Presentation on theme: "You should be able to identify the major players in the French & Indian War You should be able to cite the four primary reasons why the French & Indian."— Presentation transcript:
You should be able to identify the major players in the French & Indian War You should be able to cite the four primary reasons why the French & Indian War began You should be able to analyze the reasons why Native Americans aligned with either the French or the British Homework: Reading Assignment #2
Just so you know… This conflict spanned the entire globe: Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines Countries involved: Great Britain, France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, Saxony, Spain & Russia – We are going to focus on the North American theater of war: The French & Indian War
Who were the major players? The British The French The Iroquois
Spanish, French & British Colonies circa 1700 British Colonies New France New Spain Disputed Areas Boundary of Iroquois League
What were the major causes of tension? 1.Land, land, land – French & British coexist in North America for nearly 100 years BUT, both are seeking to expand their territory – Problem: France and Britain both claim the Ohio River Valley as their own! Zoinks!
2.Both French and British ignored the plight of the Native American – Results in animosity between the Native American and the settlers How did Britain and France differ in terms of population in North America? Great Britain also has many more settlers than France resulting in greater enmity What were the major causes of tension?
Who were the three main players in the French and Indian War? What is the relationship between the Seven Years’ War and the French & Indian War? Cite two of the main conflicts we discussed yesterday regarding the tensions between the French & British in North America.
British Colonies New France New Spain Disputed Areas Boundary of Iroquois League
What were the major causes of tension? 3.Religion – British settlers practiced what faith? Denominations of Protestantism – French settlers practiced what faith? Catholicism – What problem may this create? British feared that their religious freedoms may be limited with increased French presence on the continent, and allegiance to the Pope
What were the major causes of tension? 4.FUR! Namely, beaver fur! – Beaver Wars (1640 – 1701) fought between French and their allies & Iroquois Confederation French allies: Huron, Algonquians and the Mohicans Iroquois: main trade partner = British (& Dutch) Beavers growing scarce in Iroquois territories because they were SO SUCCESSFUL…need new supply – Iroquois set their sights on the lands of the Algonquians in the Ohio Valley and over the course of 50+ years set about terrorizing the lands
What were the major causes of tension? 4.FUR! Namely, beaver fur! – Uses for Beaver Fur: Native Indians traded the beaver pelts for advanced weapons, tools, beads, and European goods Beaver hats = status symbol for position and wealth; hat sales were extremely important source of income for English & French
What were the major causes of tension? 4.FUR! Namely, beaver fur! – Outcome of the Beaver Wars: – Iroquois realize the British are as dangerous as the French and sign treaty with the French – Iroquois come to see that they held the balance of power between the two European powers and could they used that position to their benefit
Make dams…not war!
Native Americans Choose Sides Indians did not want to side with either, but had to make a choice Both France and Britain tried to gain Indian support
Choosing Sides French – Trappers – Traders – Lived amongst the land – Married Native American women – Adopted Native American ways Algonquin & Huron Britain – Lowered price of trade goods – More powerful – Cleared land for farms – Ignored Indian rights – Enslaved Native Americans Iroquois – Enemies of Huron & Algonquin (and still hostile from Beaver Wars)
British Advantages 1.Alliance between English and Iroquois Nation (6 Indian nations: Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and the Tuscarora). 2.Stronger army and navy, and better trained men 3.English settlers (1.5 million) outnumbered French settlers (75,000) 15x
French Advantages 1.Extensive system of forts in the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes region 2.Single system of command… – What about the colonists? 3.Better relationship with Native Americans due to trade (hunters, trappers and traders) and less settlement 4.French better suited to fighting in wilderness
British Disadvantages Colonies could not agree on a united defense 13 separate colonial assemblies could not act quickly Fighting “style”
French Disadvantages Difficult to defend Smaller population
Identify the Native American nation that aligned itself with the British during the French & Indian War What were the 4 primary causes of the conflict? Identify the advantages for the British? The French? Identify the disadvantages for the British? The French? What was the immediate conflict before the start of the French & Indian War?
After today you should be able to… – Cite and explain the specific events leading to the French & Indian War – Analyze the ways in which the colonists tried to work together to fight the French – Predict how William Pitt’s actions will lead to future conflict within the British colonies
Throw Down… Ohio Company formed by Virginian land speculators granted 200,000 acres by the king – What country did these men pay allegiance to? France’s response: build forts along the Ohio River Valley and fortify with 2,000 soldiers
Throw Down…1753 Virginian governor’s response: – Sends a guy named George Washington to deliver a message: “France, you better get out or else.” France’s reply: “You can’t make us! You’re not the boss of us!” Washington returns to Virginia with his tail between his legs… Oh no you didn’t! Robert Dinwiddie
Throw Down…1754 Fast forward one year: – Governor sends Washington and a crew (approx 36 men) to build a fort at the forks of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers…where is that?!? – Problem: The French had already begun building a fort in the same place (500 men) Named after the governor of New France: Go Steelers?!? Wait, who are the Steelers?
What to do now?!? Washington moves his men 50 miles south to Great Meadow (Uniontown, Fayette Co.) May 28, 1754: Washington surrounds French forces (35 men) with the help of the Seneca Indian chief (Iroquois nation) – French had 13 casualties and 21 captured – British had 1 casualty and a few wounded Became known as Jumonville Glen after the French leader killed there – First battle of the war…holla!
Hmmm…what to do now?!?
Fort (of) Necessity In five days, Washington and his troops (approx. 300) build a fort (June 3, 1754) One month later, on July 3, 600 French and 100 Indians surrounded Washington and his men. British casualties much worse than French. At midnight, signed truce …Although it was in French and Washington couldn’t read French! Stated the G. Wash had Jumonville assassinated Washington surrendered fort to French.
Solid American craftsmanship???
The Albany Congress, June 19 th – July 11 th, 1754 The first meeting of the colonies to discuss forging a union of the 13 colonies – 7 of the 13 attended: CT, MD, MA, NH, NY, PA & RI Proposed union: each state would send delegates to the council, a president would be elected
The Albany Plan of Union Proposed by Benjamin Franklin Focus: Indian relations, military preparedness, trade regulations – Albany Congress say, “Heck yeah…” – But the individual colonies REJECT the plan…why? This is what I looked like during the French & Indian War!
What immediate issue led to conflict between the French & British to come to a head? What was the name of the fort built by the French at the forks of the Allegheny & Monongahela Rivers? Where was the first battle of the war? – Outcome? What was the name of the fort Washington built? What was the eventual outcome of circumstances there? Explain how the colonists attempted to forge a union or confederation with one another. Who proposed it? What was the purpose? What was the outcome?
General Edward “Bulldog” Braddock Braddock sent to by the British crown to serve as commander in chief of the British forces in North America against the French First Objective: seize Fort Duquesne –U–Use to fighting in the open fields of Europe in columns or lines; very structured Movement was slow: –P–Pack animals, road needed to be built, supplies from colonies did not arrive, many soldiers fell ill –L–Left many soldiers behind as well
Commanded 700 colonial militiamen (whom he regarded disdainfully) and 1,400 British regulars Moved across the Alleghenies from Cumberland, Maryland, building a road –B–Braddock’s Trail today. Movement was slow: –P–Pack animals, road needed to be built, supplies from colonies did not arrive, many soldiers fell ill –L–Left about 1/3 of his British regiments behind
Benjamin Franklin Describes General Edward Braddock "This general was, I think, a brave man, and might probably have made a figure as a good officer in some European war. But he had too much self-confidence, too high an opinion of the validity of regular troops, and too mean a one of both Americans and Indians.... "I ventured only to say, '... The only danger I apprehend of obstruction to your march is from ambuscades of Indians, who, by constant practice, are dexterous in laying and executing them.... ’ "He smiled at my ignorance, and replied, 'These savages may, indeed, be a formidable enemy to your raw American militia, but upon the King's regular and disciplined troops, sir, it is impossible they should make any impression."
This Will NOT work here!
I should’ve listened to Ben Franklin…maybe then I wouldn’t have DIED!
July 9, 1755: French learn of his advance – While crossing Monongahela River, Braddock met by a force of 900 men – Braddock was attacked near – Massacred by the French and Indians Casualties – 1,459 engaged, 977 were killed or wounded – French & Native casualties: 9 killed Braddock mortally wounded; Washington ordered the retreat Disaster at Fort Duquesne Hey guys!
The Fall of Braddock (1755) Tally-ho!
Up close and personal…
The Seven Years’ War May 1756: Britain formally declares war on France: – Allied selves with Austria and Prussia – Fighting spread to West Indies, India and Europe
William Pitt 1757 – Britain’s new Prime Minister – Pitt believed that to win control of the overall war, he needed to win the front in North America – Sent Britain’s best generals to North America – Sent more supplies and men to North America BUT – Forcibly recruited colonists – Seized supplies and equipment from local farmers and tradesmen – Compelled colonists to offer shelter to British troops
The British Turn the Tide 1758 – British win many key victories (which we will NOT focus on!) Louisburg (use of navy to control the seas) Frontenac Fort Duquesne captured by the British and renamed Fort Pitt Niagara Crown Point Ticonderoga
The British Turn the Tide 1759: British capture Quebec (capital of New France) – British sneak up cliff (Plains of Abraham) outside of Quebec on an unguarded trail and lay siege to the city for 3 months 4,000 men on the side of the Brits – Actual Battle lasts 15 minutes – General Wolfe defeats the French General Montcalm (both die…no lols here!) 1760: British take over Montreal Fighting ends in North America..Woot!
Montcalm Wolfe Dead
Plains of Abraham
The Capture of Montreal 1760
Wolfe…Dead How can I possibly go on?
Montcalm…Dead I hope this doesn’t take long…I’m kinda hungry!
What was the name of the British general who was sent to capture Fort Duquesne? Before he could capture the fort, what modern day attraction was he attacked (and killed) near? Who was appointed Britain’s new Prime Minister? What good/bad things did he do? In what two final battles did the British finally defeat the French? (List them in order.)
After today you should be able to… – Identify and explain the terms of the Treaty of Paris – Analyze the consequences of the war for the British, French and Natives
War in North America is Over Battle Worksheet
Treaty of Paris Marked the end of French power in North America – Transferred Canada and all other French territory east of Mississippi to GB – Ceded New Orleans and their claims west of Mississippi to Spain.. Also ceded territories in Africa, the Mediterranean, and colonies in India…but held tight to Caribbean Islands – why? Olé
Tally Sheet Britain now controlled: – Canada…au revoir “New France” – All lands east of the Mississippi River – Spanish borderlands (Florida) France only controlled: – A few islands in the Caribbean (regained Martinique, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia from GB) Spain now secured: – All lands west of the Mississippi River
You ask…I deliver! Areas once belonging to Rupert's Land include all of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, northern parts of Ontario and Quebec, as well as parts of Minnesota and North Dakota and very small parts of Montana and South Dakota. Prince Rupert of the Rhine = Charles I’s nephew and first governor of the Hudson Bay Company
Consequences of the War Expanded England’s territorial claims in the New World Enlarged Britain’s debt Tension between British and the colonists: – Colonists didn’t put forth much effort toward the war – Some colonists sold food and other goods to the French in the West Indies England decides to restructure the empire – increasing British authority The British
Consequences of the War Forced colonists to act in unison against a common foe Friction of over British policies = unwanted British presence Important socializing experience for men who served in army The Colonists
Consequences of the War British victory was disastrous for Natives in Ohio Valley Iroquois: – British saw their wavering support as duplicity – Iroquois alliance quickly unraveled; Iroquois Confederacy crumbled by the end of the Revolutionary War
Quiz: French & Indian War 30 Points: – 15 mulitple choice – 3 essays (5 points a piece) Study causes of the F & I War Study terms of Treaty of Paris Study Impacts of the War on Brits & colonists