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Lecture 3 – Climate, Soils, and Forest Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 3 – Climate, Soils, and Forest Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 3 – Climate, Soils, and Forest Systems

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3 Many types and patterns of weather impact Ohio Climate v. Weather: What’s the difference? Weather Temperature Precipitation Humidity Wind Barometric Pressure Cloudiness

4 Climate: weather over a long, long period of time Ohio Climate Classified as Continental climateContinental Moderate extremes of wet/dry and hot/cold Winters cold enough to support fixed period of stable snow Relatively low summer precipitation Lake Erie further modifies Continental climate

5 Canadian and Arctic Cold Fronts Pacific Cold Fronts Warm Fronts Lake Erie is our Major Weather Producer

6 Jan 25.7 Feb 28.4 March 37.5 April 47.6 May 58.5 June 67.5 July 71.9 Aug 70.2 Sept 63.3 Oct 52.2 Nov 41.8 Dec 31.1 Annual Average 52 F

7 Lake Erie! Late autumn/early winter causes “lake effect snow” Lake Effect snow: NW winds blowing across lake pick up lake moisture and deposit as snow inland

8 Tornadoes - 70% during spring, 90% come from southwest, 1 st in Geauga County 1804, none in Vinton Floods – early spring/late winter is common, frozen ground can’t absorb rain (2/28/2011), also led to worst in 1913, led to dams/levees Cold Lake Erie can drop land temperatures by 20 degrees in spring Reason for violent spring weather?

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10 Elevation Map

11 What causes fluctuating lake levels? Heavy snow falls Rain Seiches Draught (no NOT drought)

12 Temperature variations Hail Fog Temperature inversions

13 Gallia County 1934 – 113 degrees turn on the AC (ok- no AC then) Extended 90 degree days not uncommon in Southern Ohio Mean max temp in Cleveland about 84

14 Formed when water condenses around dust particles Blown high in the air by rising currents Water freezes and drops, circulates, and finally too heavy Size related to number of circulations

15 Fog is a cloud at the earth's surface  Colder, heavy air drops into warmer valleys and produces cloud

16 Hot air rises in late summer/early autumn Traps layer of cool air beneath Pollutants are trapped near the ground

17 Sunny / hazy days – September, warm with light winds “Cloud season” – Cold air in November from Canada picks up Lake Erie water vapor (Nov / Dec top cloud months) First frosts – anywhere from September to November but Lake delays in Cleveland Lake effect snow…

18 Orographic Lifting Winds across unfrozen Lake Erie Pick up water vapor Collides with colder air in higher elevations (Chardon)

19 Winter storm tracks Winter temperatures Winter snow

20 Alberta Clipper – fast moving, cold/light snow Panhandle Hook – through handle of Ok, heavy wet snow Westerly Lows – Great Plains, no moisture, smaller accumulations of snow Gulf Coast Low – lots of moisture, rain or the wettest snow East Coast Lows – heavy snows but only impact Cleveland with the “Noreaster”

21 Perry County February 1899 – 39 below zero Average annual lowest temperature in Cleveland is 0 to 5 degrees 1976 to 1978 saw some of the toughest on record coldest in weather history

22 Variation – Chardon average 106 inches to Scioto County at 15 inches 1901 Blizzard dropped 31 inches of snow, 10 foot drifts Great Thanksgiving Storm of 1950 lasted 6 days and 40 inches Blizzard of 1978 – lowest barometer in history, hurricane winds, only 12 inches of new snow but 20 foot drifts

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24 Millions of years where Ohio was under ancient seas and then “dry” out Plant and animal sediment compressed into sedimentary rock over time Land masses eroding from wind, water, glaciers Plant and animal material continues to break down in wet areas (lakes, bogs, wetlands) Land masses floating in oceans and running into each other, pushing up mountains (plate tectonics –see slide next page)

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26 Can range from several feet thick to thin (inches) Uppermost layer of earth’s crust Ohio has 100’s of different soils Mineral soils Organic soils

27 Parent material – different bedrock, glacial till, organics Climate – temperature, moisture Living organisms – plant and animal influences Topography – formation at different elevations Time – more developed soils have usually developed over longer period of time

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29 O: organic A: topsoil B: subsoil C: parent material R: bedrock R- Bedrock

30 Lake Plain soils Glaciated Appalachian Plateau soils Till Plain soils Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau soils Bluegrass Region soils Flood Plain, Bog, & Lake Sediments

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32 All soils are classified into one of the nearly 400 Soils Series – (and NO you don’t need to know all 400) soils with similar characteristics are grouped together 5 Physiographic Regions

33 Derive from ancient lakes material left by Wisconsinan Fertile but poorly drained soils Large # of soil series Parent material in nw Ohio: from great black swamp Flat topography “Truck” crops

34 Lake Plain Soils

35 Rolling and hilly Parent material - mostly from Wisconsinan, some from Illinioian along southern border Loam/silt loam till Primarily well-drained Hilly terrain more conducive to wheat and less on row crops Beach/maple forests Many streams reversed path i.e. Cuyahoga River (next slide)

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37 Glaciated Appalachian Plateau Soils

38 Slightly more rolling than lake plains Better drained Soils influenced primarily by topography Topography - rolling Parent material-glacial high lime till (Limestone Bedrock) Fertile – corn and beans

39 Till Plains Soils

40 Very hilly Parent material - local in origin, derived from sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone bedrock Well drained, less fertile, but good forest development Many different types of soil, mostly acid in pH

41 Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau soils

42 Parent material - non-local limestone and shale Varies in thickness Generally clayey & rocky Many referred to as Prairie Soils

43 Bluegrass Region Soils

44 Flood Plains Flooding brings alluvial deposits…results in undeveloped soils…always adding new parent material Influenced by soil/erosion upstream Deep, loamey, silty, clayey, sandy soils Very fertile soils Bogs Organic soils (Till Plains & Glaciated Plateau) Consist of black/brown organic material decomposing

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46 Vast Forest Wilderness Deciduous vs conifer Soil fertility resulted in tree diversity Oaks, hickories, beeches, maples, tuliptrees, walnuts, elms, gums, chestnuts, ashes (some >150 ft tall) Beech & Sugar Maple - NE Nuts, maple syrup/sugar Oaks - S, SE Mast- what is that? Wildlife food source Conifers – SE Infertile, dry soils “Swamp” Species – W Oaks that like their feet wet

47 Branching & shape Leaves Bark Buds i.e. tulip tree bud i.e. tulip tree bud Location “Seeds”

48 Tree species grow specifically on particular soils Tree species grow specifically on particular soils Oaks, hickories on deep well drained soils (have deep root system, drought resistant) Oaks, hickories on deep well drained soils (have deep root system, drought resistant) Black walnut, tulip tree on deep, moist, well drained soils Black walnut, tulip tree on deep, moist, well drained soils Alkaline = “sweet” Alkaline = “sweet” Acidic= “sour” Acidic= “sour” Topography influences where certain trees grow Topography influences where certain trees grow

49 Important species to the ecology of many forests in North America. Shade Tolerant. Can grow comfortably in any type of soil, except sand.

50 Important species to the ecology of many forests in North America. Shade Tolerant. Bark ridges that appear to have shiny stripes down the center. Tolerant of many soils and varied situations, although it prefers the glacial drift and well- drained borders of streams. Red Oak

51 Grows rapidly in rich, moist soils of temperate climates. Tulip Tree morels

52 Favors dry habitat and ridgetop exposure. “ Ridgetop tree" sometimes called "rock oak" because of montane and other rocky habitats.

53 This tree prefers well-drained loam or clay, but will also grow on very poor, sandy soil.

54 1st year Horseweed dominant; crabgrass, pigweed 1st year Horseweed dominant; crabgrass, pigweed 2nd year Asters dominant; crabgrass 2nd year Asters dominant; crabgrass 3rd to 18th year Grass scrub community; broomsedge grass, pines coming in during this stage 3rd to 18th year Grass scrub community; broomsedge grass, pines coming in during this stage 19th to 30th year Young pine forest 19th to 30th year Young pine forest 30th to 70th year Mature pine forest; Understory of young hardwoods 30th to 70th year Mature pine forest; Understory of young hardwoods 70th to 100th year Pine to hardwood transition 70th to 100th year Pine to hardwood transition 100th year plus 100th year plus Climax oak-hickory forest Climax oak-hickory forest

55 Young Forest Mature Forest Climax Forest

56 Canopy trees (oaks, tulip trees) Canopy trees (oaks, tulip trees) Understory trees (sugar maples) Understory trees (sugar maples) Shrubs, small trees (dogwood, mtn. laurel) Shrubs, small trees (dogwood, mtn. laurel) Groundcover (green plants, seedlings, ferns) Groundcover (green plants, seedlings, ferns) Progressively less light/greater protection Progressively less light/greater protection Forest = dynamic, interactive system Forest = dynamic, interactive system

57 Fertile soil grows a tree Tree supports wildlife with food, habitat, shelter Supports other organisms Tree dies and falls to forest floor Organisms breakdown tree Return to soil Grow another tree Plants and animals use it throughout the process

58 Influenced by nature of the soils and soil development Direct relationship between Flora (plants) and Fauna (animals) – both need each other to survive

59 Predator-Prey interactions Adaptations Predator: sharp teeth, strong claws Prey: color, senses, speed, tastes/odors Balanced system for survival – no over prey Carrying capacity-level of species that various habitat can support Smaller animals typically reproduce more rapidly than larger

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61 Wildflowers Spring Peepers Migrating Birds Fawns Buds opening Woodcock Dance

62 Trees leaf out Birds come alive Species diversity Shade is the best habitat cicada White footed mouse The pileated woodpecker

63 Plant growth slows Animals prep for winter Fall migration begins Color changes

64 Hibernation Resident populations Quiet, leaf off Limited food supply and water sources

65 Entire ecosystem is a dynamic system Started with rock Climate and weather influence breakdown Turned to soil, serves as basis for plant growth Plants provide food, shelter, habitat Return to the earth Starts all over and supports new set of organisms along the way

66 Cleveland Lakefront State Park– (near MLK Blvd & Lake Erie) Talk about: Dike 14- history & ecology- now a nature preserve Invasive species – top 10 invasive plant species in Ohiotop 10 invasive plant species in Ohio

67 Current Event Analysis Due by next class meeting


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