3Coniferous Forest: Latitude Exists in broad bands across northern North America and Eurasia to the southern border of the Arctic Tundra50 to 60 degrees N latitude
4Coniferous Forest: Temperature and Precipitation Example: Beaverlodge, Alberta, CanadaTemperature range: -40 C to 20 CPrecipitation: 300 to 900 milliliters of rain per year
5Coniferous Forest: A Description All coniferous forests are dominated by a few species of needle-bearing trees such as pine, spruce, fur and hemlockThere are two types of coniferous forests:Coniferous forests that grow in the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia along the coasts or in the higher mountain areas are actually temperate rainforests. These areas are warm and moist, with precipitation reaching annual levels up to 2,000 mL in some areas. A few of the largest tree species in the world, such as the Giant Sequoia and Coast Redwood of California, thrive and tower upwards in these temperate forests.The taiga, or the northern boreal forest, exists in broad bands across Eurasia and North America just below the tundra. These areas receive heavy snowfall during cold, long, dry winters, while the short summers are relatively warm and moist. Cone-shaped conifers laden with snow stretch across huge expanses of land, and snowshoe hares, wolverines, and other animals are adapted to the snow and the coldRedwood forestTaiga
6Coniferous Forest: Abiotic Factors The northern boreal forests experience long, cold, and dry winters with heavy snowfall. This extreme abiotic factor limits and shapes the animal and plant species there; the conifers are cone-shaped to bear heavy snow, while animals deal with the pressing conditions by migrating, going into hibernation, or possessing valuable features to survive in the winter (snowshoe-like feet, white camouflage, layers of fur, etc.)The summers are short but relatively warm, wet, and humid. The taiga soil is often water-logged during the brief period when the snow finally melts, making parts of the area almost bog-like; trees such as black spruce and larch grow well in the poorly-drained soil.Soil tends to be poor in nutrients. The thinness of the soil is mostly due to the cold temperatures that prevent plant growth; additionally, the extremely acidic nature of fallen conifer needles further leeches the soil and reduces the rate of decomposition. Competition for nutrients is fierce, and the acidic nature of the forest floor means that only lichens and some mosses grow on it.
7Coniferous Forest Plants: General Advantages of Needle-bearing trees Conical shape: promotes shedding of snow, loss of branches.Needles: reduces surface area through which water may be lost through transpiration. Needles also possess thick waxy coatings that protect them from freezing temperatures and drying winds.Retention of foliage: allows the tree to photosynthesize as soon as the temperature permits it during the spring so it doesn’t waste time growing leaves.Dark color: absorbs the maximum amount of heat from the sun.
8Coniferous Forest Plants: Black Spruce (picea mariana) Black Spruce is a tall tree – growing up to 25 m tall – with short, blue-green needles. It produces black cones with purplish-brown seeds that provide food to a variety of birdsWell-adapted to the taiga environment:Layered twigs, waxy pine needles, and rough bark protect the tree against severe coldThe tree enjoys poorly-drained soil, which is essential for survival because taiga soil is often wet and bog-like during the brief summer when the snow finally melts
9Coniferous Forest Plants: Tamerack Larch (larix laricina) Tamarack larches are actually “coniferous- deciduous trees” with light blue-green needle-like leaves that turn bright yellow before falling off in the autumnFound in Canada and central Alaska at the edge of the tundraThough it is not coniferous, the tamerack larch is well adapted to the taiga environmentVery cold tolerant, surviving in temperatures as low as -65 CGrow most commonly in swamps in wet to moist soil, a perfect correlation with the taiga’s bog-like soil in the summerCan grow in the thin, nutrient-poor soil of the taiga
10Coniferous Forest Animals: Snowshoe Hare (lepus americanus) Very large rabbit that lives in northern forest areas where the ground is covered with undergrowthFeeds on grass, clover, and other greens in the summer, and bark, twigs, and buds in the winterPredators: wolf, bobcat, lynxWell-adapted to coniferous forests with heavy snowfall- Large rear feet and toes that can spread out act as snowshoes- Feet also have fur on the bottom, which protects the rabbit against the cold and provides them with traction in the snow- The snowshoe hare is a rusty, grayish-brown color in the summer, but in the winter it turns pure white, which helps them merge with the snow and hide from predators
11Coniferous Forest Animals: Wolverine (gulo luscus) A powerfully-built, meat-eating animal; the largest member of the weasel familyWith its keen sense of smell, the wolverine preys on rodents, fish, reptiles, birds, carrion, and sometimes berriesWell-adapted to living in the cold and the snow:Strong jaws can bite through frozen meat and boneFeet act as snowshoes to keep the animal from sinking into deep snow
12Coniferous Forest Ecological Disturbance: Yellowstone Fire of 1988 The coniferous forests of Yellowstone National Park are shaped by fire. Most tree species have adapted to burning:Douglas-fir has thick bark to protect it against fireOther species, such as lodgepole pine, have very thin bark and instead rely on the rejuvenating influence of periodic fires. Lodgepole cones remain closed until exposed to intense heat; the new generation of trees benefits from the nutrients and direct sunlightBut in recent years, fire-suppression from humans had prevented small lightning-induced fires that the lodgepole pines depend on to destroy old, flammable trees. Finally, in 1988, the accumulated fuel of old trees caused a massive fire that destroyed the old lodgepole forest.
13Coniferous Forest Ecological Disturbance: Succession After Fire The first stage (50 years): Small plants and young lodgepole pines spring up among dead trees; the trees are widely spaced and the vegetation is low lying and green. Flammability is low.The second stage (100 years): The lodgepole pines form dense stands up to 50 feet tall, and their shade blocks the growth of other vegetation. Flammability is low; there is still some dead trees on the ground, but even if they caught on fire the treetops are too high to be affected.The third stage (100 years): The original pines are thin out, ground vegetation increases, and fir and spruce trees start to appear. Green vegetation on the forest floor prevents large fires initially, but later in the stage small trees provide fuel that can spread fire into the canopy.The fourth stage: The original lodgepole pines are dying, and the abundant woody fuel means the forest is at its most flammable state; the forest is ready for fire.During the fire…Growing back…
14Coniferous Forest: Citations Text CitationsRadford.edu. “Taiga or Boreal Forest.”NASA, Earth Observatory, “Coniferous Forests,”Campbell, Neil. “Biology.” Pearson Education, IncWikipedia.org. “Taiga.”Blue Planet Biomes. “Taiga.”Wikipedia.org. “Larch.”Ruhf, Robert J. “The 1988 Forest Fires of Yellowstone National Park.”Picture Citationsk_9233.jpgand uccession.jpg
16Tundra: Climate and Latitude Temperature Range is 70 °C to 12°C6-10 inches of snow fall each yearThe tundra is located between latitudes55°-70°
17I think the Tundra is…A queer biome. It is the coldest, yet driest biome! Even though the first thing you might picture about a tundra is tons of snow, it actually has little precipitation. In a way, it is a desert with permafrost in the place of sand.
18Tundra Plants: Arctic Moss The arctic moss is a type of plant that grows very slowly and lives very long.It grows in the tundra only because the tundra has very little nutrients, and it can store nutrients when it is not growing to make more leaves in the spring.It also grows closer to the ground so that the extremely powerful winds do not harm it.
19Tundra Plants: Arctic Willow The arctic willow is a tree that does not grow vertically but spreads its branches out over the permafrost.To protect itself, the arctic willow produces pesticides that keep bugs like the Arctic woolly bear away.It also keeps warm by growing long fuzzy hairs on its leaves.
20Tundra Animals: Polar Fox The polar fox is a small white fox that lives in the tundra as a scavenger.The polar fox, also known as the white fox, keeps the environment clean by eating dead animalsIt also is the specialist predator of lemmings and volesThe fox has a long bushy tail which it uses as insulation by wrapping it around itself when sleeping
21Tundra Animals: Polar Bear Polar bears usually eat ringed seals.However, they eat most living things from plants and smaller mammals, such as the polar foxes, to whale carcasses.They are at the top of the food chain and also the largest terrestrial predators.Polar bears have thick fur and a warming layer of fat to keep warm. Under their fur, polar bears have black skin to soak in the sun’s rays.
22Tundra: Abioitic Factors The Tundra is mostly covered in permafrost, permanently frozen soil, that melts at the top during the brief summer. The permafrost prevents any deep- rooted plants, such as trees, from growing.The extremely low temperature prevents most varieties of animals and plants from living in the tundra, in addition to the permafrost.
23Tundra: Ecological Disturbance If there was a hypothetical disturbance on land in the Tundra climate, there would only be “primary succession” where moss and lichen would grow.Since lichen and moss are the majority of plants that live in the Tundra, that would pretty much be the end of the succession.
26Temperate Grassland: Climate and Latitude Annual precipitation: cmTemperature: -40 degrees F - 70 degrees FLatitude: 25 degrees N and S
27Temperate Grassland: Description Temperate Grassland is a wide open space with few tall trees because it is very windyUsually dominated by few types of grassSoil is very rich and especially good for farming
28Buffalo Grass Found in Temperate Grassland Not adapted to shade or heavy traffic, so open grassland is goodCan withstand extreme temperatures, but does best in low rainfall areas
29Blazing StarA flower that prefers fertile soil and full sun, which is readily available in temperate grassland
30American Bison Shaggy with horns Graze in open grassy areas and in large herdsEat grasses, grasslike plants, berries, lichens, horsetailsCoyotes, Eagles, Bobcats, the Gray Wolf, Wild Turkey, Fly Catcher, Canadian Geese, Crickets, Dung Beetle, Bison, and Prairie Chicken life in environmentMost active in early morning and afternoon
31Prairie Dogs Live in underground burrows Burrows may be shared by snakes, burrowing owls, and even rare black-footed ferrets which hunt prairie dogsLeave burrows during daylight to eat grasses, seeds, roots
32Abiotic FactorsWind is an abiotic factor that characterizes Temperate Grassland because wind prevents tall trees from growing and keeps it as open grassRainfall is another abiotic factor, decides how tall the grass will be and separates areas of Temperate Grassland into tall grass prairies and short grass steppes
33Disturbance: FireIf a fire occurred in Temperate Grassland, secondary succession would occur, because the soil would be intact.The soil would also be enriched by the dead vegetationFire in prairies also germinates certain seedsArea would re-grow quickly with new grass
36Temperate Broadleaf: Climate and Latitude degrees Celsius20-60 inches of precipitation annuallyBetween 40 and 50 degrees latitude ( Eastern United States)
37Temperate Broadleaf: Description The Temperate Broadleaf Biomes are unique because of their four seasons, and the adaptations of the trees because of these seasons. In fall the leaves of the trees change color and fall of in the winter, in which the trees are in a point of dormancy. The leaves falling off prevent transpiration, letting the tree retain moisture for the winter, essentially allowing it to survive. During spring and summer the growing season occurs. Temperate Broadleaf biomes have very cold winters and hot, rainy summers.
38Temperate Broadleaf Plants: Oak and Maple Oak and Maple trees live in Temperate Broadleaf forests. Their ability to shed their leaves makes them ideal for this environment. The leaves of these trees provide nutrients necessary for the tree, helping them survive in this biome.
39Temperate Broadleaf Animals: Rabbit and Grey Squirrel Two species of animals include rabbits and the eastern grey squirrels. Rabbits inhabit burrows in the ground and squirrels use the trees as shelter. These species live in this biome because they have special adaptations like hibernation in which they store fat in their bodies for the winter for when food is scarce.
40Temperate Broadleaf: Abioitic Factors Temperature changes along with the very distinct seasons. This temperature fluctuation accounts for the deciduous trees which shed their leaves, a unique characteristic of the biome.The tree cover and warm, wet summers cause a buildup of organic materials, which creates a rich, fertile soil.
41Temperate Broadleaf: Ecological Disturbance If farming took place in this biome, and the forest was cut down, secondary succession would take place after a while. If the farm was abandoned the trees would grow back to be a forest, after first being recolonized by herbaceous plants and shrubs.
42Temperate Broadleaf: Citations Text CitationsPicture Citationspark_image.jpgYA/s1600/autumn_tree.jpgsqurl.jpg