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GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA Social Studies 10 Chapter 3 & 8 Canadian Geography & Economy.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA Social Studies 10 Chapter 3 & 8 Canadian Geography & Economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA Social Studies 10 Chapter 3 & 8 Canadian Geography & Economy

2 CANADA: A REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY What regions are evident?

3 Physical Regions

4 Economic Regions

5 Climate

6 Political Regions

7 Five Themes of Canada’s Geography  Location: relative and absolute  Place: human and physical  Human and Environment Interactions: adaptation, modification, dependence  Movement: migration and transportation  Regions: consistent, focused, aligned, linked

8 Theme 1: Location  Where is It?  Why is It There? Two Types of Location Absolute Relative

9 Absolute Location  A specific place on the Earth’s surface  Uses a grid system  Latitude and longitude  A global address

10 British Columbia Absolute Location  BC 54° N Latitude 125° W longitude  Vancouver 49° 25' N Latitude 123° 10' W Longitude

11 Relative Location  Where a place is in relation to another place  Uses directional words to describe  Cardinal and intermediate directions

12 British Columbia  British Columbia is bordered by Yukon in the north, Washington and Idaho to the south, and Alberta on the west.  The Pacific Ocean forms British Columbia's west coast.  British Columbia is one of the western provinces

13 Theme 2: Place Physical Characteristics  Land Features  Mountains, plains, and plateaus  Climate  Bodies of Water

14 British Columbia: Physical Characteristics Photos above: Steve Pierce

15 Theme 2: Place Human Characteristics  People  Culture  Language  Religion  Buildings and Landmarks  Cities

16 British Columbia: Human Characteristics National Geographic Magazine Top right:http:// graphics.fansonly.com/photos/schools/unc/nonsport/school-bio/unc-oldwell2-lg.jpg

17 Theme 3: Human Environment Interaction How People Interact With Their Environment People...  Adapt to Their Environment  Modify Their Environment  Depend on Their Environment

18 British Columbia: Human Environment Interaction

19 Theme 4: Movement The Mobility of  People  Goods  Ideas How Places are linked to one another and the world

20 British Columbia: Movement

21 Theme 5: Regions What Places Have in Common  Political Regions  Landform Regions  Agricultural Regions  Cultural Regions

22 British Columbia: Regions Steve Pierce

23 Canada: Territorial template over Satellite Photo Composite

24 Divisions and Places Placing the Canadian map Political divisions: provinces and territories

25 Fundamentals of Physical Geography  Geology-process, structure, time  Topography-relief, slope  Soils-texture, pH, organic matter  Vegetation-water, arboreal, ecotone  Climate-air mass, current, precipitation, temperature, system

26 Underlying Geology  Pink: Precambrian granites  Green: younger sediments  Yellow: faulted and meta-morphasized sediments  Blue: older sediments

27 Glacial Legacy  Wisconsin-last ice age, maximum 18,000 yrs. BP  Southern limits- Wisconsin and Ohio Valley  Recedes-15,000-7,000 yrs. BP  Covers virtually all of Canada and northern US  Ice free corridor from Alaska through Yukon into northern BC

28 Remnant Glacial Landscapes  Ice margin  End moraine  Glacial lakes  Spillways  Kettle lakes  Eskers  Drumlins  Till plain  Erratic

29 Glacial Till and Erratic

30 Esker

31 Drumlin and Drumlin Field

32 Glacial lake Louise and Paternoster Lakes

33 v=IyqlsKQfeo4

34 St. Lawrence Lowlands  Less than 2% of landmass; smallest region  Windsor to Quebec City  Sedimentary geology with glacial deposits  Moderate climate  Fertile soils  Long growing season  Close to the US  Canadian HEARTLAND

35 French Canadian ‘long lot’ farms and Niagara Falls

36 The Great Lakes and Ottawa

37 Toronto Climate

38 Canadian Shield  50% of Canada’s landmass; largest region  Almost entirely contained in Canada  Geological core underlies North America  Precambrian rocks more than 3 billion yrs.  Exposed granite and shallow soils  Glaciation evident  Mixed Boreal forest  Northern continental climate

39 Canadian shield vistas

40 Ste. Agathe Climate

41 Appalachian Uplands  Over 2% of landmass  Northern part of Appalachians  Rounded uplands and plateaux  Numerous islands along drowned shoreline  Narrow river valleys  Rocky, shallow soils  Mixed forests  Cool maritime climate  Short summer wet, winter

42 Interior Farms and Forests, Coastal Settlements

43 Fredericton, NB

44 Hudson Bay Lowlands  Over 3.5% landmass  Muskeg or wet peat lands  Many lakes  Low ridges of sand and gravel  Poorly drained  Level  Northern climate  Maritime influence  Short, warm summer  Long, cold winter

45 Moosonee Climate Graph and Hudson Bay Lowland Vista

46 Interior Plains  About 20% land mass  Geologic base of sedimentary rock  Shaped by glaciation and re-directed drainage  Incised river valleys  Slopes up from east to west with rich soils  Hudson’s Bay watershed  Oil and gas deposits  Continental climate  Moderate to low precipitation

47 Plains Agriculture and Regina Climate Graph

48 Cordillera  Region of intra-regional differences  About 16% of land mass  Formed million years ago from collision of North American and Pacific Plates  Rockies up thrust sediments  Coastal mountains volcanic: ‘ring of fire’  Glaciers remain in Alpine areas  Fertile valleys and deltas  Coniferous  Multiple micro-climates

49 Mountains and Valleys

50 Banff and Victoria Climate Graphs

51 Arctic Lowlands  About 13% land mass  Coastal plains and lowlands  Islands and drowned shorelines  Sedimentary  Permafrost  Frost action is the main geomorphic process  Polar desert with very low precipitation  Extreme arctic climate conditions

52 Iqaluit Climate Graph and Arctic Lowlands Gista

53 Innuitian Mountains  About 12% land mass  Plateaux and mountains  Extreme glaciation and extensive weathering of sedimentary rock  Extensive coastal drowning and fjiords  Islands  Uplifting and isostatic rebound  Extreme cold  Pack ice and ice flows  Glacier calving

54 Arctic Mountain Scenery and Resolute Climate Graph

55 Drainage: Well Drained South; Poorly Drained North

56 Climate  Continental and maritime influences  Prevailing winds  Jet stream  Mountain effects  Air masses  Freezing point  Seasonal variability  Precipitation  Cloud cover  Evaporation

57 LACSAPOOPA- Climate Factors  L- Latitude: North or South from Equator.  A- Altitude: 1.5 degrees Celsius /100 meters.  C- Clouds: Types and cover.  S- Seasons: 4, 2, 1.  A- Aspect: North or South facing.  P- Prevailing Winds: Westerlies, Easterlies, Trades.  O- Ocean Proximity: Maritime versus Continental.  O- Ocean Currents: Prevailing currents  P- Pressure Systems: Highs & Lows.  A- Albedo: Snow, water, ground and reflection.

58 Where are the people? Population Distribution  In cities near the USA  80% in cities over 100,000  80% within 100km of the US border  ‘main street Canada’: Windsor to Quebec City  Agricultural western interior  Coastal and river valley settlement in Atlantic region  Resource points in the Shield and the North  Western cordillera valleys and the BC coast

59 Canada CMAs and Population Change,

60 Canada’s Urban and Agricultural settlement Archipelago  Pattern set over 100 years ago  Islands of population and settlement amid a vast, inhospitable and often empty land  Contrast between heartland and hinterland  Regional centers  Hugging the border  The empty north

61 The People, Place, Region Relationship Resource extraction periphery Rural sphere Suburban area Urban center  Canada has always had urban centers where most people lived and worked  Urban centers were surrounded by a rural sphere to constitute the heartland  Beyond the rural lands, towns and villages, a sparsely populated resource extraction periphery or hinterland extended to the farthest reaches of the country  With transportation advances people moved to the commuting suburbs of cities

62 Three Popular Canadian Explanations and One Not So Popular Bilateral Explanation

63 Canada as a Storehouse of Raw Materials: Old and New explanations

64 Fisheries, then and now: Historic Grand Banks; Pacific Salmon catch and Prospects

65 Fur Trade Legacy

66 Renewable Forestry

67 Agricultural Potential

68 Agricultural Production

69 Minerals and Mining

70 Mining Potential

71 Oil

72 Metropolitan Heartland  “Main Street Canada”  Red area is continuous urban ribbon  Green area is adjacent commuter shed and integrated use region  Toronto and Montreal metropolitan cores linked to other growth centers along the spine

73 BC Lower Mainland and Calgary- Edmonton Corridor

74 Financial Services

75 CN and CP Railway Systems

76 Airports and Airport Authorities

77 Ethnic Diversity

78 Ethnic “Minorities” in Cities  Toronto: Canada’s cosmopolitan leader  Allophones in Montreal  Asian populations expand in most cities  Black populations in most Canadian cities but predominate in east  Aboriginal populations growing in all urban centers

79 Canada’s Regional Character: Socio-Economic Regions Shaped By Topography Political boundaries Language Historical patterns Cultural identity Shape affected by:  Heartland/Hinterlands relations  Confluence of political, cultural and social dynamics=regional identity  Proximity of the US

80 Meshing Physiography and Human Geography to comprehend Canada’s Regions

81 Canada’s Regions Map  North and south distinguished  Settlement and urbanization acknowledged  Cultures recognized  Political divisions sustained  Traditional aggregates

82 Placing Canada into Temporal and Geographical Context  1000s of years of indigenous human presence  European contact over centuries: late 15 th to 19 th  European re-settlement by force, treaty, depopulation (disease)  Historical geography matters socially, politically and ecologically  Map shows Canada at Confederation

83 Canada in Global Context (Globalization Index) Canadian participation in globalization Global Linkages Global Relationships Bordering

84 Current “Geographical” Issues  Native land claims: British Columbia, the North, creation of Nunavut  Environmental crises: energy, climate change, forest degradation  Borders: US, Arctic  Federal/Provincial: the national/regional power balancing act, fiscal control  City growth and expansion: newcomers, transportation, crime, planning

85 Key words and Concepts Geography Basics  Adaptation  Human and environment interaction  Location  Place  Province  Region  Territorial template  Territory Physical Geography  Air mass  Alpine  Appalachian  Archipelago  Arctic Lowlands  Boreal  Canadian Shield  Continental climate  Cordilleran  Drainage system  Drumlin  Drowned shoreline  End moraine

86 Physical Geography (cont.)  Erratic  Esker  Fjiord  Glacial lake  Glaciation  Glacier calving  Hudson Bay Lowlands  Ice free corridor  Incised valley  Innuitian  Interior Plains  Isostatic rebound  Jetstream  Kettle lake  Maritime climate  Micro-climate  Muskeg  Pack ice  Paternoster lakes  Peatlands  Permafrost  Physiographic region  Plant hardiness zone  Polar desert  Precambrian

87 Physical Geography (cont.)  Relief  ‘Ring of Fire’  Sedimentary  Spillway  St. Lawrence Lowlands  Topography  Till plain  Wisconsin glaciation Human Geography  Aboriginal  Agri-food  Airport authority  Allophone  Borderland relationship  Borders  CMA  CN and CP  Commuter shed  Climate change  Corridor  Confederation  Cultural identity  European contact  Energy crisis  Ethnic diversity  Ethnic minority  Federal/Provincial issues

88 Human Geography (cont.)  Forest heritage  Fur trade  Global linkages  Global relationships  Globalization Index  Grand Banks  Heartland/Hinterland  Indigenous  ‘Main Street Canada’  Metropolitan core  Mineral lease  Native land claims  Oil pipeline  Physical disunity  Population density  Resource extraction periphery  Resource points  Rural sphere  Staples development  Suburban area  Urban center

89 References  Adams, Michael, Fire and Ice: The United States, Canada, and the Myth of Converging Values. Toronto: penguin,  Bone, Robert M. The Regional Geography of Canada. Don Mills: Oxford,  Lemon, James T. Liberal Dreams and Nature’s Limit: Great Cities of North America Since Toronto: Oxford,  Lipset, Seymour M. Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge,  McCann, L. D., ed., A Geography of Canada: Heartland and Hinterland. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1982 (several later editions).  Warkentin, John, Canada: A Regional Geography. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall,  Many maps and images may be obtained at the following websites as well as through search engines:  Any comprehensive atlas of Canada is an asset  See also, Historical Atlas of Canada. 3 volumes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


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