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 3. Carotid Dopplers Stroke risk depends on where the disease is: 7day90day CE = Cardio-Embolic:2.5%12% LAA = Large arteries 4.0%19% Und = Undetermined 2.3%9% SVS = Small Vessels 0%3%

44 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 3. Carotid dopplers The BIG question - WHEN??? Carotid surgery if >70% stenosis lesions is “time sensitive”. Stroke risk reduction if done within: –0-2 weeks 75% stenosis = 30.2% –2-4 weeks 75% stenosis = 17.6% –4-12 weeks 75% stenosis = 11.4% –+12 weeks 75% stenosis = 8.9% Similar for 50-70% lesions

45 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Outpatient carotid dopplers? Office management of TIA??? Goldstein et al. New transient ischemic attack and stroke: outpatient management by primary care physicians. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160: Design: –Retrospective study of 95 TIA and 81 stroke patients seen in office Diagnostic testing within 30 days: –23% had head CT done –40% had carotid dopplers done –18% had ECG done –19% had echo done –31% had no other evaluation

46 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 4. Further Clinical testing? Serial neurological exams? –10.5% stroke within 3 months Half within 2 days Most within 1 day Monitoring for AF? 2-D echo?

47 Johnston et al, JAMA 284: Further clinical testing Probability of Survival Days after TIA No. of Patients At Risk For: Stroke Adverse Events Strokes Adverse Events

48 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 5. Medical management 5. Medical management Antiplatelet Therapy Useful in non-cardioembolic causes – Aspirin mg/day – Clopidogrel or ticlopidine – Aspirin plus dipyridamole Latter two if ASA intolerant or if TIA while on ASA Routine anticoagulation not recommended

49 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP 5. Medical management 5. Medical management Risk Factor Management HTN: BP below 140/90 DM: fasting glucose < 126 mg/dl Hyperlipidemia: LDL < 100 mg/dl Stop smoking! Exercise min, 3x/week Avoid excessive alcohol use Weight loss: < 120% of ideal weight

50 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Hospital Admission for TIA Medical management to minimize risk of recurrent ischemia Expedite evaluation and treatment of specific mechanisms – CEA for carotid stenosis, anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation Observation for further events, with potential expedited thrombolysis Avoid the lawyers

51 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP

52 Management of TIA: Areas of Certainty: –Need for ED visit, ECG, labs, Head CT Areas of less certainty –The timing of the carotid dopplers Areas of Uncertainty - Johnston SC. N Engl J Med. 2002;347: –“The benefit of hospitalization is unknown... Observation units within the ED... may provide a more cost-effective option.”

53 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP An Emergency Department Diagnostic Protocol For Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack: A Randomized Controlled Trial To determine if emergency department TIA patients managed using an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) in an observation unit (EDOU) will experience: shorter length of stays lower costs comparable clinical outcomes... relative to traditional inpatient admission.

54 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Patient population : Presented to the ED with symptoms of TIA ED evaluation: –History and physical –ECG, monitor, HCT –Appropriate labs –Diagnosis of TIA established Decision to admit or observe SCREENING AND RANDOMIZATION

55 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Methods: ADP Exclusion criteria Persistent acute neurological deficits Crescendo TIAs Positive HCT Known embolic source (including a. fib) Known carotid stenosis (>50%) Non-focal symptoms Hypertensive encephalopathy / emergency Prior stroke with large remaining deficit Severe dementia or nursing home patient Social issues making ED discharge / follow up unlikely History of IV drug use

56 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Four components: –Serial neuro exams Unit staff, physician, and a neurology consult –Cardiac monitoring –Carotid dopplers –2-D echo BOTH study groups had orders for the same four components Methods: ADP Interventions

57 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Methods: ADP Disposition criteria Home –No recurrent deficits, negative workup –Appropriate antiplatelet therapy and follow-up Inpatient admission from EDOU –Recurrent symptoms or neuro deficit –Surgical carotid stenosis (ie >50%) –Embolic source requiring treatment –Unable to safely discharge patient

58 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Results

59 Results: Patient Characteristics

60 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Results: Performance of clinical testing

61 Results: Length of Stay Median Inpatient = 61.2 hr ADP = 25.6 hr Difference= 29.8 hr (Hodges-Lehmann) (p<0.001) ADP sub-groups: ADP - home= 24.2 hr ADP - admit= hr

62 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Results: 90-Day Clinical Outcomes

63 Results: 90 - day Costs Median Inpatient = $1548 ADP = $890 Difference= $540 (Hodges-Lehmann) (p<0.001) ADP sub-groups: ADP - home= $844 ADP - admit= $2,737

64 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Study conclusion: Compared to inpatient admission, the ED TIA diagnostic protocol was: More efficient Less costly With comparable clinical outcomes

65 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Implications National feasibility of ADP: –18% of EDs have an EDOU –220 JCAHO stroke centers National health care costs –Potential savings if 18% used ADP: $29.1 million dollars –Medicare observation APC Impact of shorter LOS –Patients – satisfaction, missed Dx... –Hospitals – bed availability

66 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP CLINICAL CASE - OUTCOME The patient was started on aspirin and admitted to the ED observation unit. While in the unit she had a 2-D echo with bubble contrast, that was normal. She had no arrhythmia detected on cardiac monitoring and no subsequent neurological deficits. However, carotid dopplers were abnormal. She showed 30-50% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery, and a severe flow limiting >70% stenosis of the left carotid artery at the origin of the internal carotid artery. She was admitted to the hospital for endarterectomy. Five days following ED arrival, and following inpatient pre-operative clearance, she underwent successful endarterectomy. On one month follow-up she was asymptomatic and her carotids were doing well.

67 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Who do you send home from the ED??? C. Johnston: –“TIA risk score does not identify a “zero” risk group” –But it is a good start... Possibly: –Negative ED work-up (ECG, exam, CT), low TIA score, negative carotid dopplers within 6 months, safe home support for return in next 48 hours if needed? Appropriate medications.

68 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Ron Krome: –“It doesn’t matter what you do, as long as you are right” If you are not sure, better play it safe... –Admit or observe Who do you send home from the ED???

69 Michael Ross, MD, FACEP Conclusions TIAs are ominous –Justifies acute interventions, including hospitalization –Opportunity to prevent injury but trials are needed Recovery rather than complete resolution is likely the important distinguishing characteristic and may identify an unstable pathophysiology “TIAs” are heterogeneous –Management should be individualized –Prognostic scores may help Secondary prevention is critical


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